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Table of Content

    20 January 2014, Volume 29 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Land Use Regulation Zoning for Controlling the Total Amount of Water Pollutants:A Case Study of Wuxi City
    OU Wei-xin, LIAN Peng, PANG Qian
    2014, 29 (1):  1-12.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5328KB) ( )   Save

    With the increasing serious water pollution problems, "water pollution source control" as a most effective approach is needed indeed. Based on the existing research, most methods focus on water body governance and treatment, and seldom integratively consider the water body with regional land use conditions which are actually related to the capability of the water pollutants retention and discharge. This paper aimed to discuss how to integrate water pollution with land use, and find land use regulation zoning method for controlling the water pollution.
    We take Wuxi City as an example for its typical water pollution issues within Taihu watershed, and five steps were taken to fulfill the land use regulation zoning. 1) Employed objective function-entropy method to fairly allocate the total water pollutants for controlling (the allowable discharge amount) in each administration unit—town, and the factors of population, economic, land area and distance of the evaluation unit to the Taihu Lake boundary were involved in this method. 2) Analyzed the effect of land use types on water pollution based on existing research results (the actual discharge amount), and then identified the pollution controlling task amount (the actual discharge amount minus the allowable discharge amount) for each evaluation unit. 3) Evaluated the purification functions of each land cover type based on available literatures. 4) Utilized buffer zone method to classify the sensitivity of pollutants drainage location. 5) Established three-dimensional quadrant analysis method considering the pollution controlling task amount, water purification function and the sensitivity locations, and prioritized the different regulation zones for water pollution control. The results showed that, according to the water pollution regimes, six zones can be classified for different land use regulation policies in the study area. And the limitation pollutants is phosphorus, the central-north of Wuxi and north of Yixing should be regulated strictly in the future.

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    Effect Mechanism Research of Influential Factors of Cultivated Land Use System Security of Black Soil Region in Songnen High Plain:A Case Study of Bayan County in Heilongjiang Province
    SONG Ge, WANG Yue, LEI Guo-ping
    2014, 29 (1):  13-26.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5526KB) ( )   Save
    Cultivated land use system security is the foundation of protecting the health of cultivated land and guaranteeing food supply security. This paper takes Bayan County as an example, to determine the cultivated land use system security effect mechanism with single factors and composite factors, using Matlab programming, adopting Genetic Algorithm to improve Neural Networks, and recognizing the sensitive influential factors of cultivated land use system security by applying Path Analysis. There are two aspects we can conclude from the results. Firstly, analysis of single factors role to the cultivated land use system security indicated the strongest action intensity to system security is soil types, the weakest is altitude. Soil texture, soil types, geomorphological types, available phosphorus, policies and regulations and drainage ability have positive correlations with cultivated land use system security, and can promote system security, and the intensity of soil texture is 0.3133, soil types is 0.6830, geomorphological types is 0.3627, available phosphorus is 0.1189, policies and regulations is 0.2553, drainage ability is 0.1872. Altitude, difference vegetation index (DVI), and water and soil erosion have negative correlations with cultivated land use system security, and can restrain system security, and the intensity of altitude is 0.1046, DVI is 0.2028, water and soil erosion is 0.2877. The factors have different positive and negative correlations and play the roles of promotion and inhibition for the system security. Other influential factors of the cultivated land use system security play a significant part to the system. Secondly, the influential factors have complex constraints relations. The significant effect mechanisms are both single factors and composite factors with different dominant features to the system security. Soil types, geomorphological types and soil texture as natural ecological factors are significant in single mechanism to system security. Policies and regulations and drainage ability as humanistic factors are significant in composite mechanism to system security. Single mechanism as natural ecological factors plays significant part for system security. Composite mechanism as humanistic factors plays significant part for system security.
