Table of Content

    20 August 2014, Volume 29 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Spatio-temporal Analysis of Population and Construction Land Change in Urban and Rural China
    WANG Jing, FANG Chuang-lin, LI Yu-rui
    2014, 29 (8):  1271-1281.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3701KB) ( )   Save

    A better understanding of the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving mechanism of population and residential land change in urban and rural China under rapid urbanization and industrialization is the important premise for constituting feasible policy and strategy promoting the farmland protection, urban development and new countryside construction. Based on decoupling theory and model, this paper analyzes the overall trend, coupling types and patterns of China's population and construction land change in urban and rural areas, using urban and rural demographic and land-use data from China Statistics Bureau and the Department of Land and Resources of each province. The results show that, the relationship between urban population and construction land in 25 provinces are weakly decoupled, that is, the growth rate of urban construction land is higher than the growth rate of urban population; while in rural areas, rural residential land expends as rural population decreases. The relationship between urban population and construction land in nearly half of the provinces all over the country are strongly decoupled and that in 11 provinces reflects the phenomenon of recession decoupling, that is, rural residential land change is not coordinated with rural population change in most of the provinces. The relationship between urban-rural population and construction land could be divided into seven types and the relationship in about 1/3 provinces is very uncoordinated. This paper argues that the important reason for the aforementioned problems include three aspects: fiscal and tax systems and the evaluation mechanism for officials being imperfect, poor control of urban and rural planning, and the deep-rooted urban-rural dual system. In the new era, the sustainable approaches to coordinate urban-rural population and construction land changes are: following the objective laws in population, industrial, urban and social development, actively reforming fiscal and tax systems, scientifically defining the urban spatial growth boundary, gradually removing the urban-rural dual system, and orderly promoting urban-rural land integration and replacement.

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    Decoupling Evaluation between Tourism Economic Growth and Eco-environmental Pressure of Songshan Global Geopark
    YI Ping, FANG Shi-ming, MA Chun-yan
    2014, 29 (8):  1282-1296.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.002
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    Quantitative evaluation on decoupling status and degree between tourism economic growth and eco-environmental pressure is of great theoretical significance and practical value to improve the new planning revision and guide the construction and management of geopark. Based on existing research results of the decoupling theory, the paper attempted to introduce decoupling theory into microscopic field of geopark, and evaluation indicator system, evaluation model, evaluation criteria of decoupling analysis between tourism economic growth and eco-environmental pressure of geopark have been established. A case study of Songshan Global Geopark, made a quantitative analysis about the decoupling relationship and degree between tourism economic growth and eco- environmental pressure in Songshan Global Geopark from 2004 to 2012, and development stage and the evolution trends of decoupling are analyzed. The results showed that: 1) From the point of view of the strength and its variation characteristics of eco-environmental pressure in the process of tourism economic growth, the eco-environmental pressure index of tourism economic growth generally fluctuated and evolutionary trend appeared increased first and then decreased during the state, the index enhanced during 2004- 2009, then reduced during 2009-2012. 2) From the point of view of the decoupling status and its evolution tendency between tourism economic growth and eco-environmental pressure, the decoupling degrees show the evolutional path of relative decoupling Ⅱ→relative decoupling Ⅳ→relative decouplingⅣ→couplingⅡ→couplingⅠ→absolute decoupling→relative decouplingⅠ→ absolute decoupling, the sustainability of geopark tourism development change periodically of strong→weak→strong. 3) From the point of the graph of the elasticity curve, the decoupling curve shows a rising→down→up→down trend and its change is close to the rightward“M-shaped”type in general. According to the decoupling elastic curve, the research period can be roughly divided into three evolutionary stages: 2004- 2007 (relative decoupling stage), 2007-2009 (coupling stage), and 2009-2012 (absolute and relative decoupling alternative stage). 4) The results are consistent with the actual situation in Songshan Global Geopark and have strong practical significance, indicating that the established evaluation method for decoupling evaluation between tourism economic growth and eco- environmental pressure provides a new analysis and feedback mechanisms for geopark tourism sustainable development.

