Table of Content

    20 April 2015, Volume 30 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resource Utilization and Management
    An Integrated Assessment of National Environmental Sustainability by Synthesizing Carbon,Water and Land Footprints and Boundaries
    FANG Kai, DUAN Zheng
    2015, 30 (4):  539-548.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3492KB) ( )   Save

    The earth's ecosystems increasingly reveal their interactivity, complexity and integrality. In this context, it makes great sense to conduct an integrated analysis and comparison of human-induced environmental impacts and the related safety thresholds, whereby one can evaluate the sustainability of human activities and measure the extent to which the carrying capacity is overshot. Built on the complementary use of environmental footprints and planetary boundaries—two novel concepts proposed recently, this paper applies the range method and distance- to- target method to the normalization and weighting of carbon, water and land deficits for 30 nations. The national environmental sustainability pressure index (ESPI) is computed and further applied to cluster analysis, which allows the 30 nations to be classified into four categories. The results illustrate that there are respectively 22, 17 and 15 nations operating in the state of overshoot in terms of greenhouse gas emission, water use and land use. The national ESPI varies from 0.39 for Brazil to 12.67 for USA. There are 3 nations with strong environmental sustainability, 8 nations with weak environmental sustainability, 9 nations with weak environmental unsustainability, and 10 nations with strong environmental unsustainability. Asia is the only continent where the four categories of sustainability are all witnessed. The global greenhouse gas emission is operating in a state of overshoot, while the water use and land use are both found to run a surplus on the global scale, as indicated by the world-average carbon, water and land footprint-boundary quotients estimated at 3.0, 0.6 and 0.7, respectively. Our conclusions are in line with the recent leading studies on the same environmental issues, providing this study with a high degree of scientific certainty. This paper aims to provide policy makers with a new insight into the evaluation of environmental sustainability through the alignment of the boundary metrics and footprint metrics, and thus can be regarded as an attempt to fill in the gap between these two fields of research. To proceed with the development of a scientifically robust methodology for environmental sustainability assessment, further improvements on this footprint-boundary integrated framework would be desirable.

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    Pollution Prevention for TransboundaryWatershed: Perspective from Cooperative Game Theory
    SHI Guang-ming, WANG Jin-nan, DONG Zhan-feng, ZHANG Yong-liang
    2015, 30 (4):  549-559.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.002
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    With the rapid economic increase, the transboundary watershed pollution has become very seriously. From the practical experience of solving this problem in foreign countries, the control of pollutants emission by cooperation of different regions is an economic way to solve the problem. According to the current international and domestic researches, most studies were limited to analyze the benefit allocation in fully cooperative coalition while ignored the acceptability and stabilization of the benefit allocation of the cooperative groups. Based on this shortage, this paper established a cooperative game model of solving the transboundary watershed pollution problem. We used this model to analyze the Jialu River watershed whose area includes the regions of Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Xuchang and Luohe. From the perspective of game theory, we used four different benefit allocation schemes to analyze the possibility and stabilization in different cooperative groups for these regions. The results showed that the benefit allocations of Shapley value and SCRB (Separable Cost Remaining Benefit) method have better acceptability and stabilization than the rest of methods. If we use the Shapley value to allocated benefits which formed in fully cooperative coalition, Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Xuchang and Luohe can acquire benefit about 391.22×104, 100.55×104, 76.3×104 and 269.35×104 yuan, respectively. And if we use the SCRB method to allocate that benefits, then Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Xuchang and Luohe can acquire benefit about 400.94×104, 96.06×104, 74.35×104 and 266.06×104 yuan, respectively. Despite the higher likelihood of Shapley value and SCRB method to be accepted by these regions, the stabilizations of the two methods were not good enough. The benefit allocation result of Shapley value showed that the stabilization of Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Xuchang and Luohe was 0.95, 0.82, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. Meanwhile, the result of SCRB method was that the stabilization of Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Xuchang and Luohe was 0.9, 0.9, 0.9 and 0.9, respectively. The two results indicated that the voluntary negotiation on forming fully cooperative coalition in these study regions was not sustainable.