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    The Research on Economic Development and Carbon Emission Effect of Shenyang
    WANG Li-wen, WEI Ya-xing
    2014, 29 (1):  27-38.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3458KB) ( )   Save
    The status of urban carbon emissions should be correctly understood, and the effective measures for decreasing carbon emissions are further researched to ensure fast urban economic development. They play an important role to promote the sustainable development of urban economy, constitute various environmental economic policy and ensure harmonious development of environment and society. In this paper, based on thermal infrared remote sensing, GIS, and atmospheric diffuse model technology, the simulation precision of spatial distribution of urban carbon emissions was improved. Based on this, Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC), Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI), and System Dynamics (SD) model were separately adopted. The coupling relationship and evolvement trend were analyzed between urban economic development and carbon emissions. The factors making carbon emission concentration change and production effect, structure effect, and intensity effect of carbon emission by city three industries were researched and analyzed through decomposing carbon emissions. Development and evolvement trend between urban economic development and carbon emissions was simulated under two conditions of natural development model and regulation development model. Research result showed: Shenyang carbon emission concentration and per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) fitting curve conformed N type feature during 1989-2008, but the curve presented a decreasing trend after 2008. Shenyang annual carbon emission concentration has already exceeded the turning point. Economic growth was the main factor inducing Shenyang carbon emission concentration raise. The production effect of carbon emission of Shenyang second industry was the biggest during 1999-2010. The intensity effect of three industries has shown the restraining function towards city carbon emission concentration. GDP gross under regulation development model is higher than under natural development model during the period of 2012-2020. Shenyang carbon emission concentration under regulation development model shows a decreasing trend, and urban carbon emission concentration under natural development model is gradually rising during 2013-2020. Regulation management can ensure economy steadily increasing, at the same time it will be availble to restrain Shenyang carbon emission effectively.
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    Resources Economics
    Game Model for River Basin Water Resources Protection Compensation Solved by Ant Colony Algorithm
    XIE Jian-cang, XI Bao-jun, HUANG Jun-ming
    2014, 29 (1):  39-45.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (628KB) ( )   Save
    How to coordinate the interests between basin upstream and basin downstream and achieve harmonious development between basin upstream and basin downstream and maximize the interests of the entire river basin is the principal contradiction in river basin water resources compensation in China. In order to study the protection compensation mechanism of river basin water resources, this paper formulates scientific compensation standard of water protection and promotes reasonable protection and utilization of the river basin water resources. It studies the behavior and interests of the basin upstream and downstream from the perspective of the game theory, then puts forward a basin water resources protection compensation game model of administrative regulation, which is solved optimally by the Ant Colony Algorithm. The model is applied to the Jinjiang River Basin, the results show that when the upstream of Anxi, Dehua, Yongchun and Nan'an (the upper part) provides water to the downstream is 0.87×108m3, 0.75×108m3, 0.85×108m3 and 0.76×108 m3, respectively, it can obtain 0.925×108 yuan, 0.673×108 yuan, 0.949×108 yuan and 1.019× 108 yuan economic compensation, at the same time, the downstream area receives 48.765× 108 yuan benefits, the total benefit in the basin reaches the maximum. A reasonable water supply from the upstream region can significantly improve the interests of the whole basin, the downstream provides reasonable compensation funds for the upstream can make the relationship between upstream and downstream coordinated, narrow the economic and social development gap between the upstream and downstream and promote the harmonious development between the upstream and the downstream. Meanwhile, using Ant Colony Algorithm to solve the model is easy to form computer languages, which brings high computing speed, high efficiency, good convergence performance and the easy way to find the global optimal solution. Through the establishment of administrative regulation game model, the scientific computing of the amount of water transferred and the compensation standard, this paper realizes the benign interaction of water protection among the upstream and downstream, water supply area and intake area. It is of great importance and value to the establishment of protection mechanism of river basin water resources and the promotion of the unified management of river basin water resources.
