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Table of Content

    20 October 2013, Volume 28 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Air Pollution in Chinese Cities: Does Enforcement of Environmental Regulations Matter?
    HE Can-fei, ZHANG Teng, YANG Sheng-lang
    2013, 28 (10):  1651-1663.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4057KB) ( )   Save
    Air quality degradation has been one of the most urgent environmental problems in urban China. Existing literature explores the relationship between air pollution and economic development under the framework of EKC and stresses the importance of triple effects of technological, structural and scale effects. With the context of regional decentralization in China, institutions may play a critical role in China's environmental degradation. This paper argues the enforcement of environmental regulations matter for urban air quality and proposes that the capability to enforce, pressure to enforce and resistance to enforce may shed some light on the extent of urban industrial pollution controlling for other factors. Using Air Pollution Index data during 2001-2011, this paper finds overall improvement of urban air quality in China but significant inter-city and inter-seasonal variations. Some cities have witnessed constantly air quality reduction. Based on an unbalanced panel data regression model, this study confirms that lack of capability and strong resistances to enforce environmental regulations do have contributed to the environmental deterioration. Social pressure may not be able to help improve urban air quality in China currently. The findings indicate that a new institutional framework is needed to systematically curb China's environmental issue.
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    Analysis of China’s Carbon Emission Growth:Drive Factors and Its Contribution
    HAO Zhen-zhen, LI Jian
    2013, 28 (10):  1664-1673.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2631KB) ( )   Save
    Abstract:Kaya Identity is extended by adding several variables based on China's actual situation, such as economic efficiency factor, energy efficiency factor, sector contribution factor and carbon intensity factor. A model of drive factor for carbon emission growth (DFMCE) is proposed in this paper. The model of DFMCE is used to analyze the drive factors of CO2 emissions in different sectors in China. Four stages are divided in this paper, which is Steady Growth Stage, Slow Decrease Stage, Rapid Growth Stage, and Slow Growth Stage. The drive factor for CO2 emissions of several sectors in China are analyzed and calculated in four stages during 1990-2010 by DFMCE. The result shows that: 1) Economic effect factor is the major positive factor for the growth of CO2 emissions in each sector during 1990-2010, meanwhile energy efficiency factor and carbon intensity factor are the major negative factors. 2) There is a strong relationship between CO2 emissions and economic development. The CO2 emissions reduced rapidly which will affect the level of economic development and the living standards of the people. The balance of CO2 emissions and economic development should be considered when policies are made. 3) Energy efficiency factor and industrial structure factor are the major drive for CO2 emission reduction or slowdown in Slow Decrease Stage and Slow Growth Stage. 4) The adjustment of industrial structure does not demonstrate the validity of CO2 emission reduction in the short term according to the actual situation, but the long term is.
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    Study on Public Administration of Meihuashan National Nature Reserve in Fujian
    CHEN Chuan-ming
    2013, 28 (10):  1674-1684.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (10023KB) ( )   Save
    The establishment of nature reserves plays an important role to improve regional ecological environment, protect biodiversity and safeguard national ecological security, so how to effectively manage nature reserves is a common concern of the nature reserve decision-maker, community and researchers. Using some methods such as questionnaire investigation, experts consultation and stakeholder analysis, this paper analyze management stake-holder of Meihuashan National Nature Reserve and explores the public administration research on Fujian Meihuashan National Nature Reserve from public administration frame design and mode selection. The research results showed that the stake-holder was classified into core layer, compact layer and peripheral layer, the stake-holder of core layer includes government, local community, non-government organizations, enterprise and tourism company which has an important role in the management of Meihuashan National Nature Reserve. The government has high influence, low interests/high public welfare and pursues ecological benefit. The local community has high influence, high interests and pursues economic benefit. The non-government organizations have low influence, high public welfare and pursues social benefit. The enterprise and tourism company have low influence, high interests and pursue economic benefit. According to stake-holder analysis, centering around ecological, social and economic benefits, the frame design and mode selection of public administration research on Fujian Meihuashan National Nature Reserve was carried out, the government is mainly responsible for managing ecological benefit of Fujian Meihuashan National Nature Reserve, the non-government organizations manage the social benefit under the guidance of government, and the enterprise, tourism company and community jointly manage the economic benefit under the guidance of government.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Synchronous-asynchronous Encounter Probability Analysis on Precipitation in the Haihe River Basin during the Last Five Decades