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    Resources Economics
    Influence of China’s Urbanization on Tourism Economic Development
    YU Feng-long, HUANG Zhen-fang, CAO Fang-dong, WU Li-min, TAO Yu-guo
    2014, 29 (8):  1297-1309.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (968KB) ( )   Save

    Since the reform and opening up in 1978, China's urbanization pace has been quickened. Tourism industry has become one of the fastest-growing and largest industries. The purpose of this paper is to explore the interrelation between urbanization and tourism economy, and the influence of urbanization on tourism economic growth. Through theoretical analysis, the effects of consumption and investment are two engines, of which urbanization promotes tourism economic growth. Urbanization is mainly manifested in the population migration and industrial agglomeration, which promote the accumulation of material capital, human capital and the transformation and upgrading of industrial structure, and stimulate tourism economic development, in turn, also accelerate the urbanization level. On the basis of theoretical analysis, we employ the proportion of urban population to total population to represent urbanization using the time series data and panel data of related tourism economic development. We also construct the models to investigate the relation between urbanization and the development of tourism economy and the contribution of urbanization to China's tourism economic growth. First, from the national level, this paper employs ADF unit root tests, Engel-Granger Two-step Co-integration Model and Granger Causality Model to examine the long-term equilibrium and causeeffect relationship between urbanization and tourism economic development. The results show that there is a long-term stable co-integration between tourism economic growth and urbanization, and tourism economic growth is in the Granger causality with urbanization during the period from 1993 to 2011, but the direct effect of urbanization on tourism economic growth is not obvious. Second, from the regional level, based on the Cobb Douglas production function, we construct tourism economic growth model and influencing models of urbanization on tourism economic growth factors, the models show that the physical capital, labor, industrial structure and marketization are important factors promoting tourism economic growth from 2000 to 2011. Urbanization can accelerate the accumulation of capital and labor, upgrade industrial structure and push marketization. Urbanization has indirect positive effect on tourism economic growth. We still cannot take effectively the conduction effect of the tertiary industry between the urbanization and the development of tourism economy. The fitting results of urbanization with tourism economic growth of different regions is good, overall, the higher the level of urbanization, the more developed regional tourism economy. The study also shows the effect of physical capital elements on tourism economic growth is waning, while the effect of labor, marketization and industrial structure are gradually increasing. We can better release potential effects of new urbanization on tourism economic growth through relying on market-oriented reforms, promoting transformation of industrial structure and accelerating development of new urbanization.

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    Analysis on the Implementation Effects and Influencing Factors of Farmland Conservation Compensation Policy:Cases in Minhang District, Zhangjiagang and Chengdu City
    CAI Yin-ying, ZHU Lan-lan
    2014, 29 (8):  1310-1322.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.004
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    We studied 545 peasant households in 42 villages at six towns which are respectively located in Minhang District in Shanghai city, Zhangjiagang city in Jiangsu Province and Chengdu city in Sichuan Province, and analyzed the implementation effects and influencing factors of the ecological compensation policy in the typical region. The results are as follows: Firstly, the economic incentives of farmland conservation compensation, to some extent, has aroused peasants' enthusiasm to cultivating farmland. The compensation policy has made some achievements in increasing grain production and raising peasants' income. On the other hand, land use planning control of the policy has relatively decreased the peasants' positivity in the inputs of public goods, such as maintaining farmland infrastructure and increasing inputs for farmland production, etc. Secondly, the implementation effect of policy had significantly regional difference. Namely, peasants who hadn't received the compensation fund in Jingang and Leyu towns of Zhangjiagang city that had drawn up a plan for implementation took the least participation in the economic compensation policy. On the contrary, peasants in Yongan, Jinqiao and Jiangyuan towns of Chengdu city where farmland ecological compensation policy was first implied in our country had a relatively positive evaluation on the policy. Thirdly, the results of the hierarchical model showed that regional and farmers' individual factors had apparently impact on the policy's implementation effects. For regional factors, the location of villages had significant influence on the policy's implementation effects. Implementation effects of the policy is better in common villages mainly depending on agricultural income than suburban counties and urban villages with higher share of non-farming income. For peasants' individual factors, with more perceptions on the policy and higher standard about the policy, the peasants who are village cadres and have higher attention on the policy seldomly considered the policy's implementation to be positive. Economy in financial compensation area for farmland protection is relatively developed, more opportunities of non-agricultural income for farmers, and during the land transfer process compensation funds directly benefit farmland contracting households, these all made farmers with larger share in agri- income and relying mainly on agricultural works would be more difficult to participate in the policy of farmland conservation economic compensation.