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    Evaluation and Prospect on the Decoupling Trend of Economic Development and Water Resource Utilization in China
    WU Dan
    2014, 29 (1):  46-54.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1628KB) ( )   Save
    According to the literature research and data collection at home and abroad, the research summary of the decoupling theory and its application in the water resource management is analyzed. Referring to the OECD's system index of the decoupling methodology, the decoupling state between economic development and utilization of water resources in China is given, the system evaluation index of economic development and water resource utilization in China is built, to classify rationally the decoupling status of economic development and water resource utilization, and the decoupling model of economic development and water resource utilization is provided to analyze the decoupling state between economic development and utilization of water resources in China in 1953-2010. Then, the changing state of the amount of water resources and proportions of water consumption for different industries are analyzed comprehensively for the same period, based on the analysis on the decoupling trend of economic development and water resource utilization in China, according to the changing tendency of the population carrying capacities and water consumption after liberation, the decoupling mechanism of economic development and water resource utilization is discussed and analyzed further. The results show, the growth rate of water consumption in different industries is generally in a downward trend after liberation. The growth rate of water consumption is affected by different sectors of agriculture, industry, and domestic water consumption simultaneously. The dependent degree of agricultural water to agricultural development is obviously declining, the dependent degree of industrial water to industrial development is also obviously declining, and the use efficiency of domestic water is obviously increasing. According to the changing trend of water resource utilization, the water demand forecasting of general development with Logistic model is presented, and the changing state of the utilization of water resources with Logistic model in 1998-2030 is given, then, the results of water demand is modified combined with national development planning, and finally, water demand in 2015, 2020 and 2030 is predicted. The results show, the decoupling trend of economic development and water resource utilization in China is still weak, the growth rate of the water demand will decrease acceleratedly in further 10 years with national development planning and government macro-control and market regulation. The feasibility analysis of the decoupling of water resource utilization is carried out, from the angles of socio-politics and economic-technology. The results show, with the gradual improvement of water use efficiency, the growth rate of water demand will be acceleratedly declining in 2011-2020, the amount of water demand is 6282×108-6331.4×108m3 in 2015, 6614×108-6675×108m3 in 2020 and 6678.3×108-6773×108m3 in 2030. The decoupling trend economic development and water resource utilization will be strong absolutely in 2020, and the stage of water consumption will get into the decreased period, then the decoupling status of economic development and water resource utilization will be realized.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Accessibility of A-grade Tourist Attractions in China
    PAN Jing-hu, LI Jun-feng
    2014, 29 (1):  55-66.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (9633KB) ( )   Save
    Scenic spot is a very important carrier of tourism activities. The study of the spatial structure of tourism is receiving increasing attention but methodology so far has used qualitative rather than quantitative methods. The A-grade tourist attraction is a tourist ranking classifiable system with Chinese characteristics and is a national standard of comprehensive evaluation about scenic spot quality and grade in China. Besides the attraction of scenic spots, enhancing accessibility and perfecting infrastructure in scenic spots are very important for their tourism development. Therefore, the research on spatial distribution structure and accessibility of A-grade scenic spots are meaningful. Based on an investigation of 2424 National A-grade tourist attractions and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, such as Nearest Neighbor Index (NNI), Ripley's K function, hot spot clustering, the spatial structure of tourist attractions were investigated, with their characteristics and distribution for different strategies being discussed. Based on matrix raster data covering the whole space, this paper calculates spatial accessibility of all counties in China using cost weighted distance method and ArcGIS as platforms. Then we discuss spatial differences of county accessibility of scenic spots by using ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis). The results show that general scenic spots exhibit an aggregated distribution. Considering the accessibility, we find that the human scenic spots are more centralized. The average accessibility is about 125.88 minutes, and the area where the accessibility of scenic spots is within 90 minutes reaches 60%, while the area where the accessibility is within 30 minutes accounts for 26.65% and the longest time needs 1260 minutes which is located at central Tibetan Plateau. Distribution of the accessibility has pointed to traffic line. At county level, the estimated values of Moran's I is positive numbers using analysis of spatial association. All the test results indicate that tourist attractions and adjacent areas show strong positive correlation. Distribution of hot spots regarding the accessibility shows an obvious hot spots-sub-hotspots-sub-cold spots-cold spots zonal distribution pattern from east to west. Cold spots are distributed in the border zone of Tibet, Xinjiang and Qinghai. On the basis of the above results, we identify five factors which impact the spatial structure and accessibility of scenic spots: natural environment, economic development, traffic condition, population and rating system. Finally, some recommendations are given for optimization of the spatial structure of scenic spots, involving quickening the development of edge district's tourism, coordinating the development of the tourism industry for each region, and enhancing basic infrastructure of transportation especially that of the provincial border-regions.