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    Resource Economics
    Impact of Carbon Sequestration Subsidy and Carbon Tax Policy on Forestry Economy—Based on CGE Model
    SHEN Yue-qinl, ZENG Cheng, WANG Cheng-jun, ZHU Zhen, FENG Na-na
    2015, 30 (4):  560-568.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.003
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    Forestry is an effective way and important means to mitigate and adapt to climate change; however, forestry activities can not only sequester carbon but also release CO2. It is therefore important to formulate carbon subsidy and carbon taxation policies on the basis of the price of carbon. In this study, a forestry-based Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model is built by using input- output data of China in 2010 to construct a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The model simulates different carbon price scenarios, and explores the effects of carbon subsidy and carbon taxation policies on forestry economy. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1) When the price of carbon is set at 40 yuan/t, the carbon subsidy and carbon taxation policies would increase forestry output by 0.0067% (17.4 million yuan), forestry products price by 2.7%, value- added investment by 0.37% (657 million yuan), and decrease the residents' consumption by 11 million yuan. 2) When the price of carbon is set at 300 yuan/t, the policies would decrease forestry output by 0.019% (49 million yuan), forestry products price by 20.87%, and value-added investment by 0.45% (799 million yuan), but would increase the residents' consumption by 10 million yuan. The carbon price of 400 yuan/t tends to generate effects similar to those under the 300 yuan/t scenario. In light of these results, relevant suggested policies are proposed correspondingly.
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    The Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Rural Household Energy Consumption in Alpine Tibetan Area —A Case Study of Gannan Plateau
    SUN Yong-long, NIU Shu-wen, HU Yuan-yuan, QI Jing-hui
    2015, 30 (4):  569-579.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.004
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    Energy is the important factor to overcome poverty and achieve economic, social and human development. Based on the analysis of energy use of 357 farmers and herdsmen families in six counties on the Gannan Plateau, this article has studied the characteristic of rural household energy consumption in alpine Tibetan area, and analyzed the influencing factors by multiple stepwise regression method. The results show that: 1) The rural energy consumption mainly rely on local resources in the form of biomass energy such as animal's dung, and the per capita energy consumption is 996.05 kgce. The quantity of energy consumption is high, while the efficiency is low. The integrated thermal efficiency is only 18.77%, and the majority of farmers and herdsmen still stay in the state of basic survival requirement. 2) From pastoral, agro-pastoral, to agricultural areas, the energy consumption structure changes from uniform to multiform energies. The integrated thermal efficiency increases from 16.87% to 23.93%, and the per capita energy consumption decreases. The characteristic of spatial gradient is obvious. 3) The energy consumption pattern is the result of many factors, in which family size, family income, lifestyles, religion expenses, household appliances types, annual heating time and per capita arable land area are more significant factors. 4) Combined with the actual situation of agro- pastoral village, we proposed to implement herdsmen settlement project, increase the supply of modern energies, encourage the use of new energy facilities, promote the technology of efficiently and cleanly using biomass energy, and strengthen the awareness of energy-saving and environmental protection among farmers and herdsmen. On the premise of ensuring the basic energy needs of farmers and herdsmen, we should reduce the pressure of energy consumption as far as possible.

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    Resource Ecology
    Landscape Ecological Risk Assessment of Farming-Pastoral Ecozone Based on Land Use Change —A Case Study of the YangheWatershed, China
    XU Lan, LUO Wei, ZHOU Bao-tong
    2015, 30 (4):  580-590.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.005
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    To reveal the impact of land use change on ecological risk, dynamic changes of land uses in the Yanghe Watershed which is a typical farming-pastoral ecozone in north China were analyzed with ArcGIS technologies based on remote sensing and land use data during 1990- 2008. The Yanghe Watershed was divided into 525 ecological risk assessment units based on the theory of landscape ecology. A temporal and spatial model of ecological risk assessment in the study area was established based on land use changes and landscape structures. Results showed that the areas of farmland and grassland accounted for more than 67% of total area of the watershed. Generally, landscape ecological risk indicated by ecological assessment index (ERI) for the whole watershed increased from 0.1973 to 0.2384 during 1990 to 2008. The area for the lowest (ERI≤0.17) and the highest (ERI >0.68) ecological risks reduced by 3.53% and 0.43%, respectively, while the areas of the lower (0.17< ERI≤0.26), the medium (0.26< ERI≤0.42)and the higher (0.42< ERI≤0.68) ecological risks increased. Distributions of five ecological risk grades were relatively concentrated. The sites with the relative high risk grade (ERI >0.26) were located along the main streams and sub- streams of the Yanghe Watershed, while those with the lower risk (ERI≤0.26) were further away from these streams.