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    The Perception of Farmers to Eco-Economic Effects after Their Participating in Government Leading Ecological Construction Projects:A Case of Mountain-River-Lake of Jiangxi
    SHAO Jing-an, SHAO Quan-qin, LU Qing-shui, HUANG Lin, KUANG Wen-hui
    2014, 29 (8):  1323-1335.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.005
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    The perception of farmers to eco-economic effects after their participating in government leading ecological construction projects is fundamental to their decision whether to continue or adjust their participation behavior and mentality in the future. Revealing farmers' perception to eco-economic effects is decisive to whether future ecological construction will succeed or not. The comprehensive control of mountain, river and lake is one of the typical government leading ecological construction projects in Mountain-River-Lake of Jiangxi. The objective of this study was to interview the perception of farmers to eco-economic effects after their participating in government leading ecological construction projects on Mountain-River-Lake of Jiangxi by the method of Participatory Rural Appraisal. And farmers understanding obtained by interviewing was analyzed with the help of ecological limit method, EXCEL statistics and existing scientific findings. The results showed: 1) The perception of farmers' economic effect emphasized themselves investment, creating and sharing on mountainous aforestation in Mountain- River-Lake area. The farmer possessed usually hematopoietic function after they obtained expected return in the process of participation in ecological construction. Certainly, their dependence on local government presented a decrease to a certain degree. 2) The perception of farmers' ecological effect after participating in presented mainly the reduction of soil and water loss, and the increase of mountain spring water in Mountain-River-Lake area. These reactions of the first ecological effect often concerned whether their production and livelihood safety will be harmed. 3) Derivative effect of farmers' participation income mostly involved production stability, living comfortableness in Mountain-River-Lake area. And it more emphasized on ecoeconomic effect of derivative, showing the large random characteristics. 4) Active improvement was the main pattern of the effect perception of farmers in Mountain-River-Lake area. Future appropriate adaptive policy formulation can stimulate farmers' participation initiative, only considering the farmers' ecological construction function. Therefore, the initiative improvement was the main characteristics of the perception of farmers to eco- economic effects after their participating in government leading ecological construction projects on Mountain-River- Lake of Jiangxi. The behavior of farmers participating in the ecological construction was relatively more initiative, comparing to that of ecological immigration. And it was more easily adjusted by government. The policy implication of this finding will be favorable to provide adaptive policy adjustment paths and scientific basis for government leading ecological construction projects from the perspective of the perception of farmers to eco-economic effects after their participating in.