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    The Development Characteristics and Formation Process of Biological Soil Crusts in Wind-Water Erosion Crisscross Region, Northern Shaanxi Province, China
    LI Jin-feng, MENG Jie, YE Jing, YUAN Fang, BU Chong-feng
    2014, 29 (1):  67-79.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (20515KB) ( )   Save
    The formation, development and ecological functions of biological soil crusts (BSCs) are characterized by significant temporal and spatial differences, results of many researches from the desert region can not be directly deduced in the Loess Plateau Area. To study the formation process and developmental characteristics of BSCs in the Loess Plateau is not only an important complement to the global cognition of BSCs, but also the precondition to reveal its ecological functions. Selecting typical small watershed (Liudaogou) in the Loess Plateau as a case, this study explores the developmental characteristics of BSCs by positioned dynamic observation, comprehensive investigation and estimation. The results showed as follows: 1) BSCs in Liudaogou watershed experienced a development process of bare farmland-physical crust-biological soil crusts. Physical crust rapidly formed in the first year of farmland abandonment; in the second year, moss-dominated crust developed obviously, and the soil color became apparently darker than before. Moss crust dominated absolutely in the watershed, and its coverage was up to 90% when it developed into a stable stage (>15 years). 2) Years of development had a significant impact on the composition and amounts of species of BSCs. In the initial development stage (<6 years) of BSCs, bryophytes had 5 species under 4 genera belonging to 2 families, of which Aloina rigida (Hedw.) Limpr. and Aloina brevirostris (Hook. & Grev.) Kindb mosses both were the pioneer species. In the stable stage (>15 years) of BSCs, bryophytes had 13 species under 8 genera belonging to 2 families, of which the family Pottiaceae had 6 genera with 8 species, and the dominant species were Didymodon constrictus (Mitt.) Saito, Didymodon nigrescens (Mitt.) Saito and D. rigidulus Headw var ditrichoides (Hedw.) Zand. In addition, in the initial stage (<6 years), 26 families of algae including 50 species under 35 genera were identified in BSCs. 3) Rainy season with warm weather was a critical period of BSCs formation. The thickness of BSCs developed 2 years reached 6.3 mm, which exceeded the stable depth of crust (9.8-11.8 mm) by 50% and the shear strength of BSCs was about 30 kPa. In the initial stage (<6 years), bulk density showed no significant change (1.40-1.43 g ·cm-3), but it reduced to 1.0 to 1.3 g ·cm-3 when development of BSCs went into the stable stage. The formation process of BSCs in this area was similar to that in desert region, but the rate of development is faster and the period to stabilization is shorter. The composition of algae, moss and their dominated species (Leptolyngbya foveolara, Didymodon constrictus (Mitt.) Saito) was apparently different from those in desert region.
