Table of Content

    20 October 2011, Volume 26 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Evaluation on Potentials of Energy Utilization of Crop Residual Resources in Different Regions of China
    CAI Ya-qing, QIU Huan-guang, XU Zhi-gang
    2011, 26 (10):  1637-1646.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (413KB) ( )   Save
    China’s demand for energy has been growing rapidly in recent years and its dependence on international energy market has been keeping increase. Using agricultural crop residue as an energy resource is an important choice of developing renewable energy and relieving the energy shortage of China. However, there are still many debates on how many crop residues can be used for commercial energy production in China. On the basis of the results of existing studies and the official statistic data, this paper analyzed the energy utilization potentials and densities of crop residues in different regions and provinces of China. In this paper, we first calculated the theoretic amount of crop residue in different regions of China based on the outputs of different crops and the collectable amount of crop residue which is part of the theoretic amount minus the uncollectable amount, then we calculated the amount of crop residue which could be used for commercial energy production. The results show that China’s theoretical resource quantity of crop residue in 2009 was 7.48×108 t, the available crop residue that can be collected was 6.34×108 t, among which 1.52×108 t can be used for commercial energy production. The distribution of crop residue that can be used for commercial energy utilization is very unequal across China. The quantity of crop residue for energy utilization is larger in the lower and middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Northeast China and North China, where the quantities of crops residue for energy production are 0.42×108 t, 0.37×108 t and 0.35×108 t, respectively. We also calculated the densities of crop residue in different regions of China. The results show that the densities of crop residue could be used for energy utilization in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loess Plateau, Southwest China, and Northwest China are lower than other regions. Given the high cost of collecting crop residue, it is not suitable to construct large-scale crop residue based power plant in Tibet, Shanxi, Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Shaanxi, Guizhou, Ningxia, Liaoning, Fujian, Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Hebei, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing. Only Jilin, Henan, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Heilongjiang and Hubei are appropriate to establish large-scale crop residue based fuel ethanol plants. The results of this study have important implications for the formulation of China’s crop residue utilization policy.
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    Evaluation of the Agricultural Industry-Resources System Coupling Effect in Zhifanggou Watershed Based on Water and Soil Conservation
    XIA Zi-lan, WANG Ji-jun
    2011, 26 (10):  1647-1657.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (494KB) ( )   Save
    The coupling of agricultural industry-resources system is characterized by not only the degree of two subsystems coupling coordination function, but also the coupling efficiency. Coupling coordination degree model and DEA method was used to evaluate the agricultural industry-resources system coupled effect in Zhifanggou Watershed. The results showed that: soil and water conservation improved regional agricultural resources conditions, promoted the agricultural industry development, and improved their coupling coordination degree, during the 25 years in the study area, agricultural industry comprehensive value and agricultural resources comprehensive value increased by 0.427 and 0.764 respectively, the combination of coupling coordination degree increased 0.672. However, during the 10 years after the implementation of cropland conversion, since little or inadequate utilization of resources, the development of agricultural industry has been obviously lower than the increase of agricultural resources, caused the coordination degree of system coupling fluctuated and appeared to fall again in the final, and a crisis in system coupling coordination was made. In addition, compared to the significant and continuous improvement of resources and environments, the conversion efficiency from resources conditions to industrial benefit only changed in a small fluctuation amplitude, water and soil conservation worked little in improving the system coupling efficiency. According to the results of DEA projection analysis, the reasons were as follows: under the circumstances of little or inadequate utilization of woodland and grassland resources, the agricultural structure and resources structure differed greatly, and the system structural contradiction affected its coupling efficiency, and system evolution process lurked in a large crisis. Therefore, we need to ensure relevant economy and policy environment which will benefit to making full use of woodland and grassland resources and to development of animal husbandry, forestry and fruit industry. Then, the system resources and industrial structure need to be optimized, and the way of the resource utilization and industrial development need to be changed.
