Table of Content

    20 September 2013, Volume 28 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column: Celebration of the 30th Anniversary of China Society of Natural Resources
    Some Thoughts on Development and Prospectives of Its Thirties Years of China Society of Natural Resources
    SHEN Lei
    2013, 28 (9):  1464-1478.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1822KB) ( )   Save
    The year of 2013 is the 30th anniversary of China Society of Natural Resources (CSNR). For this big day, this article systematically reviewed its 30 years' development history, identified some major issues and challenges and put forward its future outlooks. Over the last 30 years, the CSNR has undergone three stages of establishment, development and growth, gradually enriched its experiences in resources science researches and initially established a unique Chinese characteristic framework of theories and methods of resources science system while providing important scientific and technological supports to national economic and social development. Up to now, the CSNR has become one of the most excellent ones among the 201 societies of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) with more than 5000 members, 16 professional committees, 3 working committees, and 6 provincial-level societies. It has obtained 4A level of social organization certificates assessed and approved by the State Ministry of Civil Affairs of China and a third-class award of excellent scientific organization by the CAST. Nevertheless, some fundamental problems still exist, including the base of the resources science established but not reliable, emphasizing on resource comprehensive study but branches scattered, active domestic academic exchanges but weak international cooperation. In future, the CSNR will continue to improve the existing theory and methodological system, open up new areas of interdisciplinary resources researches, strengthen the world resources studies and international cooperation, carry out some major decision-making consultations on scientific issues about the national economy and strong applications of resources science, pay close attention to resources discipline construction and personnel training, and build a "natural resource situation analysis and resources science information platform".
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    New Progress in Land Resources Study and Academic Communication in China
    LIU Yan-sui
    2013, 28 (9):  1479-1487.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1056KB) ( )   Save
    The Land Resources Professional Committee of China Society of Natural Resources was approved and founded in June 1986. Academician Shi Yulin became the first committee director, followed by Professor Xiao Duning, Professor Ni Shaoxiang and Professor Liu Yansui. Led and guided by Academician Shi and due to the teamwork and endeavors of all the successors, China's land resources study and academic communication became very productive and played an important role in advancing land resources study, discipline development and planning practice. Upon the 30th anniversary of China Society of Natural Resources, the paper particularly sorts out the main characteristics and progress of academic communication of China land resources study in recent decade. The paper also shows the author's understanding and comprehension of advancing land resources study and communication, and investigates the development prospect of land resources study and the frontier field which needs further studies.
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    China’s Decade Summary and Resources Academic Prospect of Water Exchange
    XIA Jun, ZUO Qi-ting
    2013, 28 (9):  1488-1497.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1159KB) ( )   Save
    Water resource is the foundational natural resource, the strategic economic resource, and also an organic part of a nation's comprehensive strength. At present, water resource has been listed as one of the three strategic resources together with food and petroleum resources. However, with the rapid development of economy and society, contradiction between water supply and water demand has become increasingly prominent, and water shortage has become a bottleneck to national economic development. Therefore, research on water resources has become an important field to support sustainable development of our country. Based on the extensive literature analysis, this paper expounds the development process of water resources research, introduces the major academic exchanges of Water Resources Committee of China Society of Natural Resources over the past decade, and sums up the recent development of water resources research. According to the analysis above, this paper analyzes the development trend of the water resources science and the prospect of water resources research in the near future, and proposes the development direction of academic exchanges in the next ten years.
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    Strategies on Eco-restoration in the Subtropical Mountain Ecosystem Fragility Areas, China: Based on the Achievement of Eleven Years’ Research in Changting County
    ZHU He-jian
    2013, 28 (9):  1498-1506.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1245KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the exploration of internal relevance to eco-restoration of Changting county, a representative of the subtropical mountain ecosystem fragility areas, the strategies on eco-restoration known as "following natural law, operating terrain for gain, arousing human initiative for land harmony utilization" are proposed. The strategies guided by the theory of harmonization of man and nature embody exerting the greatest regenesis potential in nature by favourable climate, transfering ground runoff from harm to advantage by operating terrain, making material and economic virtuous circle in land harmonious utilization by human initiatives. In the process of practising the strategies, it is necessary to shift to idea, tactics, technology and break through technology bottlenecks, limited scales of space and systemic obstacles.