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    Variation Trend of Precipitation in the Pearl River Basin in Recent 50 Years
    LU Wen-xiu, LIU Bing-jun, CHEN Jun-fan, CHEN Xiao-hong
    2014, 29 (1):  80-90.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3267KB) ( )   Save
    Influenced by intensifying human activities and constant changes of global climate, hydrological factors of the Pearl River Basin have been changed significantly. By using the Mann-Kendall trend test method and the sequential cluster analysis, this paper systematically analyzed the trends and mutation of the 16 precipitation indices in the Pearl River Basin. Results indicate that: 1) In the Pearl River Basin, the annual total precipitation, the total precipitations in spring and winter increase faintly, while the precipitation amount in autumn shows a stable decreasing trend. Besides, the precipitation amount in summer does not indicate a significant changing tendency. Meanwhile, the trends of precipitation amount in summer have the greatest impacts on the spatial distribution of the annual total precipitation variations. Additionally, the precipitation amount trend in spring takes the second place, which followed by the precipitation amount trends in autumn and winter. 2) There is a slight increase in the proportions of spring and winter precipitation to annual precipitation, while decreasing trends are found in the proportions of summer and autumn precipitation to annual precipitation in the Pearl River Basin. 3) In the Pearl River Basin, the total numbers of annual rainy days and light rainy days are decreasing significantly, however, the downfall days, torrential rainy days and the 95% percentile of the rainy days distributions tend to increase. Moreover, the significant tendency of light rainy days, torrential rainy days and the 95% percentile of the rainy days distributions have mutations in the early 1990s. 4) In the Pearl River Basin, the mean daily precipitation intensity is increasing stably, and precipitation period is centralizing, which can easily trigger occurrence of floods and droughts.
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    Characteristics of Air Temperature and Ground Temperature in Alxa Left Banner from 1961 to 2010
    CHEN Chao, ZHOU Guang-sheng
    2014, 29 (1):  91-103.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1281KB) ( )   Save
    Lots of studies have focused on characteristics of air temperature, however, few studies have been done on characteristics of ground temperature and its relationship with air temperature. As a case study, the characteristics of ground temperature and its relationship with air temperature in arid region including variation trend, abrupt change, anomalous years of annual and seasonal mean air temperature and mean ground temperature are analyzed, based on the data of monthly mean air temperature and monthly mean ground temperature at 0-80 cm soil depths in Alxa weather station from 1961 to 2010, together with modern statistical diagnostic methods including the linear trend analysis, accumulated variance and signal-noise ratio. The results showed that there were good correlations between ground temperature at different depths and air temperature. Compared with annual mean temperature, annual ground temperature at 5-80 cm depths was higher and had a rising trend with the increase of the soil depth. The annual and seasonal mean air temperature and mean ground temperature displayed a significant increasing trend in recent 50 years, but the rise of mean air temperature and mean ground temperature was asymmetric. The ascending rate and range of annual mean air temperature were higher than changes of annual mean ground temperature at 5-80 cm depths. The ascending rates of air temperature, ground temperature at 0 cm and 80 cm were most obvious in winter, and the most significant increase of 5-40 cm ground temperature happened in spring. The mean ground temperature had a decreasing trend with the increase of the soil depth in both spring and summer. The air temperature was lower than 0-40 cm ground temperature and higher than 80 cm ground temperature in spring, and the air temperature was lower than 0-20 cm ground temperature and higher than 40-80 cm ground temperature in summer. The mean ground temperature had a rising trend with the increase of the soil depth in autumn and winter. The air temperature was lower than ground temperature at different depths in autumn, and the air temperature was higher than 0 cm ground temperature while lower than ground temperature at other layers in winter. Under global warming, the responses of annual, summer, autumn and winter air temperature to climate change were more significant than ground temperatures at different depths, while the responses of ground temperature at different depths to climate change were more significant than air temperature in spring. The difference between annual ground temperature at 5-80 cm depths and annual air temperature was reduced by 0.3-0.8℃ in recent 50 years, and the reducing amplitude of difference between annual mean ground temperature at 5-80 cm depths and annual mean air temperature decreased with the increase of the soil depth. The abrupt changes of annual mean air and ground temperatures at different depths occurred mainly in the 1980s and the 1990s, but no abrupt change in four seasons. The anomalous years of air temperature and ground temperatures at different depths were relatively consistent in four seasons, but there were less consistent of anomalous years between annual air and ground temperatures at different depths.