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    Resources Ecology
    Ecological Footprint of Raw and Derived Agricultural Products
    CAO Shu-yan, XIE Gao-di, CHEN Wen-hui, GUO Hong
    2014, 29 (8):  1336-1344.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.006
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    Ecological footprint (EF) analysis estimates the"load"imposed on the ecosphere by any specified human population or activity. It is already proved to be a good measure of the dependence and impact on nature of production and consumption. In recent years EF researchers have expanded their focus from macro-level accounts of the national, regional and global EF of human activities to both mesco-level EF accounts of industrial sectors and micro-level EF calculation of some defined products. But the deficiency of EF parameters has become the bottleneck. After air and water, food is the most essential resource people require to sustain ourselves. We therefore provide an EF accounts of producing key edible agricultural products with about 80 kinds of raw and processed agricultural products involved. And in the case of production, the EF of selected products represents the amount of bio-productive land required to produce the raw materials and to absorb corresponding waste, represented in global hectares per tonne of products. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied with supply-chain starting from the raw material extraction and ending with the formation of the product. Thus, the EF of a defined product exclude those impact during distribution, use, maintenance and disposal. The data for the ecological footprint of raw agricultural products (primary goods) is mainly excerpted from National Agricultural Costs and Returns Compilation of 2011. Derived agricultural products are related to primary goods by demand coefficient for primary goods, which is the mass ratio of primary input required to derive per unit of product. All the data on demand coefficient are from both published yearly statistics and investigation. Based on demand coefficient for primary goods and EF of primary goods, bio- capacity needed to support the production of processed food products could be calculated. For both primary and derived agricultural goods, its EF is shown in consumption-land use matrix. Using the ecological efficiency of production provided by this study, EF could be easily estimated required to support some consumption patterns at different levels, such as individual, community, organizational and regional.
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    Study on the Effects on the Landscape Spatial Pattern of the Wintering Birds’Habitat from Lake Level in Poyang LakeWetland
    QI Shu-huaa, ZHANG Qi-mingb, JIANG Fengb, LIAO Fu-qiangb
    2014, 29 (8):  1345-1355.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.007
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    Wetlands are important environments that serve as irreplaceable habitat for numerous wildlife species by providing them breeding and resting. Millions of migratory birds, including endangered Siberian Crane, migrate to the Poyang Lake wetland at the end of autumn and the beginning of winter every year when the lake level is low and the grassland is emerged. The Poyang Lake natural wetland with an area of 3306 km2 is one of the most important international wetland and it also is the largest habitat for wintering birds in East Asia. In this research, the data from field survey on wintering birds around Poyang Lake wetland was used to define the habitat landscape for the wintering wild birds. Then 11 remotely sensed images at different lake levels were used to outline the habitat distribution by combining unsupervised classification with visual interpretation. The landscape spatial patterns of the wintering birds' habitat were analyzed with landscape metrics such as patches area (PA), mean patch area index (MPAI), largest patch index (%) (LPI), area-weighted mean shape index (AWMSI), perimeter area fractal dimension index (PAFRAC) and contagion index (CONT). And we conclude that: 1) the wintering migrant birds in Poyang Lake are always forage or rest in the shallow and still water, flat mud and wetland vegetation. 2) Habitat for migrant wild birds was affected by the lake level apparently. With water level in Poyang Lake increasing from 5 m to 15.6 m, the area of habitat for migrant wild birds will decrease from about 2300 km2 to 530 km2 gradually. And lake level can also exert significant influence on the composition of habitat types for winter migrant water- birds. But it doesn' t mean that the frequently happened drought in the Poyang Lake wetland in recent years will benefit to the wintering wild birds in Poyang Lake wetland. In fact, the changed hydrological characteristics (drought happened frequently in autumn or winter) had been causing the hygrophytes community succession with terrestrial plant in Poyang Lake wetland. 3) With lake level in Poyang Lake increasing from 5 m to 15.6 m, the landscape fragmentation will be increasing and connectivity will be decreasing that means maintaining a higher lake level will be unfavorable for the protection of winter migrant wild birds.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Assessment of Flood Regulation Service of Lakes and Reservoirs in China
    RAO En-ming, XIAO Yi, OUYANG Zhi-yun
    2014, 29 (8):  1356-1365.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.008