    WANG Zhong-gen, LUO Yu-zhou, WU Meng-ying, ZHAO Ling-ling
    2013, 28 (10):  1685-1693.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4885KB) ( )   Save
    The rapid growths of population and economy in the Haihe River Basin imposed an urgent challenge to the regional sustainability of water resources. Flood utilization has recognized as an effective practice to mitigate the water crisis in this area. The capacity and implementation of flood utilization rely on an analysis of encounter probability of precipitations between different areas of the basin. This paper presents the results of encounter probability analysis on precipitation in the Haihe River Basin. Data analysis was based on monthly precipitation measurements from 39 weather stations in the study area during 1951-2008. The measurements were spatially grouped into four sub-regions by north/south watersheds and their plain/mountain portions, i.e., plain area of north watersheds, mountain area of north watersheds, plain area of south watersheds, and mountain area of south watersheds. Copula function was applied in this study to determine the joint distribution of precipitations between the four sub-regions, and derive the corresponding probabilities of synchronous-asynchronous encounter. Analysis results indicated that all the four sub-regions in the Haihe River Basin were mainly controlled by the same climate pattern. In either north or south watersheds, the synchronous encounter probabilities of precipitation between plain and mountain sub-regions were higher than 20%, while relatively higher probability was observed for the synchronous encounter of lower precipitation (25% and 31% for north and south watersheds, respectively). In addition, the asynchronous probabilities of precipitation between plain and mountain portions within a watershed were less than 6% , indicating a poor complementarity for the diversion of water resources. However, the asynchronous probabilities of precipitation between plain and mountain sub-regions in different watersheds were>9%. From the viewpoint of the whole basin, this study suggested that water diversion between the north and south watersheds may facilitate the flood utilization in the Haihe River Basin.
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    Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Droughts Based on Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) in Inner Mongolia during 1981-2010
    ZHOU Yang, LI Ning, JI Zhong-hui, GU Xiao-tian, FAN Bi-hang
    2013, 28 (10):  1694-1706.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (13799KB) ( )   Save
    The evolution characteristics of the annual and seasonal frequency, intensity and coverage of drought in the Inner Mongolia region for the past 30 years were analyzed based on the standardized precipitation index (SPI) as a drought index with the data of monthly precipitation of 47 ground meteorological stations during the period from 1981 to 2010. The drought coverage is defined as a ratio that the number of drought occurrence stations occupies the total observed stations. Results show that the trends of the annual, fall and winter drought intensity were not obvious over the past 30 years, while the trends in spring and summer increased significantly. The drought intensity at the annual and seasonal scales exhibited a mild level over the past 30 years. The drought coverage appeared as the features of the local and regional drought at the seasonal and annual scales. The northeastern Inner Mongolia, Hulunbeier, is a region where the annual drought, moderate, heavy and severe drought are all most likely to occur, and should pay special attention to it in order to reduce the damage, while the frequency of drought occurrence in the western Alashan League is relatively low. From the perspective of seasonal scale, the frequency of drought occurrence in spring and winter demonstrated consistency, including the level of moderate, heavy and severe drought. That is, the frequency of drought occurrence in the western and southeastern Inner Mongolia was low, while the eastern, central, and northern parts were relatively high. These findings provide valuable insights into the drought monitoring, early warning and drought disaster mitigation project in the context of global climate change.
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    Responses of Temperature Change in Guangxi to Global Warming during 1961-2010
    WANG Ying, SU Yong-xiu, LI Zheng
    2013, 28 (10):  1707-1717.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (18032KB) ( )   Save
    The spatial and temporal variation characteristics of temperature were analyzed by using GIS technique, climatic inclination rate and Mann-Kendall catastrophe test, based on the annual average temperature, annual extreme maximum and minimum temperature of 88 meteorological stations in Guangxi from 196l to 2010. Under the global warming, the annual average temperature, annual extreme maximum and minimum temperature in Guangxi had an increasing trend, and the climate inclination rate of annual average temperature and extreme minimum temperature reached a significant level; the abrupt change of annual average temperature and extreme maximum temperature occurred about 20 years later than the extreme minimum temperature's abrupt changes. Asymmetric changes were observed in the annual extreme maximum and minimum temperature. The spatial and temporal variation distribution showed that: regional average ignored the differences in the area, even though nearly 50 years the overall change of regional average temperature is rising, yet the temperature in different areas and periods had differences in trend and range.