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    Study of Surface Dry and Wet Conditions in Southwest China in Recent 50 Years
    SU Xiu-cheng, WANG Lei, LI Qi-lin, TENG Chao
    2014, 29 (1):  104-116.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6915KB) ( )   Save
    Using the monthly measurements during 1961 to 2011 of 113 meteorological stations in Southwest China, the potential evapotranspiration and aridity index were calculated with the Penman-Monteith model and then the characteristics of spatial-temporal change of surface dry and wet conditions in Southwest China in recent 50 years are discussed. The results show that the dry and wet conditions in Southwest China are spatially uneven with a characteristic named "humid east and arid west" while they are moist as a whole. The climate dry and wet conditions tend to be hotter and drier in this area in recent 50 years and are growing more serious in the last 12 years. The climate dry and wet condition of summer is the moistest in four seasons while it is the driest in winter. There are two time points where the climate dry and wet conditions changed abruptly in Southwest China in the past 50 years. One is around 1992 when it tends to be moist and the other is around 2002 when it becomes dryer instead of moister. Precipitation plays a dominant role in the climate dry and wet conditions of Southwest China region meanwhile the factors such as sunshine duration and relative humidity also have a significant impact on them.
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    Diurnal Variation of 500 hPa Zonal Wind in Summer over the Tibetan Plateau and Analysis of Its Impact
    ZHU Li-hua, FAN Guang-zhou, ZHOU Ding-wen
    2014, 29 (1):  117-128.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (7841KB) ( )   Save
    Using the linear-trend estimate, composition and correlation analysis, the diurnal variability of the 500 hPa zonal wind in summer over the Tibetan Plateau and its impact are examined, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis and the twice-daily precipitation data from 142 stations in China. The results reveal that: 500 hPa zonal wind at day and night in summer over the Tibetan Plateau overall show a decreasing trend since 1950, and it is more notable at night. The daily range of zonal wind show a decreasing trend. Zonal winds at day and night over the Tibetan Plateau all have a pronounced abrupt weakening occuring in 1967. The diurnal changes of zonal wind over the Tibetan Plateau have pronounced abrupt reduction occuring in 1965 and greater occuring in 1975. The diurnal change of zonal wind presents the periods about 4-6 years and 16-23 years. When the zonal wind is abnormal, anomalous ascending or descending flow are found at the east flank of the plateau and areas east of it. When the zonal wind decreases, less precipitation happens in areas north of the Yangtze River, while more precipitation happens in areas south of it. The diurnal variation of response of precipitation to anomalous zonal wind over the Tibetan Plateau is mainly in diurnal variation of the anomalous precipitation over the eastern and the western Sichuan Basin.
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    Characteristics and Driving Factors of Runoff and Sediment Changes Fluxes into the Dongting Lake from Three Outlets in Jingjiang River during Past 60 Years
    HU Guang-wei, MAO De-hua, LI Zheng-zui, ZENG Yi, FENG Chang
    2014, 29 (1):  129-142.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5970KB) ( )   Save
    In order to find out the evolution characteristics of annual runoff and sediment of the three outlets in the Jingjiang River, Mann-Kendall trend, mean difference t-test and wavelet analysis were used in this paper to systematically analyze the long time sequence of annual runoff and sediment of the three outlets (Songzikou, Taipingkou and Ouchikou) in Jingjiang River into the Dongting Lake during 1951-2011. On the basis of identifying the law of runoff and sediment process of the three outlets, this paper probed into the reasons for the variation of the annual runoff and sediment and the influencing mechanism of the Jingjiang River. The result shows: 1) The overall runoff and sediment quantity of the three outlets in Jingjiang River presented a trend of reducing. Annual runoff and sediment evolution process of the three outlets had distinct stages. The shedding sediment of the three outlets into the lake reduced, and the sediment deposition of the Dongting Lake reduced accordingly, which has a positive role to reduce lake sediment deposition. The flow mutation point of the three outlets occurred in the 1960s and the 1970s, and sediment mutation point occurred in the 1950s, since then the runoff and sediment of the three outlets had always shown a significant decreasing trend. 2) M-K trend analysis and average variance t-test indicated in terms of runoff changes: the runoff mutation point of Yichang station occurred in 1969 and 2003; the runoff mutation point of Songzikou occurred in 1969 and 1981; the runoff mutation point of Taipingkou occurred in 1962 and 1976; the runoff mutation point of Ouchikou occurred in 1963 and 1964. As for sediment changes: the sediment discharge fluctuates significantly, and has shown an extremely significant decreasing trend since 1996; the sediment discharge of the three outlets had declined significantly in the past 60 years, and the sediment mutation occurred in the 1950s. In the case of wavelet analysis: the runoff and sediment evolution of the Taipingkou and Ouchikou had the same periodicity, all being 31 years in periodic change. The runoff and sediment changes at Songzikou and Yichang stations have the same cycle respectively, being 16 years and 33 years in periodic change. 3) Human factor has accelerated reducing trend of runoff and sediment of the three outlets of the Jingjiang River, but it is not the root reason for the runoff and sediment evolution mutations.