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    Lakes are a natural buffer against flood disasters, and reservoirs are an important part of the modern flood control system. Scientific research on measuring flood regulation service of China's lakes and reservoirs and analyzing the regional demand for flood control is the basis of the country' s flood control and disater reduction. In this paper, we constructed primary flood regulation models for lakes and reservoirs based on the relationship between available storage capacity (ASP) and water area for lakes and between flood control storage capacity (FCSP) and total storage capacity for reservoirs, using ASP and FCSP as indicators, respectively. Next we evaluated the flood regulation service provided by China's lakes and reservoirs with the constructed models. The results showed that, the ASP of lakes and FCSP of reservoirs were 1475.47×108 m3 and 2506.85×108 m3, respectively, with a total of 3982.33×108 m3. In terms of the spatial distribution, the provinces of Tibet, Qinghai, Jiangsu as well as the basins of the northwest rivers, the Yangtze River, and the Huaihe River had a strong flood regulation capacity for lakes, while the provinces of Hubei, Guangdong, Hunan as well as the basins of the Yangtze River, the Pearl River, and the Yellow River had a strong flood regulation capacity for reservoirs. For the combination of lakes and reservoirs, the provinces of Tibet, Hubei, Qinghai, Jiangsu, Hunan as well as the basins of the Yangtze River and the northwest rivers had a strong flood regulation capacity. In terms of the demand for flood control, the basins of the Pearl River, the Yangtze River, the Haihe River and the Huaihe River faced high pressure of flood control. For the Pearl River Basin and the Haihe River Basin, the flood regulation capacity can be improved through structural measures like construction of reservoirs. For the Yangtze River Basin and the Huaihe River Basin, the comprehensive capacity of flood control can be strengthened with the combination of returning farmlands to lakes and constructing reservoirs. The results of this study can provide a scientific guidance for the flood control construction and flood management in China.

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    Measuring the Invisible Increase and Decrease of the Grain Productivity in Taihu Lake Watershed during 1985-2010
    SU Wei-zhong, YE Gao-bin, YANG Gui-shan
    2014, 29 (8):  1366-1376.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.009
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    As we known, the policy of cultivated land occupation and supplement aims to mitigate the imbalance between cultivated land increase and decrease. But in fact, it led to invisible increase and decrease of grain productivity in many places of China. By use of establishing the invisible increase and decrease evaluation coefficient F and TR of grain productivity, which connected with variation of cultivated land quantity and quality, this paper reveals the characteristics and mechanism of invisible increase and decrease of grain productivity in Taihu Lake Watershed in the past 25 years. During 1985 and 2000, an imbalance between increase and decrease of cultivated land area in Taihu Lake Watershed existed, as well as the invisible reduction of grain productivity, the annual decline rate of cultivated land area was 0.33%, but the newly supplied cultivated area was rare, and the evaluation coefficient F and TR ratio were -1.044 and 7.42% respectively. However, during 2000 and 2010, the imbalance was aggravated, but the invisible reduction was mitigated. The annual decline rate of cultivated land area increased to 1.50%, but the newly supplied cultivated land area augmented significantly and the evaluation coefficient F and TR ratio were dropped to -0.515 and 2.07% respectively. The invisible change characteristics of grain productivity attributed to the soil quality level differences of varied cultivated land regions, while the differences were related to the response characteristics of the transformation process between cultivated land increase and decrease, which was affected by basin development and cultivated land policy: before 2000 the cultivated land occupation area had higher soil fertility than the cultivated land supplement area, but after 2000 the soil fertility of cultivated land supplement area was raised significantly; the construction activities around cities and developing zones was the primary cause for the erosion of the highly fertilized cultivated land, while the cultivated land occupation and supplement policy had improved quantity and quality of newly increased cultivated land. Finally, the comparison of the method and the existing relative methods showed that the evaluation coefficient F involved in the connection between the quantity and quality of cultivated land and especially revealed the part of invisible increase and decrease of cultivated land change, but farmland-grain elasticity coefficient revealed the relationship between the quality and yield of cultivated land despite of the invisible part of grain yield capacity and the cases of graduation coefficient method is similar with this method and does not pay attention to the dynamic change of grain yield and cultivated land quality graduation. Therefore, under the background of urbanization and industrialization development, executing the cultivated land occupation and supplement policy and connecting cultivated land area quantity with its quality, optimizing the quality structure of increased and decreased farmland to reduce the invisible loss of cultivated land are the fundamental solutions to enhance the crop productivity of Taihu LakeWatershed in the future.