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    A Preliminary Discussion on the Position and Role of China Society of Natural Resources (CSNR) on the Establishment and Development of Resources Science—In Commemoration of the 30th Anniversary of the Founding of CSNR
    CHEN Chuan-you, YE Ping
    2013, 28 (9):  1507-1514.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.006
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    China Society of Natural Resources (CSNR) has been playing a very important and leading role for promoting the establishment and progress of resources science in China. This study takes the four most important fundamental studies which CSNR is directly organizing or co-organizing as the main clue for the development of resources science, including Natural Resources of China Series, a summary of practice of resources science in China; China Resources Science Encyclopedia, a great work on the fundamental theory of China's resources science; Resources Science, a monograph further deepens the theory and practice of China's resources science; and Resources Science and Technology Terms, linguistic symbol of concept of resources science. This study reveals the progress in science and technology from the writing background, organization, main content, social evaluation the above works, finally summarized the relationship between development of society and disciplinary construction.
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    Resources Ecology
    Study on the Spatial Optimizing and Coordination of Cities and Ground Vegetation Under the Background of Ecological Restoration in Guanzhong Region
    LIU Yan-xu, XUE Liang, LIU Xian-feng
    2013, 28 (9):  1515-1525.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.007
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    The spatial-temporal changes on the land use/cover pattern are the interaction processes influenced by eco-environment and socio-economy. It is necessary to take a comprehensive research to analyze the interaction and mechanism in the process, so that the spatial layout of cities and ground vegetation can be figured out. In view of the relationship of which between the land use in urbanization and the eco-environmental construction is often complex, this study is based on the vegetation changes in different grids that aim to find the optimal partitions of the land resource in the study area. In the analysis, a regional structure optimization is given, and the mechanism perspective has been researched on. By virtue of the theories and methods such as ecological niche, minimum cost distance, point axis development theory, ecological corridor, and so on, the conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) From 2000 to 2007, the land use degree increased in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while dropped in the western, northern and southern parts. And there was a relatively high coordination degree between city development and ecological restoration. Of the total 748 samples, both land use degree and LAI were increased in 393 samples. 2) Based on spatial ecological niche theory, in most cities and counties, the reality niche accounted for more than 50% of the foundation niche. This phenomenon suggested that the contradictions between urbanization and vegetation restoration can be solved at the township level, and the accumulative cost for every city can be calculated based on the reality niche. 3) An extract method for DEM was chosen and the ridge lines and valley lines of urbanization resistance were extracted. And the key parameter of curvature is artificially defined as 3. Based on the concept of point axis development theory and landscape ecological corridors theory, the study area is divided into three types as urban expansion zone, vegetation restoration zone and double track development zone. The discussion mentioned that there are a lot of uncertainties existing in the remote sensing image analysis, so more comprehensive statistical data should be adopted. In this article we innovatively introduced DEM extraction method to analyze the spatial layout of land resource, from which the three zones can be set up by one curvature, hence the subjective uncertainty can be lessened in contrast to the traditional methods. Finally, refering to the spatial scale of land resource researches, we hold that the scale from hundreds meters to several kilometers is suitable.
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    Measurement of Cultivated Land Compensation in Mining Areas Based on the Willingness of Farmers—Taking Coal Mining in Pangzhuang, Chacheng and Liuxin as Examples
    LI Xiao-shun, LIN Yi-nan, LIU Si-fei, QU Fu-tian, WANG Hui, WANG Ying-hong
    2013, 28 (9):  1526-1537.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.008
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    Exploitation and utilization of mineral resources aim for sustainable socio-economic development, but at the same time, they also lead to destruction of regional resources and eco-environment. Farmers in mining areas especially bear a larger amount of external cost. This paper, taking land damage in mining areas as research object, calculates the compensation amount on the basis of farmers' willingness by establishing the econometric model based on investigation of farmers' cognition and acceptance of compensation willingness. The results show that: firstly, investigation results reveal that 69.19% of the farmers lose part of farmland due to coal mining, 49.19% of the farmers think that quality of the farmland has reduced, 95.14% of the farmers think that living environment has been destroyed, 93.51% of the farmers' opinion is mining destroyed inheritance of farming culture. Secondly, the invalidation results show that, farmers around Pangzhuang, Chacheng and Liuxin coal mining areas receive yearly minimum compensation respectively for 34780.80, 36506.85 and 35397.60 yuan/hm2; compensation willingness of economic damage is 12731.10, 18982.80 and 11230.95 yuan/(hm2·a); compensation willingness of social security damage is 11782.35, 10777.95 and 12765.00 yuan/(hm2·a); compensation willingness of ecological damage is 7277.10, 4282.35 and 7306.05 yuan/(hm2·a); and compensation willingness of cultural inheritance damage is 2990.25, 2463.75 and 4095.6 yuan/(hm2·a). Thirdly, comparison analysis finds that, the current policy for mining area land damage compensation in general is between 9 458.70-15 764.40 yuan/(hm2·a), which is significantly lower than that of the compensation based on willingness of farmers, and 56.76% of the farmers do not accept disposable compensation. The above results can provide basis for decision-making and quantitative reference for ecological compensation and policy innovation in the mining areas.