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    Analysis on the Hydrochemical Characteristics in the Upper Reaches of Urumqi River Basin, Eastern Tianshan
    FENG Fang, FENG Qi, LI Zhong-qin, LIU Wei, JIN Shuang
    2014, 29 (1):  143-155.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (8320KB) ( )   Save
    The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical composition and evolution of runoff in the upper reaches of the Urumqi River Basin, eastern Tianshan. The 2-year continuous runoff samples were analyzed for major cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, and K+) and anions ( HCO3-, SO42-, NO3- and Cl-), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) at six hydrological stations during 2006 and 2007. The results revealed that calcium was the dominant cation, while bicarbonate and sulphate were the dominant anions, and the mean pH was slightly alkaline in 2006 and 2007 at all locations. The order for the mean of TDS and EC was Zongkong > Glacial No. 1 > Kongbingdou station at the headwaters region, and the peak values at Glacier No. 1 station was the highest with a large amplitude. From the Piper trilinear nomograph, we concluded that the formation process of runoff in the upper reaches of the Urumqi River Basin existed similarity principles. Based on the results of Gibbs distribution pattern and the ion ratios, this paper further explored that the main processes were carbonate weathering, pyrite weathering and feldspar weathering in rocks, and Ca2+ and HCO3- were the dominant cation and anion during the carbonate weathering process. The ratios of Mg2+ and SO42- ion concentrations were increased along the upstream to downstream indicating that the contribution rate of mineral oxidation of pyrite was increased gradually in the evolution process of the river.
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    Study on Human-Water Harmony Evaluation in Baoji City
    KANG Yan, CAI Huan-jie, SONG Song-bai
    2014, 29 (1):  156-165.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (962KB) ( )   Save
    The paper selects Baoji city as a research area, sets up the assessment index system, index assessment standards and the evaluation models to assess human-water harmony degree. To begin with the concept of human-water harmony, the authors establish a set of indicators with capacity to evaluate human-water harmony. Employing the opposites and unity variable fuzzy set theory and cooperation game theory, a variable fuzzy set model based on cooperation game weight is established to describe comprehensive development degree of human-water system. The coordination exponent model describes the mutual coordination relationship of water system and human system. Then the information entropy coordination degree model is proposed to assess the coordination degree of complex human-water system. Based on the data of comprehensive development degree and coordination degree of complex human-water system, the paper derives harmony degree assessment model. The proposed models are applied to assess the human-water harmony degree from the year 2001 to 2010 in Baoji city, and the lowest harmony degree value is 0.631 in 2002 and the highest harmony degree value is 0.833 in 2009. In general, the harmony degree shows a slow increasing trend in the past 10 years, which indicates water system and human system in Baoji city is becoming more and more harmonious. Assessment results are similar by comparing with the results from the fuzzy matter-element evaluation model, and the results show that the harmony degrees are in grade Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ, which confirm the feasibility of the models and reliability of results. It also indicates that the research on the evaluation index system and models in this paper provides a practicable and operable method for assessing human-water harmony.
