Based on the daily weather data of 50 meteorological observation stations from 1960 to 2009 in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, the change characteristics of agricultural climate resources including heat, light and precipitation of temperature-defined growth season, early-season rice growth season and late-season rice growth season during 1960-2009, 1960-1984 and 1985-2009 were analyzed respectively, and its possible influences on double-season rice production were discussed in this paper. From 1960 to 2009 in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, the climatic tendency of mean daily temperature, mean daily minimum temperature, mean daily maximal temperature, active accumulated temperature ≥10 ℃, sunshine hours and precipitation were 0.08 ℃/10 a, 0.09 ℃/10 a, 0.07 ℃/10 a, 66.3 ℃/10 a, -31.7 h/10 a and 3.7 mm/10 a respectively during temperature-defined growth season. So the change characteristics of agricultural climate resources in this region were temperature increasing, accumulated temperature adding, temperature-defined growth season prolonging, sunshine hours decreasing and slight precipitation increasing. So increasing temperature and adding accumulated temperature were likely to accelerate crop development, shorten crop growth duration, and aggravate crop disease and pest, at the same time, the decreasing sunshine hours might affect leaf photosynthesis and yield. The climatic tendency of mean daily temperature, and active accumulated temperature ≥10 ℃ were 0.20 ℃/10 a and 48.9 ℃/10 a during early-season rice growth season, and 0.09 ℃/10 a and 14.6 ℃/10 a during late-season rice growth season. The climatic tendency of sunshine hours was -18.6 h/10 a during early- season rice growth season, -42.7 h/10 a during late-season rice growth season, while precipitation was 1.9 mm/10 a during early-season rice growth season, 8.7 mm/10 a during late-season rice growth season. So the tendency of temperature increasing during early-season rice growth season was more than that during late-season rice growth season, but the tendency of precipitation increasing, sunshine hours decreasing during late-season rice growth season were more than those during early-season rice growth season. Therefore, obvious temperature increase and accumulated temperature addition during early-season rice growth season might be advantageous to advance sowing date, select variety with relatively long growth duration,improve the yield potential and yield for early-season rice. But unobvious temperature increase and obvious sunshine hours decline during late-season rice growth season might be disadvantageous to photosynthetic enhancement, yield formation, and affect yield potential and yield improvement for late-season rice production. Heat, light and precipitation were increasing synchronously in some regions such as Jianghan Plain and Dongting Lake Plain which had good basic condition for rice production. In other regions, the change of agricultural climate resources was asynchronous, the heat and precipitation was increasing, but the sunshine hours was decreasing. Furthermore, the advantage of good basic condition and predominant climatic resource could be utilized to develop sweeping rice production with high efficiency, and to enhance rice production potential.