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    Study on Ecological Migration Willingness and Its Affecting Factors: A Case of Sangonghe River Watershed, Xinjiang
    TANG Hong, ZHANG Xin-huan, YANG De-gang
    2011, 26 (10):  1658-1669.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (529KB) ( )   Save
    Based on questionnaires and rural household interview survey, current situations about willingness and effects of ecological migration were investigated. Then Logistic model was used to analyze the main factors which may pose effects on household’s willingness of migration and residence in current settlements. The results showed that: 1) family size, per capita net income, the main source of income, the proportion of non-agricultural income and farmers involved in the project of returning farmland to forests were the major factors affecting the willingness of migration, and smaller family size, greater proportion of non-agricultural income and strong awareness of eco-environmental protection may promote the willingness of migration. 2) Migration project showed a significant effect on improving eco-environment, which could promote the process of returning farmland to forests, and pressure of grasslands was relieved to some extent. There were still some problems of resettlement to be solved, including but not limited to that the income of most rural households was reduced in different levels, and households gave a lower evaluation on environment of production and living at settlements, 42.35% of whom experienced decline in the quality of life after migration. 3) The willingness of households to reside in current settlements was not strong in general, with 71.92% of the households willing to move back to the Sangonghe River Watershed, and the major factors were quality of life, irrigation conditions and quality of cultivated land. In order to enhance the migration and residence positivity of farm households, and to promote the implementation of ecological migration project, the government should improve the conditions of water and soil resources, accelerate the process of infrastructure construction, provide training courses on agricultural technologies, and encourage the transfer from farmers to rural workers. By doing so, farmer incomes could be increased and the conditions of production and living could be improved.
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    Resources Safety
    Risk Analysis on the Wetland Shrinkage of the Yellow River Estuary Wetland Based on the Land Use Planning
    TIAN Su-juan, CHEN Wei-feng, HU Jin-ye, XU Guang-yong, CHEN Long-liang, ZHAO Na
    2011, 26 (10):  1670-1679.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (648KB) ( )   Save
    With the rapid urban expansion in recent decades, the wetlands and farmlands of China’s eastern coastal areas were increasingly destroyed. Many researchers have paid extensive attention to the phenomenon that wetland shrinkage and the landscape patterns change were the results of land-use and urban expansion. Kenli County of Dongying City in Shandong Province is located in the forefront of China’s national development strategy named as "efficient ecological economic zone development in Yellow River Delta". As about 60% of the area of International Wetland Nature Reserve is located in the Yellow River Delta, Kenli County has plentiful of wetland resources. In order to know the effects of long-term land use planning on wetland changes, to clarify the threats of construction land expansion to wetland, to discover the potential risk of wetland loss and to develop positive wetland protection strategy, in this study, based on the TM Imagery of Kenli County in 2005 and the land-use planning data from 2005 to 2020, we analyse the threats of construction land expansion to wetland during the planning period by spatial analysis method and evaluate the potential risk of shrinkage wetland. The results showed that: 1) The present wetlands are distributed widely and the types are abundant; the area is 107497.8 hm2, which is 46.32% of the total study area. 2) According to the plan, the construction land will increase 542.5 hm2 per year, of which 29.54% will be converted from the wetland, that is to say wetland occupation and encroachment by construction land is very serious. 3) During the planning period, the wetland area tends to decrease and about 5057.53 hm2 of wetlands will be converted into built-up lands. The rate and extent of wetlands reduction of each village and town are different in Kenli County. In which, greater changes take place in Dongji Village and Haojia Town while changes in Kenli community office, Shengtuo and Yongan towns are above the average level. As for the wetlands type, the reed lands are the fastest in decline with a reduction of 43.87% in 15 years and the area decrease of irrigation fields is the largest, a reduction of approximately 2211.75 hm2. 4) Through the analysis, the high-risk wetland area is 17024.45 hm2, the low-risk is about 29846.89 hm2, while the non-risk is 60626.46 hm2; the overall loss of the wetland has high potential risk.