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    Water Resources Cognitive Analysis Based on Gird-Group Culture Theory:A Case Study of Farmers in Ganzhou District in the Middle Reach of Heihe River
    YIN Xiao-juan, ZHONG Fang-lei, XU Zhong-min
    2014, 29 (1):  166-176.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2369KB) ( )   Save
    Different stakeholders in water policy hold different views, which can lead to different economic actions and attitudes by influencing individual decision-making process. Researching human factors in water resources management and identifying diverse perceptions of water are important. These works can improve understanding and communication among people, and provide decision support for public participation in water management. The grid-group culture theory of social anthropology divide people into four types—the hierarchist, egalitarian, individualist and fatalist, which actually gives a framework for better understanding of different cognitions of water. In this article, we chose a typical area of water-saving society Ganzhou district as a research object, designed questionnaires and conducted a field survey to get data. The proportions of cultural types of farmers in Ganzhou district were assessed by grid-group culture theory. In order to validate the coherence of cultural types and appropriate strategy of water management, we used crosstab to analyze the correlation between different cultural types and varied water resources perceptions. The results show that, people most agree with bias of hierarchical, which account for 48% of the survey sample. Followed by egalitarian and individualist, which are 28% and 20.7% respectively. Fatalist account for only 3.3%. Cultural types have a significant corresponding with views of water price policy, water availability and artificial groundwater recharge (Approx. Sig<0.05), and have a relatively corresponding with artificial surface reservoirs and water trade (Approx. Sig<0.1). Hierarchist and egalitarian matched their own water resource cognitives well. There are 53%-79% of hierarchist selected views of hierarchical in water-conserving technology, water availability, artificial groundwater recharge, artificial surface reservoirs, water trade, hydrological cycle, water quality evaluation and wastewater policy. And 37%-72% of egalitarian chose opinions of egalitarian in water demand, water price policy, water scarcity, groundwater use and public water supply. The results validate the application of grid-group culture theory in the inland basin of China. Finally, it is suggested that concerning cultural differences among individuals is significant for making and implementing water resource management policy.
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    Comprehensive Discussion
    Progress in Lake Tourism Research and Enlightenment
    LU Lin, YU Hu
    2014, 29 (1):  177-188.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.01.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (924KB) ( )   Save
    The theoretical research of lake tourism lags behind the development of its practice, which is in lack of systematic, pertinent research. Its concept system has not been set up and perfected, and the research framework has not been formed. The paper, by adopting the methods of literature analysis and systematic induction, analyzed progress in the study about lake tourism at home and abroad. The result shows that, the foci of the study include the following topics: the resources evaluation and development of lake tourism, lake tourism perception, lake tourism planning and management, tourists' spatial behavior, tourism market, the evolution of lake tourism destinations and the influence of lake tourism. Obvious theoretical and stage characteristics have not been appeared in relevant research at home and abroad, however, there exist greater differences in research time, content and method. International study started about in the 1980s, the content focused on lake tourism perception, planning and management, tourist spatial behavior, tourist market and tourism environmental impact. The special attention was paid to lake tourist and lake tourism impact study. The research field and method are diverse. The domestic research data obtained from the 1990s, which focused on resources evaluation and development research, planning and management, some involving in tourism perception and tourist destination evolution. The key field tends to be relatively simple case analysis which takes the lakes as the background with a single research method. From the situation of lake tourism development and its study status, this paper proposes the following work of lake tourism research, namely, strengthening the functional process and mechanism research of the new development elements, enhancing the study of human-land relationship areal system in lake tourism destination under the condition of tourism development and emphasizing the research of lake tourism destination management under the condition of basin scale. Meanwhile, we should refer to and absorb the beneficial experience and achievements of international lake tourism development and research.
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