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    The Characteristics of Wind Speed Variation at Different Altitudes of Boundary Layer in Heilongjiang Province
    YU Hong-min, REN Guo-yu, LIU Yu-lian
    2013, 28 (10):  1718-1730.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2674KB) ( )   Save
    Using the data of upper air and surface wind speed observed from Harbin, Nenjiang, Qiqihar and Yichun of Heilongjiang Province, from 1961 to 2010, the characteristics of variation of wind speed in boundary layers are analyzed. The following conclusions are drawn: 1) The annual mean wind speed increases with height from the ground to 900 m, and the distribution of wind speed at different time of the year has obvious characteristics of seasonal variation, with the maximum in springtime and the minimum in wintertime at near-surface layer, and the minimum in summertime at the remaining height layers; the maximum wind speed vertical increasing rate appears between 10 m and 300 m. 2) In 1961-2010, the largest mean wind speed at 10 m height is in the 1970s, and gradually decreases from the 1970s to the 2000s, with the smallest value occurring in the 2000s; at 300 m, 600 m, 900 m heights, the largest mean wind speed is in the 1980s, and wind speed gradually reduces from the 1980s to the 2000s, with the smallest value being in the 1960s at 300 m and in the 1970s at 600 m and 900 m. 3) During 1961- 2010, the mean wind speed at 10 m is weakening and the diminishing rate is 0.162 m/(s· 10a), and the trend occurs mainly after the 1970s. At 300 m, 600 m and 900 m, the mean wind speed trends are not significant. 4) It seems that the significant slowdown trends of the surface wind speed in Heilongjiang Province is mostly caused by the fast urbanization and the change of observational environment.
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    The Hydrological Drought Analysis of the Karst Basin Based on the Soil Systematic Structure—Taking Guizhou Province as a Case
    HE Zhong-hua, CHEN Xiao-xiang, LIANG Hong, HUANG Fa-su, ZHAO Fang
    2013, 28 (10):  1731-1742.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4839KB) ( )   Save
    Drought is a global widespread occurring natural phenomenon, but karst basins hydrological drought can not be simply due to the climate anomalied, the precipitation reduced. This paper will extract remote sensing information of the soil type, the soil relative coverage, the soil relative roughness, and the soil relative humidity through using the object-oriented classification techniques. From the relationship between the soil systematic structure and the soil systematic function, this paper analyzes the impacts of the single-factor of the soil single factor, two-factor coupled of the soil single factor, and the soil multi-factors coupled to hydrological droughts. Studies have shown that: 1) The impacts of the single-factor of soil single factor on hydrological droughts are the reflections of the impacts of the soil channel on the soil runoff of precipitations. 2)The impact of soil single factor on hydrological droughts is the combined result of the full-factor of soil single factor influences the hydrological drought. Descending order (single factor) of the four soil factors affects the hydrological droughts, soil relative roughness (0.968)>soil relative coverage (0.560)> soil relative humidity (0.558)>soil types (0.464). 3)The impacts of the multi-factor coupled on hydrological droughts are the comprehensive reflections of the impact of the soil coupled-channel on the soil runoff of precipitations. Descending order of the coupled-factors affectting the hydrological drought(two-factor coupled): soil relative roughness×soil relative humidity (0.969)>soil relative coverage × soil relative humidity (0.560)>soil types × soil relative coverage, soil types × soil relative humidity (0.464)>soil relative coverage × soil relative roughness (0.441)>soil types×soil relative roughness (0.362); the three-factor coupled: soil types× soil relative coverage×soil relative humidity (0.672)>soil relative coverage×soil relative roughness×soil relative humidity (0.560)>soil types×soil relative roughness×soil relative humidity (0.533)>soil types×soil relative coverage×soil relative roughness (0.456); the four-factor coupled: soil types×soil relative coverage×soil relative roughness×soil relative humidity (0.464). Results of the study revealed the driving mechanism of hydrological droughts,and provides a theoretical foundation for the water resources using in karst regions.