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    Resources Ecology
    Effect of Initial Impoundment on the Vegetation and Species Diversity in Water-level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir
    WANG Qiang, YUAN Xing-zhong, LIU Hong, ZHANG Yue-wei, CHEN Zhong-li, LI Bo
    2011, 26 (10):  1680-1693.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (720KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the vegetation survey of 14 sampling sites in water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the vegetation characteristic and species diversity after flooding to 173 m were reported. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to explore the environmental interpretation of vegetation variation. The result showed that there were 175 species of 58 families in the water-level fluctuation zone. Setaria viridis, Conyza Canadensis, Bidens tripartita, Paspalum thunbergii, Polygonum lapathifolium, Xanthium sibiricum, Paspalum paspaloides, Cynodon dactylon and Digitaria spp. were the dominant vascular plants. Therophytes were the most abundant life form with 84 species. There were 54 vegetation community types, including 5 shrub and 49 herb associations. The results of CCA reflected that vegetation predominantly disturbed in the upper area with low slope and fine substratum. Species diversity and annual taxa increased as elevation rose which reflected the influence of submerged gradient. Long-term winter flooding, enormous water magnitude and summer drought were the important reasons for the vegetation composition.
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    Evaluation of the Grassland Ecosystem Services of the Haihe River Basin,China
    FANG Yu, OUYANG Zhi-yun, XIAO Yi, ZHENG Hua, XU Wei-hua, BAI Yang, JIANG Bo
    2011, 26 (10):  1694-1706.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (553KB) ( )   Save
    Grassland ecosystems not only provide productions such as livestock products and plant resources, but also support people’s lives. People always focus on the production function, while neglecting the life-supporting function. In this research, we use the classification method of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, that is to divide the ecosystem services into four groups of provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services, and take 2005 as the base year for all types of assessment. Based on the analyses of the grassland ecosystem services of the Haihe River Basin, this study establishes the assessment indexes system and develops economic value assessment using different methods, such as market valuation method, shadow engineering and so on. The result shows that the total economic values of 8 services of grassland ecosystem is 221.628 billion yuan. Among them, provisioning service has the largest value, followed by carbon fixation and nutrients conservation, accounting for 31.3%,26.8% and 22.2% of the total value respectively. This evaluation is conducive to the development, utilization and protection of the grassland resources and can play a guidance role in the management of the grassland ecosystem in the study area. It points out that carbon fixation and oxygen release, nutrients conservation and other life-supporting functions should not be neglected while protecting the local provisioning service to support the economic development, so as to achieve the coordination between the socio-economic development and ecological protection in the Haihe River Basin.
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    Regulation Mechanism and Evaluation Model of Urban Water Ecosystem
    YU Hai-xia, XU Li-qiang, CHEN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Qiang
    2011, 26 (10):  1707-1714.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (746KB) ( )   Save
    Urban water is one of the important life-support systems to human beings. The regulation mechanism of urban water ecosystem is of great significance in maintaining the sustainable development of urban water resources and environment. Based on the synergism of five rules, discussions were carried out in this study to explore the regulation mechanism and model of urban water ecosystem. The results indicate that, the urban water "Six in One" principle possesses temporal and spatial, comprehensive and phrasal features.Gray evaluation model can quantitatively evaluate the health and sustainable degree of urban water ecosystem. The Six in One degree is positively proportional to the continuous improvement of urban water ecosystem structure and function. Finally, the comparative studies of some typical cases including Beijing Kunming Lake of Summer Palace, West Lake in Hangzhou, Nanjing Xuanwu Lake and Ji’nan Daming Lake were carried out to analyze the motivation of becoming well-known waters and then to provide references to urban water ecosystem construction.