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    Resource Evaluation
    Characteristics and Mechanism of Rural Settlements Spatial Reconstruction in Developed Areas —A Case Study of Southern Jiangsu
    LI Hong-bo, ZHANG Xiao-lin, WU Qi-yan, WANG Ya-hua
    2015, 30 (4):  591-603.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.006
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    Rural settlement geography is an important field of rural geography research, and rural reconstruction is the new content of rural settlement geography research. The paper tries to enrich the theory and practice of rural geography through the concept, characteristics and mechanism of rural settlement space reconstruction. The main research conclusions are as follows: 1) The dynamic mechanism of Southern Jiangsu rural settlement space reconstruction is under the common function of different factors, such as the country self-renewal and external factors. In different stages of transformation, the spatial patterns and the mechanism of rural settlements are different. On that basis, the paper has constructed dynamic mechanism of the rural settlement space reconstruction, and clarified the dominant forces and spatial morphological characteristics in various stages. In the context of urbanization, various internal and external factors affect the rural settlement space reconstructing, causing the spatial pattern of rural settlements to change periodically. 2) Based on the transformation of different stages, the dominant force and spatial forms of settlement in the transition of Southern Jiangsu rural settlement space reconstruction formed three modes: hooked model between urban and rural areas, rural self-renewal mode and new country construction model. The connotation and space characteristics of different models are different. In the future, beautiful rural settlement space mode should be accomplished. It should be fully accommodated with natural environment which provides livable space for residents; match the agriculture and industry production which makes intensive and efficient production space; adapt to the social and economic development so as to realized the integration of urban and rural areas; be consistent with the policy regulation to obtain the fairness and justice of the rural space. 3) The path of rural settlements reconstruction is the reconstruction of urban and rural resources. The future of rural settlements should be ecological space, intensive space, co-ordinate space and justicial space. Through the research of rural settlement space reconstruction of Southern Jiangsu in transitional period, this paper may provide theoretical reference and practice for the rural development and the rural settlement spatial transformation in the rest of China.
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    The Evolution Process and Mechanism of Taiping Lake in Anhui Province
    LU Lin, TIAN Na, YU Hu, ZHU Dong-fang, WANG Ying
    2015, 30 (4):  604-616.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.007
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    Lake tourism has gradually become an important aspect of lake resources utilization in our country. This paper discusses the characteristics of life cycle in lake tourism destinations, and analyzes the evolution process and mechanism of Taiping Lake. The result shows that the life cycle of lake tourism destination has three features: being vulnerable, whole drainage involved, and social factors integrated. On the basis of Butler's life cycle theory, the evolution process of Taiping Lake can be divided into three stages: exploration stage (1970-1990), participation stage (1991-2005), and development stage (2006- now). From 1970 to 1990, Taiping Lake was in the exploration stage. There were only a few tourists and tourism facilities, and the lake ecosystem was in natural state. From 1991 to 2005, Taiping Lake entered into participation stage. In this period, the local government attached great importance to the tourism development. They developed sightseeing tourism, constructed tourism projects, so that a lake resources utilization pattern combining aquaculture and tourism was formed. From 2006 till now, Taiping Lake is in the development stage. In this period, the number of tourists and the tourism revenue has been increased dramatically, meanwhile financial support from the government and foreign investment has promoted the construction of tourism infrastructure and major tourism projects. Moreover, more attention was paid on developing recreational tourism. Taiping Lake has gradually transformed from sightseeing tourism resort to sightseeing- leisure tourism resort. It formed a pattern that the town and the tourism mutually developed. In conclusion, the three stages reveal that the tourism of Taiping Lake has experienced the transition from spontaneous development to pursuing economic benefits, and now it comes to pursuing comprehensive benefits.
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    Influence of National Traditional Culture on Crop Genetic Diversity —Take an Example of Kam Sweet Rice in Liping County of Guizhou Province
    WANG Yan-jie, WANG Yan-li, JIAO Ai-xia, CAIJI Zhuo-ma, YANG Jing-biao, RUAN Ren-chao, XUE Da-yuan
    2015, 30 (4):  617-628.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.008
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    Dong People in Guizhou Province have been cultivating hundreds of varieties of glutinous rice for 2000 years, known locally as Kam Sweet Rice. Plentiful Kam Sweet Rice resources are the essential living material for Dong people in Liping County of Guizhou Province. Kam Sweet Rice is the necessary food and cultural symbol in the daily life and culture customs of Dong people. In turn, Dong's traditional customs have also promoted the sustainable cultivation and protection of Kam Sweet Rice resources. The cultivation area of Kam Sweet Rice in different historical periods has been sorted, and forty-five Kam Sweet Rice varieties were collected in Liping County during on- the- spot investigation in 2013. The results show that Kam Sweet Rice in Liping County has a large amount of varieties as well as abundant genetic diversities. Moreover, the article discusses and analyzes the relationship between the traditional cultural customs, such as food culture, festival celebrations, religious beliefs and traditional farming practices of Dong people, and the preservation of Kam Sweet Rice. It is found that Kam Sweet Rice is not only the necessary ingredients of oil tea, flat rice and pickled products in Dong People's daily life, but also the indispensable materials in their traditional festivals, courtesy calls, sacrificial ceremonies, weddings and funerals. Meanwhile, the social and economic benefits of Kam Sweet Rice were promoted through the Dong's harmonious production mode of“Rice- Fish-Duck”. This article indicates that traditional knowledge and culture customs are the essential reasons of the high genetic diversity of Kam Sweet Rice, and there is a co- evolution relationship between the landrace resources and the traditional culture. Due to the gradual reduction of Kam Sweet Rice resources in recent years, appropriate strategies and suggestions for conservation are put forward as the reference for the relevant departments.