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    Vegetation’s Ecological Water Requirement in Yongding River Watershed in Shanxi Province
    WANG Gai-ling, WANG Qing-chu, SHI Sheng-xin
    2013, 28 (10):  1743-1753.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6383KB) ( )   Save
    The Yongding River is one of the seven major river systems in Haihe Watershed and an important branch of the Guanting Reservoir. Since the 1980s, along with the increase of population, economic development and city size's expansion in the upper reaches, increasing water consumption of production and living occupied eco-water requirement greatly. This lead to soil erosion and vegetation degradation in the upper reaches, but also accelerated the Guanting Reservoir sedimentation. For further understanding water usage and hydrologic process in this region so that the vegetation eco-water requirement could be met as far as possible and eco-environmental construction in this area be promoted, this paper performed a study on vegetation eco-water requirement in the Yongding River watershed of Shanxi Province, which is located in the upper reaches of the Yongding River. Based on the data from 17 meteorological stations in the Yongding River watershed of Shanxi Province and neighboring area from 1957 to 2000, vegetation's eco-water requirement in the watershed was estimated by applying agricultural theory and using GIS. In addition, its change characteristics of different vegetation types, different administrative districts and growth periods were analyzed as well. Also, eco-water surplus/scarity was analyzed by applying water balance theory and combining eco-water requirement and rainfall. The results showed that: 1)The minimum eco-water requirement in the study area is 1628.5×106 m3, the corresponding surplus is 653.5×106 m3, the suitable eco-water requirement is 2709.5×106 m3 and the corresponding scarcity is 427.5×106 m3. 2) There is no eco-water scarcity for grass, shrub and forest compared with the minimum eco-water requirement; there is eco-water scarcity for forest and shrub in some area compared with suitable eco-water requirement. 3) The areas with relatively serious eco-water scarce problem are mainly located in Datong, Pinglu, Huairen, concentrating in April to June.
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    The Asynchronous Phenomenon and Relative Efficiency of Tourism Resources in China: Taking the 31 Provinces’Panel Data from 2001 to 2009 for an Example
    FANG Ye-lin, HUANG Zhen-fang, ZHANG Hong, PENG Qian, LU Wei-ting
    2013, 28 (10):  1754-1764.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1677KB) ( )   Save
    Take the 31 provinces'panel data from 2001 to 2009 for an example, firstly, this article uses the method of entropy to evaluate regional tourism resources endowment; secondly, combined with regional tourism revenue, it constructs the asynchronous index and quantitatively evaluates every area's "asynchronous (curse) phenomenon" about tourism resource; finally, based on the evaluation of every region's relative efficiency of tourism resources, together with the ranking between total efficiency of tourism resources and asynchronous index, it provides some suggestions for the development of tourism resources of every region in the future. The results show that: the mainland tourism resources has some asynchronous phenomenon, the positive asynchronous phenomenon mainly occurs in the east (Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin region); the negative asynchronous phenomenon mainly occurs in the middle and west. Generally speaking, the economic value of provincial tourism resources has not been fully utilized, there is certain degree of idleness and waste of tourism resources. From the perspective of driven mechanism of tourism efficiency in every region, the total efficiency of tourism resource in the east is mainly driven by pure technology efficiency; the total efficiency of tourism resources in the west is mainly driven by scale efficiency. The scale return is on the reduced state. In addition to some provinces, the ranking of provincial total efficiency and asynchronous index has a strong positive correlation; the difference in relative efficiency of provincial tourism resources is the main reason that leads to the phenomenon of asynchronous index. Constrained by the selected indicators and research methods, this study still has some limitations. For one thing, what has been calculated in this paper is a relative efficiency, and the result is just a ratio, which can not fully reflect the actual efficiency of tourism resources; for another, this study only chooses the data from 2000 to 2009, other years whether accord with this still need future examination. However, the conclusions of this study basically conform to the reality. We should advocate the connotation type of development in the future. The development of tourism resources in the east should increase the investment of technology, capital, talents, etc., promoting the inclusive growth model; the development of tourism resources in the middle and west should not only increase tourism infrastructure investment, but also avoid blinding to pursue the amount, it should adjust the industrial structure, and transform the growth pattern in the future.
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    Resources Research Methods
    The Applicability Assessment of Hydrological Models with Different Resolution and Database in the Huaihe River Basin, China
    GAO Chao, LIU Qing, SU Bu-da, ZHAI Jian-qing, HU Chun-sheng
    2013, 28 (10):  1765-1777.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (10593KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper,the applicability of three hydrological models, including artificial neural network (ANN) model, Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning-D (HBV-D) model and Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM), are examined at different temporalspatial scales and databases in the Huaihe River basin which is above the Bengbu hydrological gauging station. It is found that ANN model only needs monthly data to build rainfall-runoff relationship and can obtain well simulation results, but HBV-D and SWIM models require data on daily scale such as daily precipitation, daily temperature and daily runoff. SWIM model even requires crop management data, nutrient data, soil erosion data etc. In addition, on spatial scale, the applicability of ANN model is adequate to large-scale basin, SWIM model may only be suitable for small-scale basin with an area of less than 10000 km2, and HBV-D model can apply to a basin of about 10000 km2. Furthermore, according to simulation results, ANN model can get better result for overall hydrological simulation, but it is not suitable for the hydrological and water resources research under climate change. Although their Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients are less than ANN model, the physically based distributed hydrological model, HBV-D model and the SWIM model are good tools to study impacts of climate change, which is significantly controlled by model structure.