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    Study on the Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Events in Tibet since the 20th Century
    YAO Xiao-jun, LIU Shi-yin, SUN Mei-ping, ZHANG Xiu-juan
    2014, 29 (8):  1377-1390.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.010
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    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and debris flow is one of the main natural hazards in Tibet Autonomous Region. The investigation of characteristics of glacial lake outburst and its affected region and damage degree is the basis for the study on GLOFs or debris flow, such as judging the outburst conditions, building the evaluation index system of glacial lake outburst and modeling the GLOFs or debris flow. Based on the review on the numerous literatures, this paper systematically investigated 27 GLOF events took place in Tibet since the 20th century by using the topographic maps, remote sensing images, Google Earth software, geomorphological characteristics records of GLOF's damage and in-situ investigations. The geographical positions of 23 glacial lakes outburst were accurately identified from the annotation of glacial lake name in topographic map, the name of gully or village where GLOF occurred, the name or morphological characteristics of supply glacier, the feature or remain of glacial lake and new findings by field investigation. Finally, some mistakes on GLOF comprehension were rectified. Specifically, the GLOF event happened in Dinggyê County on August 27, 1982 was caused by Yindapu Co Lake, not Jin Co Lake. And the break of Cuoga Lake, not Cila Co Lake resulted in the GLOF occurrence on July 29, 2009 in Banbar County.
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    Impacts of Rainfall and Land Use on Urban Surface Runoff:A Case Study of Area Surrounding the North Moat in Beijing, China
    CHEN Xiao-yan, ZHANG Na, WU Fang-fang
    2014, 29 (8):  1391-1402.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.011
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    The study explored the impacts of rainfall and land use on surface runoff, taking the area surrounding the North Moat in Beijing, China, as an example. We selected 15 rainfall events occurring from April to November in 2011 and 2012, representing six rainfall levels, which were light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain, rainstorm, heavy rainstorm, and torrential rainstorm, respectively. Surface runoff depths during each rainfall event in the seven control sections were simulated using the calibrated SWMM (Storm Water Management Model). The simulated results showed that the modeled runoff depth significantly linearly increased with increasing rainfall. There were distinct variations in runoff depth when rainfall varied between different rainfall levels. Although rainfall and runoff depth might exhibit different dynamics over time during different rainfall events, runoff depth at each time was determined by rainfall in the previous 1-2 h, and the overall variation in runoff depth depended on the early cumulative rainfall. Runoff depth significantly declined with increasing permeability area ratio (PARO), occurring a critical threshold of 15%-20% at control section scale. PARO had greater impacts on the runoff in rainstorm, heavy rainstorm, and torrential rainstorm events. The result can provide important theoretical basis and implications for catchment management and urban planning to reduce surface runoff and flood peak and avoid waterlogging disasters, which are very common in current China.

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    Characteriscs of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration in Soils of Planted Coniferous Forests in Central Subtropical Region
    CHU Jun-yao, WANG Jing-yuan, WANG Shao-qiang
    2014, 29 (8):  1403-1410.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.012
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    Soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an active fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC) pool, the degradation of DOC can affect soil carbon cycling, ecosystem nutrient dynamics and energy supply to microorganism. Elevated nitrogen deposition is an important factor affecting forest carbon pool, its effect on DOC dynamics has been discussed extensively. In the last five years, we investigated the seasonal and profile variabilities of DOC concentrations in soils of three types of planted forests in central subtropical region. Seasonal variation of DOC concentration in descending order for slash pine forest was: autumn (11.3 mg/L) > spring (10.4 mg/L) >summer (10.2 mg/L) > winter (8.0 mg/L); for masson pine forest: autumn (12.2 mg/ L) > spring (10.7 mg/L) > winter (8.9 mg/L) > summer (7.3 mg/L); and Chinese fir forest: autumn (9.4 mg/L) > summer (8.2 mg/L) > winter (7.2 mg/L) > spring (7.0 mg/L). Profile variability of DOC concentration for slash pine forest: 10 cm (12.7 mg/L) > 20 cm (10.6 mg/L) > 30 cm (8.7 mg/L); masson pine: 20 cm (13.1 mg/L) >10 cm (9.8 mg/L) > 30 cm (5.8 mg/L); and Chinese fir: 20 cm (8.1 mg/L) > 30 cm (8.0 mg/L) >10 cm (7.3 mg/L). The effects of four kinds of treatments on DOC concentration in different forests were compared. Variabilities of DOC concentration in descending order for slash pine were: P fertilization > CK > N+P fertilization > N fertilization; masson pine: CK, N+P fertilization > N fertilization > P fertilization; and Chinese fir:CK > P fertilization > N fertilization, N+P fertilization. This study highlighted the importance of DOC dynamics for the carbon cycle and provided evidence for DOC dynamics in soil of coniferous planted forests under nitrogen deposition in subtropical region.