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    Mechanism Research of Urban Land SurfaceWetness Regulating Urban Heat Island Effect Based on TM Images
    ZHANG Yu, CHEN Long-qian, WANG Yu-chen, CHEN Long-gao, ZHOU Tian-jian, ZHANG Ting
    2015, 30 (4):  629-640.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.009
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    In recent years, the study of urban heat island effect regulation mechanism mainly focused on the influence of urban green space, urban landscape park and urban water on urban land surface temperature, few studies have considered the impact of land surface humidity on environment temperature. The purpose of this paper is exploring the regulation mechanism of urban land surface humidity on urban heat island effect. Xuzhou city was chosen to be the study case. The administrative boundary vector data of Xuzhou and four summer TM images of Xuzhou area from 1985 to 2010 were used. Research methods are as follows: First, Monowindow Algorithm was used to calculate the land surface temperatures of four periods. From 1985 to 2010, the acreage proportion of urban heat island area obviously increased from 31.87% to 38.57%, but from 1991 to 2010, the acreage proportion of high intensity urban heat island decreased from 23.32% to 20.52%. Second, a new index—Urban Land Surface Wetness (ULSW) which is on behalf of the vegetation and water coverage inside the city built-up area was extracted by using K-T transformation. The mean values of ULSW index of the four TM images from 1985 to 2010 are 5.91, 5.89, 6.33 and 6.94 respectively, which showed a trend of growth. Then, using spatial overlay analysis to calculate the correlation between the land surface temperature and the ULSW, the result showed that the slope of the four linear fitting equations are all negative which means the correlation of these two indicators are negative. At last, buffer analysis was used to compute the influence of ULSW index on the surrounding environment temperature. Four typical areas were chosen in each of the four TM images, and five buffers at the interval of 60 m were set up for each selected area. The result showed that the surrounding environment temperature of the center area of higher ULSW is cooler. The cooling effect of the first buffer layer is most obvious, the average temperature drop being 1.47 ℃. The cooling effect of the outermost buffer layer is minimum, the average temperature drop being 0.12 ℃ . The further the buffer is from the center area, the less the average surrounding environment temperature drops. The final research conclusions are: 1) ULSW index simplifies the extraction process of the vegetation and water in the construction land. 2) The area where the ULSW index value is high can effectively reduce the effect of urban heat island. 3) The inside and outside temperature of the area will decrease with the increase of ULSW. 4) ULSW index can be used to indicate the urban heat island regulation ability of an area. ULSW index can be also applied to other researches such as urban cooling channel planning, urban landscape and ecology planning, urban ecology and environment evaluation.