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    Effects of Urbanization on the Spatial Heterogeneity of Watershed Ecosystem Services Value:A Case Study of Jiuxiang River Watershed in Nanjing City
    HU He-bing, LIU Hong-yu, HAO Jing-feng, AN Jing
    2011, 26 (10):  1715-1725.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (629KB) ( )   Save
    Taking Jiuxiang River watershed in Nanjing city (Jiangsu, China) as a case study area, its two phases of remote sensing images obtained in 2003 and 2009 as the basic data source for assessment of ecosystem service values, and based on the adjustment of value coefficient, the ecosystem service values of Jiuxiang River watershed were calculated. In addition, the spatio-temporal characteristics of ecosystem service values and the interrelations between urbanization and ecosystem service values were studied by using the spatial analysis function of ArcGIS. The results showed: the loss of ecosystem service values of Jiuxiang River watershed was 2.63%, equaling to 643.1×104 yuan, of which the upstream increased by 1.57%,the midstream and the downstream decreased by 2.18% and 10.58% respectively,and the decrease of cropland was the major cause for the decrease of ecosystem service values. The values of individual ecosystem service of food production and maintain soil conservation decreased,while the values of hydrologic regulation and aesthetical function increased;the regions with higher ecosystem service values were mainly concentrated along the Qinlong Mountain at the upstream,Linshan Mountain at the midstream and Qixia and Yangshan mountains in the downstream,and the region with lower ecosystem service values was found mainly in Xianlin University Town,and the moderate one was mainly distributed in agricultural area of the midstream;the spatial distribution of ecosystem service values changed significantly in Jiuxiang River,the region with reduced ecosystem service values was mainly concentrated along the Xianlin University Town in the upstream and Xicun in the midstream, and the region with increasing values was distributed mainly along Jiuxiang River; urbanization had a negative effect on ecosystem service values, which showed the reduction of ecosystem service values was related with urbanization. So, we should conduct a watershed ecological planning to strengthen the classification guidance of watershed development and construction, and this was an effective way to restore and maintain Jiuxiang River watershed ecosystem service function.
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    Quantity Dynamics of Reaumuria soongorica Populations from Different Habitats in the South-north Hills in Lanzhou
    ZHOU Zi-hang, LI Yi, JIAO Jian
    2011, 26 (10):  1726-1737.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (624KB) ( )   Save
    The quantity dynamics of the natural Reaumuria soongorica populations from different habitats in the south-north hills in Lanzhou were studied. Using the age class structure regression by diameter class, the static life table and survival function curves were determined, the dynamic indexes were calculated and spectrum analysis was done. The results showed: in 4 habitats the Reaumuria soongorica populations all contained more young members and less middle-aged or old members; all populations had highest death rates at age class Ⅲ. As the age increased, the death rates reduced; because of the physiological senescence, the death rates of age class Ⅶ and Ⅷ increased. The survival curve of the populations approached to Deevey type Ⅲ. The populations all belonged to progressive type. The order of growth potential is: at the foot of shady slope (5.90%)> at the foot of sunny slope (5.62%)> at the top of shady slope (4.77%)> at the top of sunny slope (3.79%), and this order indicated obvious periodicity. The dynamic quantity of all Reaumuria soongorica populations were overall controlled by their biological characteristics of lifecycle. Due to the environmental heterogeneity caused by different slope situations and altitudes, Reaumuria soongorica populations at the foot of shady slope grew well, at the top of shady slope and at the foot of sunny slope took the second place. But Reaumuria soongorica populations at the top of sunny slope which were influenced significantly by both environment and intraspecific competition pressure, had the biggest danger coefficient. The Reaumuria soongorica populations should be protected by proper tending practices to enhance sustainable development.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Relationship between Urban Land Use and Spatio-temporal Change Characteristics of Surface Heat Effect: A Case Study of Chengdu City
    PENG Wen-fu, ZHOU Jie-ming, LUO Huai-liang, YANG Cun-jian, ZHAO Jing-feng
    2011, 26 (10):  1738-1749.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (827KB) ( )   Save
    The data for urban land use in Chengdu city was extracted by means of image interpretation based on RS data during 2000-2008. Land surface temperature from TM/ETM+data was retrieved and its spatial distribution was extracted based on Mono-window Algorithm and ERDAS spatial modeling. Urban heat effect of urban land use was analyzed. The result shows that the area of cultivated land and woodland is decreasing and the area of built-up land and water body is increasing within the study period. The spatio-temporal characteristics of urban land use evolvement were the speed of land use change was quick, land use intensity was notable, and the area of cultivated land was invaded due to built-up land occupation. Urban land use change led to the area of low temperature zone a decrease by about 25.927×104 hm2, the area of normal temperature zone and high temperature zone increase by about 12.093×104 hm2 and by about 5.834×104 hm2, respectively. The proportion of built-up land area in high temperature zone dominates absolutely. The average temperature of built-up land is the highest while that of water land and paddy field is the lowest. The spatial distribution pattern of surface temperature of all temperature zones is presented by strip distribution with different shapes. Heat resources in urban districts were densely spotted within the high-tech zone in southern Chengdu, uptown zone in the western, business and trade zone in the central, and industrial base zone in the eastern. The surface temperature of the second ring road was decreased from the downtown region. It is proved that the surface temperature became lower with the increase of distance from the inner city and the impervious surface getting lower at the same time; there is a positive correlation between surface temperature and impervious surface in Chengdu city with a correlation coefficient of 0.73. The spatial distribution of the isotherms with the response of permeable surface is significant. Thus, the built-up land in urban area has a notable heat effect and the heat effect retrieve of water body is huge. The study result has scientific meaning and application value for the evolvement study of urban heat island effect and improvement of human residence environment.