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    Effects of Soil Parameters in SCS-CN Runoff Model
    LI Run-kui, ZHU A-xing, CHEN La-jiao, LIU Jun-zhi, SONG Xian-feng, LIN Yao-ming
    2013, 28 (10):  1778-1787.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1676KB) ( )   Save
    Soil data is one of the major input datasets for surface runoff simulation and has large impact on variation of the calculated results. It's important and helpful to understand seasonal variations of the impacts of soil data on calculated surface runoff. This study theoretically analyzed the effects of soil data on daily SCS-Curve Number (CN) runoff model in SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), and a case study was also conducted to verify the analysis. Results show that the daily adjusted curve number is largely affected by ratio of two soil hydrologic parameters, saturated soil water content (SAT) to field capacity (FC). Large ratio of SAT/FC leads to smaller variation magnitude of curve number according to a given variation of soil water content, and differences of simulated runoff between soils with different SAT/FC change seasonally as adjusted by soil water content. A case study adopted two different soil datasets for runoff simulation was conducted in Brewery Creek watershed (about 19.5 km2), and the experimental results matched that of the theoretical analysis well.
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    Staged Water Price and the Water-saving Effect Calculation Mode for Domestic Water
    JIA Guo-ning, HUANG Ping
    2013, 28 (10):  1788-1796.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (699KB) ( )   Save
    Staged water price for domestic water is the hot spot in the water price revolution and study. The most attention has focused on the advantages and disadvantages, feasibility and advices on the staged water price decision-making, but less on the parameters estimation of the staged water price model and the water saving effect calculation. The present work studied the third-order staged water price mode and its methods for the parameters estimation. In this study, the water saving effect calculation model (WSECM) based on extended linear expenditure system (ELES) theory was established to simulate the relationship between staged water price and water usage. Taking Panyu district of Guangzhou as an example, the third-order staged water price for domestic water is supposed to implement in 2009. This WSECM was used to simulate the effect by the mode of the third-order staged water price in this case. It is showed that under the third-order staged water price mode, the magnitude of the domestic water usage of annual per capita would reduce 15.86 m3, falling 16.87% in theory.
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    Comprehensive Discussions
    A Review of Adaptive Management Research on Natural Resources
    XU Guang-cai, KANG Mu-yi, SHI Ya-jun
    2013, 28 (10):  1797-1807.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3958KB) ( )   Save
    Adaptive management is a new paradigm for resources management stemmed from the context of the increase of understanding of the development, utilization and protection of natural resources. Adaptive management is based on the acknowledge of the complexity and uncertainty of natural resources management system and the belief that human knowledge can be improved through resources management practice, furthermore the improved knowledge on resources could facilitate the future resource management. On the ground of summarizing the connotation and essential parts of adaptive management of natural resources, we argued that the main problems currently existing in the adaptive management of natural resources includes scale effect, difficulties in system modeling and monitoring, the lack of flexibility in the institutional arrangements, breakdown in coordination and communication and information sharing, egoism and risk avoidance of the participants of adaptive management, the constraints of traditional resources management patterns, cost and management risk and the conflicts among different ecological values. The authors believe that further studies of adaptive management should give more concerns to collaborative adaptive management planning, adaptive monitoring and outcome evaluation, adaptive co-management, adaptive risk management and the public participation. Finally, we brought forward suggestions for the adaptive management research in China: advancing understanding on the concept of adaptive management, grasping the trend of adaptive management research, promoting the practice of adaptive management and bringing current natural resource management practices or research into the framework of adaptive management.