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    Dynamic of Pinus yunnanensis Forest Resources in Yunnan
    DENG Xi-qing, HUANG Bao-lin, WEN Qing-zhong, HUA Chao-lang, TAO Jing, ZHENG Jin-xuan
    2014, 29 (8):  1411-1419.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.013
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    In order to understand the dynamic change and provide decision basis for sustainable management of Pinus yunnanensis forest resource in Yunnan Province, monitoring data obtained by continuous forest inventory during 1987-2007 was analyzed by applying mathematical statistics and chart analysis methods. Based on the analysis of variation of the forest areas, stock volume, quality and structure, the dynamic variation rule of the forest was revealed with plenty of detailed data from various angles. The result show that the resources of the forest continue to grow during 1987-2007, and the growing rate was increased rapidly during 1997-2002, when the Natural Forest Protection Project had been implemented (the total stock volume of the forest increased from 20462.33×104 m3 to 22243.65×104 m3, which is over 20.57% in five years time). On the same time, however, the percentage of over-mature Pinus yunnanensis forest was relative low and the stock volume of high quality, available resources of the forest continuously decline, and was close to exhaustion. The result also shows that the unit area stock volume of the forest had increased 27.05% in 20 years, while the volume of large or super- large timber showed a descending tendency in this period, especially the percentage of super- large timber decreased from 19.9% to 6.8%, being only the 1/3 of the original. The stock volume of the individual plant in near-mature, mature and over-mature forest fell to 0.22 m3 from 0.77 m3, which indicated that the resources available for logging were decreasing rapidly, and the tendency of poorer quality of timber structure was exacerbated while the general quality of the forest was improved. The age structure of Pinus yunnanensis forest in Yunnan Province show a remarkable characteristic of lowering ages trend, and this highlighted the importance of nursing and scientific management of the forest. The analysis also showed that the variation of dominant utilization types of Pinus yunnanensis forest in 20 years was significantly adverse to the effective management of the forest. The Pinus yunnanensis forest rehabilitated during monitoring period benefited from the protection- oriented policy, however, the management of the forest still presented problems, such as extensive management, randomly regulation of management objective and over-use of mature and over-mature forest resources etc., and the interaction of the above mentioned problems led to the fluctuation of resources quantity, stand quality and the age structure of Pinus yunnanensis forest in Yunnan Province.