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    Choice Experiment Method and Its Application to Cultivated Land Protection—A Case Study in Wenling City of Zhejiang Province
    JIN Jian-jun, JIANG Chong
    2011, 26 (10):  1750-1757.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (513KB) ( )   Save
    The cultivated land resource has multiple functions and public good characteristics. Its ecological value and social value are usually ignored in the course of public decision-making, which has resulted in over-exploitation, excessive use and inefficient allocation of cultivated land in China. Economic valuation of natural resource or environmental goods that have public good characteristics has become a research frontier and hotspot of natural resource and environmental economics in the world. Choice experiment (CE) is a relatively new method that can be used to value the economic benefits of natural resources or environmental goods that have public good characteristics. This paper attempts to apply the CE method in Wenling city that aimed to understand Wenling residents’ preferences for Wenling cultivated land resources protection programs. A random sample survey of 246 respondents in Wenling was conducted during the summer of 2010. Survey data was analyzed using the multinomial logit models. Results from the 246 in-person interviews indicate that Wenling residents preferred land field facility and land fertility improvement as well as landscape improvement for the protection of cultivated land resources in Wenling city. They would be willing to pay 17.54 yuan/household every month to improve the landscape, and would be willing to pay 37.96 yuan/household every month to improve the land field facility and would be willing to pay 31.43 yuan/household every month to improve the land fertility. Our results show that respondents’ mean willingness to pay is affected by their socioeconomic characteristics. Those who have higher household yearly income, better education level, more knowledge on cultivated land resource protection and its non-market value would more prefer to choose the new alternatives that will have better land fertility, land field facility or landscape. The mean willingness to pay for the cultivated land protection program which will improve the land fertility, land field facility and landscape is 28.43 yuan/household every month. The study concludes that CE is a reliable tool in the analysis of respondents’ preferences for the development of suitable cultivated land protection schemes in Wenling city.
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    Analysis on Impact of Fragmentation Based on Landscape Index to Cultivated Land Use Efficiency—A Case on Lixiahe District in Yangzhou City
    LI Xin, OU Ming-hao, MA Xian-lei
    2011, 26 (10):  1758-1767.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (495KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of fragmentation on cultivated land use efficiency from meso-scale point of view, to explore factors reducing the level of fragmentation, so as to provide the basis for the formulation of efficient agricultural land use policy. The paper first selects landscape index to quantify the cultivated land fragmentation level, and then evaluates the efficiency of cultivated land using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, based on this, it can test the impact which fragmentation exerts with econometrics models. The results show that: the average of the overall efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of cultivated land use were 0.9493, 0.9722 and 0.9770 respectively in the study area, so there is a certain room to improve efficiency in most towns; the correlation coefficient between the first principal component and the average area of land, land density, area weighted shape index and area weighted fractal dimension is separately more than 88%, the second principal component and the edge density index is more than 91%; the flexibility affect coefficient between the first and pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency are -0.0027 and -0.08561, between the second and pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency are -0.0011 and -0.0024 respectively. It can be drawn: fragmentation has negative effect both on pure technical efficiency and on scale efficiency, and the impact on scale efficiency is greater than on pure technical efficiency; the level of fragmentation should be reduced from land area, distribution and shape in order to improve cultivated land productivity.