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    Analysis of Watershed Treatment & Restoration Water Eco-compensation
    GUO Wen-xian, FU Yi-cheng, YAN Li-juan, WU Wen-qiang
    2013, 28 (9):  1538-1546.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (991KB) ( )   Save
    Watershed eco-compensation has attracted increasing interest as a popular research subject for water resources experts, and is also an effective approach to solve the contradiction between water resources exploitation & utilization and ecological deterioration. Several expressions of watershed water eco-compensation considering different levels and origin of watershed ecological deterioration are given. The paper elaborates the types and characteristics of watershed water ecological destruction from the level of water resources development and utilization evaluation. Combining the existing theoretical results and successful experience, the paper analyzes the theoretical system of ecological compensation in-depth to form the perfect theoretical system of watershed water related eco-compensation of restoration. The paper supplies the eco-compensation realization base analysis of Pareto economic optimum, based on watershed upstream and downstream free game Nash equilibrium result. Watershed treatment & restoration water eco-compensation impact factors correlative analysis is given in the light of environmental economics principles. Finally, we elaborate the implementation details according to the practical issues during watershed ecological control.
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    The Dynamic Evolution Mechanism of Ecological Compensation and Its Stable Strategy Research
    CAO Hong-hua, JING Peng, WANG Rong-cheng
    2013, 28 (9):  1547-1555.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (847KB) ( )   Save
    Ecological compensation is by adjusting the interest of the relevant parties to achieve the sustainable use of ecosystem services as a means or institutional arrangements. Based on the microscopic dimension, the thesis carried on researches on ecological compensation, established the asymmetric evolution game model through dividing interest groups of ecological compensation into the implementation group and the benefit group, and made the analysis of the replicator dynamics and evolutionary stable strategy of the relationship between interest groups and the stability of the evolutionary game system. The results showed that as the "report-punishment" system existed, there is the only stable equilibrium strategy (protection, compensation) between groups of evolutionary game, namely the implementation group chose "protection" strategy, and the benefit group chose "compensation" strategy. The implementation group of decision-making dominated system stability. The proportion of interest groups' decision choices decided whether the stable equilibrium strategy can be formed. Increasing the proportion of selecting the "protection" and "compensation" strategy by the implementation group and the benefit group, it can accelerate the formation of stable equilibrium strategy effectively.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Natural Water Surface of Poyang Lake Monitoring Based on Remote Sensing and the Relationship with Water Level
    LI Peng, FENG Zhi-ming, JIANG Lu-guang, LIU Ying, HU Jiu-wei, ZHU Jian-ping
    2013, 28 (9):  1556-1568.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5205KB) ( )   Save
    Using one hundred Landsat TM/ETM+scenes (Path/row 121/40) from 1989 to 2010 which cover the Poyang Lake, this paper firstly made a comparison of the two major methods for water body extraction. With the natural water surface area of Poyang Lake derived from satellite imagery by water body extraction index, it then investigated the process and feature of spatial extension of inundation of Poyang Lake under different water levels. Combining the observed hydrological data, the relational models between natural water surface area and water level of major hydrological stations of Poyang Lake during flood and non-flood seasons were established. According to the relation models, the corresponding representative hydrological stations were determined. The results showed that: 1) the water body extraction index (i. e. Modification of Normalized Difference Water Index, MNDWI) approach performed better than that of spectrum-photometric method for the water body discrimination of Poyang Lake. 2) Under different water-level scenarios, the natural water surface of Poyang Lake expanded along the lakeshore as a rhombus shape in a clockwise direction (i. e. north→east→south→west→north). 3) During low water-level (6-15 m) period, natural water surface area was significantly linearly related to water level. Whereas during high water-level (over 15 m) period, natural water surface area varied logarithmically with water level. The relational models of water surface and water level indicated that the most representative gauging stations during flood season are Xingzi, Duchang, and Wucheng, while the most representative gauging station during non-flood season was Tangyin.