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    Study on the Rational Utilization of Pampus argenteus Resources in the East China Sea Region
    LI Jian-sheng, HU Fen, YAN Li-ping
    2014, 29 (8):  1420-1429.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.014
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    Based on the fishery resources monitoring data collected in the East China Sea Region from 2001 to 2010, the present study analyzed the ecological parameters of Pampus argenteus using FISAT software and simulated the Von Bertalanffy growth equation, meanwhile, the inflection point age and the critical age have been discussed, finally, we put forward first capture fork length. The results indicate that the average fork length is 144.14 mm, with the group of dominant 110-170 mm, accounting for 72.83%. The relationship between fork length and body weight was expressed as: W=0.963×10-5L3.207. The growth parameters of Von Bertalanffy equation estimated by ELEFAN were L =267.75 mm, K=0.46, t0=-0.32 a, respectively, and inflection point age and the critical age were 2.21 and 2.46 years respectively. Compared with the data obtained from Pampus argenteus in the East China Sea, value of L∞ has declined from 360 mm to the current 267.75 mm, inflection point age from 4.1 to 2.21, while growth coefficient K is increased from 0.205 to 0.46 since the 1980s, all these shows that the fish stock has been in serious status characterized with limit length reduction, growth speeding up, miniaturization and lower age. The current total death coefficient (Z), natural death coefficient (M) and fishing death coefficient (F) were 1.96, 0.57 and 1.39, the exploitation rate (E) was 0.71. Compared with the conditions of the years 1997-2000, all death coefficient showed a trend of increase significantly. High strength fishing was the main reason for the rise of total mortality rate and exploitation rate. In order to protect Pampus argenteus resources and make full use of fish growth potential, considered first sexual maturity and inflection point and critical age and fishery production status, the first capture fork length should be 164 mm now.
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    The Estimation of Producing Potential of Fuel Ethanol and Its Developing Strategy in China
    FU Chang, WU Fang-wei
    2014, 29 (8):  1430-1440.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.015
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    As a developing country with the highest economic growth rate and the largest population in the world, China's petroleum security situation is far from optimistic at present, and exploiting biofuel such as fuel ethanol to replenish the shortage of petroleum supply is rather urgent. The current production scale of fuel ethanol in China is comparatively low, but has plenty of feedstock to produce fuel ethanol, so it is necessary to evaluate the future producing potential of fuel ethanol thoroughly from all feasible sorts of feedstock in China. According to the technical economic parameters and restriction factors of feasible sorts of feedstock such as energy crops and farming and forest residue, an estimation of ethanol producing potential in the future of China is made in this thesis. And the result shows that the ethanol production potential will rise from 63.64×106 to 118×106 t between 2015 and 2030, and the feasible production capacity can exceed 13.88×106 t, which will sharply remit the petroleum gap between supply and demand if this capacity is realized. Major feasible tactics to increase the production of ethanol in future is as follows: strengthening the evaluation and exploitation of marginal land; promoting large- scale use of energy crops; increasing energy transforming of crop stalk by benefit drive; prolong the industrial chain of forest cutting and process; and using new energy such as methane substitute for fuel wood in rural area.

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    Resources Research Method
    Establishment of Indicators System for Sustainability Assessment of Regional Water Resources Use
    WANG Ren, CHEN Ying, CHEN Xing-wei
    2014, 29 (8):  1441-1452.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1061KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the general methods and steps of establishing the indicators system for sustainability assessment of regional water resources use (ISSAWRU), this paper focused on three steps of revolving around initialization, optimization and evaluation test to establish ISSAWRU. In order to decrease the information of overlapping and interfering of indicators, correlation analysis and Horafa algorithm for attribute reduction of rough set were combined to optimize the initial ISSAWRU. Moreover, the objective evaluation method coupling grey system theory with attribute importance degree computed by rough set was proposed to examine the optimized result. Fujian Province was taken as an example in this research, the initial ISSAWRU which is composed of 30 indicators selecting from four aspects including water resources condition, utilization status, ecological environment and socio- economy, was established based on the theory of sustainable development. Then, the optimized ISSAWRU composed of 12 indicators was obtained through applying correlation analysis and Horafa algorithm. And the data of those indicators are from census database of the first national water conservancy as well as the water resources bulletin and statistical yearbook in Fujian. Finally, the objective evaluation method was applied to evaluate those two indicator systems, and the results showed that the method combined correlation analysis with Horafa algorithm is reliable to optimize ISSAWRU. Additionally, screening repetitive and interferential information can simplify the complexity of indicators system and reduce the computational complexity of followup evaluation. What's more, the evaluation result of optimized ISSAWRU is more scientific and reasonable than that of initial ISSAWRU in this case study of Fujian Province.

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