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    Evaluation for Production Potentials of Bioenergy Grasses Grown in Abandoned Sandpits in Beijing Suburb
    HOU Xin-cun, FAN Xi-feng, WU Ju-ying, ZUO Hai-tao
    2011, 26 (10):  1768-1774.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (461KB) ( )   Save
    Well-known biomass resources, two kinds of bioenergy grass, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and giantreed (Arundo donax L.), were cultivated on a large scale, in abandoned sandpits in Beijing suburb, and the biomass yields and ecological-economic values were investigated in order to research their production potentials in marginal lands. With high biomass yield, of 3.77 t·hm-2 and 11.45 t·hm-2 respectively in abandoned sandpits in Beijing suburb, these bioenergy grasses have high ecological values due to their ability to fix carbon dioxide, release oxygen, absorb sulfur dioxide and retard dust, as well as high economic benefits due to the conversion of standard coal and the production of cellulosic ethanol. In conclusion, the two bioenergy grasses have tremendous production potentials in the future in abandoned sandpits in Beijing suburb.
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    Resources Research Methods
    Dynamic Parameterization Scheme of Surface Albedo: A Case Study on Rained Maize Field
    CAI Fu, ZHOU Guang-sheng, LI Rong-ping, MING Hui-qing, ZHANG Guo, HE Qi-jin, DUAN Ju-qi
    2011, 26 (10):  1775-1788.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (909KB) ( )   Save
    Using continuous flux data, meteorological data and biological data from 2006 to 2008 from Jinzhou agricultural ecosystem research station, dynamic parameterization scheme of surface albedo(α) was investigated. The results show that α has logarithm, logarithm or linear, exponential or linear relationships with solar altitude(hθ), surface soil water contents(SWC) and leaf area index(LAI), respectively. The model founded considering respectively logarithm and linear relationship between α and hθ and SWC is better than those considering other relationships and is able to simulate diurnal pattern of α with smaller error in most of the non-growing season except early spring. In the growing season, the simulation precision of the α parametric model founded with statistical regression method considering respectively logarithm, linear and exponential relationships between α and hθ, SWC and LAI play an important role in α which is higher than those considering other relationships. For the limitation of data, the model underestimates evidently α in most of the period especially in vegetative growth phase of maize. As vegetation coverage (FVEG) introduced and used to bestow weighing to soil and vegetation, the model whose simulation error decreases significantly in total growing season especially in vegetative growth phase is able to reflect seasonal variation of α and has dynamic simulation ability, which changes an untrue hypothesis that vegetation α is only constant in many land surface models and makes the model universal-adapted to simulate dynamic α in different phases of maize field. By this study, land surface process model will be offered dynamic parameter of vegetation α and then whose simulation accuracy will be improved.
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    Ecological Carrying Capacity and Its Assessment Method in Late-Developing Regions—A Case Study in the Economic Zone on the West Side of the Straits
    ZHAO Wei, SHEN Wei-shou, ZHANG Hui, SUN Ming, SUN Jun
    2011, 26 (10):  1789-1800.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (596KB) ( )   Save
    Based on ecological carrying capacity and the relationship between ecological carrying capacity and other carrying capacity, the judgment standard and measurement object of ecological carrying capacity in late-developing regions were defined, the conceptual model of ecological carrying capacity in late-developing regions was also built, according to their sensitive eco-environment, relative slowness of socio-economic development, strong aspiration of development and late-developing strategy. The assessment method of ecological carrying capacity in late-developing regions was also established by multi-objective programming, combining with regional ecosystem health assessment. A case study was carried out in the economic zone on the west side of the Straits (called "Haixi Zone" for short), aiming at the sustainable development of key industry. Results showed that the human disturbance index of Haixi Zone was 2.68% in 2007, which is lower than the average level (3.13%) of China in 2006 and human disturbance threshold (5.96%) of Haixi Zone; the human disturbance index of all sub-zones of Haixi Zone was lower than its human disturbance threshold. Current human disturbance carried by ecosystem in Haixi Zone was relative light; human activities and key industrial development haven’t threatened regional ecosystem structure, service and its health status. According to the production rate of construction land in Haixi Zone, Haixi Zone and all sub-zones could sustain the present development of key industry, but Haixi Zone and most sub-zones wouldn’t sustain the medium and long term development of their key industry. As the production rate of construction land in Haixi Zone rises to 75% of the production rate of construction land in Shanghai city in 2007, Haixi Zone and most sub-zones would sustain the medium and long term development of their key industry. Therefore, the production rate of construction land is the key factor that influences ecological carrying capacity, the sustain development of key industry and ecological security of Haixi Zone. Meanwhile, there were spatial differences in carrying capacity and carrying status of ecosystem in Haixi Zone, which is helpful to sound development of social-economic, sustainable usage of ecosystem service and effective maintenance of ecological security.