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    Regional Differences of Climate Change in Qaidam Basin and Its Contributing Factors
    LI Lin, SHEN Hong-yan, LI Hong-mei, XIAO Jian-she
    2015, 30 (4):  641-650.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.010
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    By analyzing the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data such as temperature and precipitation, and the information of plateau monsoon, atmospheric circulation, and vegetation cover from 1961 to 2013, the climate contributing factors of regional differences are revealed. It is found that the climate change showed a significant warming trend in recent 53 years in Qaidam Basin. The climate trend rate of annual mean temperature attained 0.48 ℃/10 a, that the amplitude is higher than that of the whole Qinghai-Tibet Plateau obviously, even that of the national and global levels. Lagging behind the warming, it is apparently becoming wetter in Qaidam Basin. The precipitation and the rainfall days showed a tendency of increase at more than 95% confidence level. The distribution of warm and humid change showed distinct longitudinal zonality. The regions getting warmer significantly usually did not turn wetter obviously, and vice versa. In the global warming situation, solar radiation reduction, the tendency of the plateau monsoon being stronger, the weaker westerly circulation, and the recovery of the vegetation, which all have the distinct characteristics of longitudinal zonality, are the contributing factors to the regional differentiation of the climate change in Qaidam Basin.
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    Tempo-spatial Variation and Forecast of Precipitation in Shanxi Province
    YUAN Rui-qiang, LONG Xi-ting, WANG Peng, SONG Xian-fang
    2015, 30 (4):  651-663.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.011
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    Shanxi Province, where there are widely distributed mountains and karst systems, is the area of surface runoff yield and groundwater recharge for the North China Plain (NCP). Knowledge of tempo-spatial variations and forecast of precipitation in Shanxi could improve the understanding of droughts in the NCP. In this study, spatial distribution of precipitation was clarified based on time series clustering. Features of temporal variance of precipitation were revealed using breaking point test and trend analysis methods. A wavelet- support vector machine model was established to predict the precipitation in the future. As results showed, six sub-regions with different precipitation variation characteristics were identified, which are the North High-latitude Area, the Taihang Alpine Area, the North Mountains and Plateau Area, the Middle Basin Area, the Middle-West Mountains and Plateau Area, and the South Basin Area. More precipitation presented in the Taihang Alpine Area and the South Basin Area, while lessprecipitation occurred in the North High-latitude Area. Precipitation in basins was less than in mountains and plateau area on the same latitude. From 1965 to 1991, annual precipitation decreased significantly in the South, the East, the Middle and the North sequentially. The average rate during 1957 to 2012 is -1.5 mm/a. As a result, the area of Shanxi Province entered an arid period in whole since 1990s. Accordingly, runoff declined and groundwater recharge reduced. Decrease in precipitation of Shanxi in recent decades was evidently one of the driving factors of droughts in the NCP. The study region will get out of the less precipitation period before the year of 2020 with an average gradient of 16 mm/a, which would relieve droughts in the NCP.
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    Quantitative Assessment of the Impact of Climate Variability and Human Activities on Runoff Change in the Luanhe River Catchment
    ZHANG Li-ping, LI Ling-cheng, XIA Jun, WANG Ren-chao
    2015, 30 (4):  664-672.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.012
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    The hydrological processes are largely influenced by climate variability and human activities, and the quantitative assessment of their impacts on runoff change is a hot issue in hydrological scientific research. With the quantitative assessment method of runoff change based on SWAT model, this study uses long hydro- climatic data of the Luanhe River Catchment to quantitatively assess the runoff's response to climate variability and human activities. By using Mann-Kendall method, the whole runoff time series were divided into three periods: baseline period, variability period I and II. Then the contribution rates of climate variability and human activities on runoff change in variability period I and II were analyzed with quantitative assessment method. The results show that there was a statistically significant decreasing trend of annual runoff during 1960-2010. Compared with the average annual runoff in baseline period, the average annual runoff in variability period I and II decreased 49.71% and 70.03%, respectively. So the impact of climate variability and human activities on the runoff became much stronger. And the human activities were the main factors for the runoff decrease. In variability period I, the contribution rates of human activities and climate change on runoff's decrease were -26.30% and -73.70%, respectively. While in variability period II the contribute rates of human activities and climate change on runoff decrease were -26.15% and -73.85%, respectively. As for the impact of land use change on the runoff, it reduced the runoff with the contribution rate of -19.65% in variability period I, while it increased the runoff with the contribution rate of 3.83% in variability period II.
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    Variation of Relationship between Runoff and Sediment Based on Copula Function in the Jinghe River Basin
    GUO Ai-jun, HUANG Qiang, CHANG Jian-xia, LI Yun-yun, SUN Jia-ning, WANG Yi-min
    2015, 30 (4):  673-683.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.013
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    To grasp the evolution characteristics of the annual runoff and sediment in the Jinghe River Basin, moving average test was applied to analyze multi-year and annual variation based on annual runoff and sediment of Zhangjiashan Hydrological Station, and moving correlation analysis and double mass curve were used to detect the abrupt change point of the relationship of flow-sediment. With P-III curve method and popular Copula-constructed two-dimensional joint distribution of runoff and sediment, the variation characteristics of runoff and sediment were analyzed, and the encounter probability of rich-poor runoff and sediment in different periods were calculated. Results showed that: the alteration of runoff- sediment relationship occurred in 1980s. Compared to the period of 1956-1982, the mean value of runoff and sediment decreased by 29.10% and 29.45% in 1983-2010. When P is less than 90%, the annual flow and runoff keep decreasing, and when P exceeds 90%, the flow decreases and the sediment keeps increasing. The designed value of water and sediment should be corrected. In different periods the synchronous frequency of both rich and poor was greater than the frequency of rich-poor, and the probability of rich-poor was the smallest (0.35% and 1.10% respectively in different periods). In the period of 1983- 2010, the frequencies of different combinations become more even. The study can provide technical support for water and sediment disaster reduction and project management.