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    Effects of Forest Vegetation on Snow Distribution and Ablation:An Overview
    WANG Ji-ping, WEI Nu-ping, DING Yi, GUO Zhong-jun, ZHAO Ling, XU Qing-hua
    2013, 28 (10):  1808-1816.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2877KB) ( )   Save
    In arid and semi-arid regions, snow accumulation and ablation have been considered as two land surface processes contributing to inland watershed hydrology and ecology, and have a very close relationship with forest vegetation. Forest structure can not only dramatically modify the ways of snow distribution by snowfall interception, but also affects the processes of snowmelt by altering the snowpack energy balance. In semi-arid mountain watersheds, the pattern of snow deposition and melt is largely a function of exposure or shelter by vegetation cover, leading to spatial differentiation of snow water equivalent in snow cover area. Forest vegetation effects on snow distribution and ablation are multi-factorial and of multi-scale. Studies on the effects of forest to snow redistribution and snow ablation are important to deepen the understanding of relationship between the snow and forest and snow hydrological process. By literature review, this paper explains the amount of snow accumulation, snow-melting rates and their relationship with the forest vegetation, summarizes major research progresses in this field, introduces the main factors affecting from several aspects: canopy geometry, the distribution of trees, forest vegetation types and forest management activities, and so on. The main problems in related researches were also pointed out in present paper. For example, the spatial structure quantification of forest vegetation, scale issues in snow hydrological processes, and complexity of snow accumulation and ablation simulation. Finally, research trends and research priorities are presented. The goal of this paper aims to better understand the hydrological and landscape ecological significance of influence relation between forest vegetation patterns and snow distribution.
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    Special Forum
    Elemental Analysis for the Spatial Structure of Oil Horizontal Flow
    HAO Li-sha, ZHAO Yuan
    2013, 28 (10):  1817-1826.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1098KB) ( )   Save
    Oil horizontal flow can be taken as a spatial system that consists of sources, sinks, transits and transportation routes, in which oil resources migrate and are reallocated, thus oil horizontal flow shows remarkable spatial features. In order to resolve the problem that in the present researches of resources flow spatial structure, the research objects and their connotations are different, and are not in the same system, this paper takes oil horizontal flow as a case, systematically deconstructs its spatial structure into four elements as flow node, flow relationship network, route network and flow field, according to Haggett's cognitive model for spatial structure, and analyzes their spatial connotations, features, significance, as well as key research points and their research methods, respectively.#br#(1) Flow nodes are where oil supplies and demands occur, the interaction needs between such nodes arouse oil horizontal flow, and flow nodes are also the geographical control points for oil horizontal flow system. Generally, flow nodes can be divided into three kinds, namely, source, sink and transit, and they all have two kinds of spatial feature, that is, spatial location and flux. Special effort should be made to analyze the flux systems and flux distribution patterns of different kinds of flow nodes.#br#(2) The movement pattern of oil horizontal flow is the line-like links between nodes, with metrizable spatial features such as flow direction, flux, and distance. Flow links connect to each other to form the flow network. To extract flow patterns, the analysis of the association relationship between nodes and the network autocorrelation within flow network should be specially emphasized.#br#(3) Route network is the essential condition for the interconnection between flow nodes, thus it is the carrier of oil horizontal flow. The development of route network should be paid close attention to from two aspects of qualitative morphological analysis and quantitative network structure analysis.#br#(4) Flow field is the maximum influence range of flow nodes through route network. Flow fields could be partitioned based on dominant nodes or dominant flow directions. We can examine the evolution process of regional flow fields, and analyze the relationship among it and the evolution of flow nodes, route network and flow allocation.#br#And then, this paper discussed the importance of the elemental analysis of oil flow spatial structure for the researches of oil flow mechanism and flow optimization. On the whole, this research could make the study of oil flow spatial structure more systematic and more precise, and it can also provide reference more or less for researches of other kinds of resource flow.
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    Evolution of Classification and Enlightenment of Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry, Fishery Industry of International Standard Industrial Classification
    LIAN Tong-hui, YUAN Qin-jian
    2013, 28 (10):  1827-1834.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.10.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4314KB) ( )   Save
    International standard industrial classification is the most mature, authoritative and influential international standards of the world classification of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery activity. Understanding the evolution of finance in ISIC is essential to collect, process and calculate the agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery indicators and compare data between countries. Therefore, this paper studies the classification of the evolution of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry, fishery in ISIC, and puts forward some suggestions for improving classification of Chinese agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery industry. Animal production group should be included in Agriculture division, and adjusting the grain and other crops group, and add two new groups, namely animal production group and mixed faming group.
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