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    Special Forum
    A Critical Review on Material and Energetic Metabolism for Urban Ecosystem: Resource Metabolism and Its Contents
    ZHANG Li-xiao, HU Qiu-hong
    2011, 26 (10):  1801-1810.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (729KB) ( )   Save
    Metabolism analysis is one of the important perspectives and tools for urban ecosystem research. Conducted in this paper is a critical review on research of urban metabolism with regard to concepts and methods. Currently, the metabolism concept associated with urban ecosystem are consisted of social metabolism, urban metabolism, industrial metabolism, as well as energy metabolism and ecological energetic metabolism, connotation and denotation of which are both overlapped and varied. In addition to the diverse research purpose, the lacking of unified accounting method is the real reason for the varied metabolism concepts and frameworks to some extent. In fact, the available framework of urban metabolism has only paid attentions to physical resource, while ignoring non-physical resources such as solar energy, wind power and information. However, the new developments in resources sciences, i.e., resource flow, network analysis and exergy accounting provide new ideas and methodology assistance for solving the problems in urban metabolism analysis. Therefore, a new concept of resource metabolism was put forward, which extends the research content and systematic boundary, including material resources and non-material resources, energetic resources and non-energetic resources. In definition, the concept of urban resource metabolism can be regarded as the process of resource consumption and waste generation of the cities for some time, and the process of the quality degradation of flows of the material and energy, which is necessary input for maintain the basic urban structures and functions. In addition, the exergy method was suggested to be introduced to solve the unified accounting problem and quantify the availability and scarcity of resources. Furthermore, the resource flow analysis tools as ecological network analysis method can also be incorporated to trace the metabolism route, hoping to change the traditional grey mode commonly used in metabolism analysis. This newly concept of resource metabolism and corresponding method would provide new integrate analyzing framework for urban ecosystem research. Nevertheless, it is just a primary concept and framework on resources metabolism, in-depth analysis and case studies are badly needed in near future to perfect and verify the conceived theory system.
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    The Interrelation between Temperature Sensitivity and Adaptability of Soil Respiration
    YANG Yi, HAUNG Mei, LIU Hong-sheng, LIU Hua-jie
    2011, 26 (10):  1811-1820.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.10.017
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    The temperature sensitivity and adaptability of soil respiration are the two key processes in the understanding of terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycle. Recently a growing body of literature sheds new light on the importance of the temperature sensitivity and adaptation of soil respiration in understanding terrestrial carbon cycling. It has been well known that small changes in Q10 value will have great influence on soil CO2 efflux, due to its nonlinear response to temperature, while the adaptation of soil biological processes could greatly reduce the extend of feedback between temperature and soil CO2 efflux. In this paper, we reviewed recent advances and hotspots in temperature sensitivity and adaptability of soil respiration and pointed out the limitations in previous studies. The overall studies showed that there are three types of adaptation mechanisms and two kinds of temperature sensitivity theory. The adaptation mechanisms can be defined by combine considering basal respiration and its temperature sensitivity. Soil organic matter, microorganisms and enzyme are factors that have great influence on the temperature sensitivity and adaptability of soil respiration; however, the mechanisms of these effects on the temperature sensitivity and adaptability of soil respiration are different. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration is mainly related to the state of the above mentioned factors, while the adaptability soil respiration is largely determined by the biological process. For example, mean temperature, enzyme activity, substrate quality and the amount of microbes are the factors determining temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Whereas, the amplitude of temperature changes, enzyme optimum temperature, substrate quantity, and diversity of microbes control the adaptability of soil respiration. Finally we pointed out that the temperature sensitivity and adaptability of soil respiration are closely related, and both the temperature sensitivity and adaptability of soil respiration are crucial in deeper our understanding on biology process. Both the two processes should be considered in the future research of terrestrial carbon cycle. In the end the future research hotpots are discussed.
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