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    Hydrological Effects ofWater Reservoirs on Fluvial Hydrological Processes for the East River Basin Using Statistical Modeling Technique
    ZHANG Zheng-hao, ZHANG Qiang, DENG Xiao-yu, LIU Jian-yu, SUN Peng
    2015, 30 (4):  684-695.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.014
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    This study aims to analyze hydrological effects of water reservoirs on hydrological processes using SVM, MRL and ANN techniques. The results indicate that: 1) ANN model performs well in handling hydrological processes under the influences of human activities, the construction of water reservoirs in this study, and climate changes. The ANN model is accepted as the right model for the hydrological simulations. 2) Generally, two time periods can be identified with different influences of water reservoirs within the East River Basin: 1974- 1982 is characterized by insignificant hydrological alteration and influences of hydraulic facilities are minor; the period of 1983-2000 is dominated by significant alterations of hydrological processes with influences of water reservoirs on hydrological processes, and the result is to flatten the fluctuation of hydrological processes. 3) The hydrological processes of the Longchuan, Lingxia and Boluo stations are heavily influenced by hydrological regulations of water reservoirs with different influences: Boluo station is heavily influenced by hydrological regulations of water reservoirs and is followed by Lingxia and Longchuan stations. Besides, the monthly streamflow changes are subject to flattening processes under the influences of water reservoirs.

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    The Inter-annual Variation of Macro and Micro Physical Properties of Ice Particles in the Lower Layer CloudWater Resources over Tianshan Mountains
    LI Meng, JIN Hong-chun, CHEN Yong-hang, CUI Cai-xia, MA Xiao-jun, ZHUANG Wen-wen, LI Jia-dong, MA Yan-ying
    2015, 30 (4):  696-704.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.015
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    Using the data of CERES SSF Aqua MODIS Edition 1B/2B/3A from January 2003 to December 2012 and the data of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) of NASA's EOS, the inter-annual variation of lower layer cloud parameters, including ice water path, effective temperature, effective height and ice particle effective diameter, over the Tianshan Mountains was analyzed. The results showed that the values of ice water path, cloud effective temperature, cloud effective height and ice particle effective diameters of lower layer cloud over the Tianshan Mountains were in the range of 32.7-92.0 g/m2, 214.9-257.3 K, 3.9- 5.7 km and 12.7-22.4 μm respectively. The cloud ice water path, cloud effective temperature, cloud effective height showed decreasing trends and ice particle effective diameter showed an increasing trend.

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    Resource Research Method
    Land Use Information Extraction in the Inner City of Beijing Based on Object-oriented Classification Method
    WANG Cai-yan, WANG Ai-ling, WANG Jie-yong, LIU Zhi-gao
    2015, 30 (4):  705-714.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.016
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    Land use patterns in the inner cities are often complex and diverse. This paper firstly develops a technical method specially for extracting land information of the inner city based on the method of object-oriented classification, and then collects Resources Satellite No.3 Image to extract land information of the urban areas within the Fourth Ring Road in Beijing city and evaluates the accuracy of the classification result. The results show: by means of multiresolution segmentation, membership function and reasonable classification levels, and by use of the characteristics of spectrum, shape, texture and spatial relationships of different objects, objectoriented method can not only extract water, green land, construction land and undeveloped land, but also extract industrial land, low-intensity and high-intensity residential land, and land to be developed in the study area. The paper takes full use of the characteristics of the high resolution image. The overall accuracy achieves 87.00%, and the Kappa coefficient is 0.8539. The classification results are acceptable.

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