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    ClimateChange and Its Effects on Runoff in Upper and Middle Reaches of Lancang-Mekong River
    WU Di, ZHAO Yong, PEI Yuan-sheng, BI Yan-jie
    2013, 28 (9):  1569-1582.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.012
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    Regional climate change and runoff response in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River Basin were simulated by basin water cycle model WACM (Water resources Allocation and Cycle Model) and regional climate model (RegCM3) coupled with one-way mode. The projected results of regional climate change show that the temperature and precipitation in future (2010-2039) under SRES A1B scenario increases by 0.65 ℃ and 1.87% respectively relative to current status (1980-2009), while the precipitation increase is insignificant. The temperature in northern part of the basin changes more obviously than that in the southern part. The precipitation changes are relatively complicated in different regions. Furthermore, results of runoff simulation indicate that the runoff at Chiang Saen and Luang Prabang hydrologic stations under future climate change scenario decreases by 1.23% and 3.69% respectively, and the variation is insignificant. The changes of inter-annual runoff present a decreasing trend slightly, and the role of temperature on runoff variations is stronger than precipitation. The distribution of monthly runoff within a year is uneven in spring and summer (from March to June), it may cause the floods and hydrologic droughts in local regions, however, the runoff variations are not obvious in the rest months.
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    Impacts of the Operation of Three Gorges Reservoir on the Development and Utilization of Water Resources of Northern Dongting Lake Area
    LI Jing-bao, ZHONG Yi-wei, ZHOU Yong-qiang, LI Xi-chun, ZHU Hui
    2013, 28 (9):  1583-1593.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.013
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    According to the measured hydrological data, the paper analyzes the impacts of the operation of Three Gorges Reservoir on the development and utilization of water resources of the southern part of Dongting Lake, on the basis of discriminating the impact of evolution characteristics of hydrological relationship between rivers and lakes under the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir and four rivers hydraulic project. The results show that: 1) During the evolution of rivers and lakes hydrological relationship, the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir has a relatively greater effect on hydrological evolution of Dongting Lake area compared to the operation of four rivers hydraulic projects. 2) Water inflow in Dongting Lake area decreased by 185.60×108 m3 compared with that before the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir under the same circumstance. 3) During the storage period of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the average runoff from three outlets of south Jinghe River would reduced 67.99×108 m3 and 23.14×108 m3 respectively from September 15 to October 31 of dry year and wet year, while during the hydrating operation period, the case would be 4.93×108 m3 and 11.51×108 m3 respectively. 4) From October to December or January to March every year, areas such as Lixian County, Anxiang County, Yuanjiang, Nanxian County, Huarong County and so on, are affected by the exploitation and utilization of water resources of Dongting Lake because of the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir, which has caused an economic loss of about 57359×104 yuan per year due to the seasonal and engineering water shortage.
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    Regional Differentiation of Rural Household Energy Use——A Case Study of Linwei District,Guanzhong Area
    WU Wen-heng, WU Ya-jiao, LI Tong-sheng
    2013, 28 (9):  1594-1604.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.014
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    It is significant to study the regional differentiation of rural household energy use for optimizing the energy structure, drawing up the reasonable energy use plan and protecting the eco-environment. Taking Linwei District, Guanzhong Area as a case, the differentiation features and causes of rural household energy among the plain area, loess tableland area and hilly area are studied by questionnaire and interview face to face, location quotient of energy use, and correlation analysis methods. The results and conclusions are as follows. Firstly, coal, corncob, liquid gas, honeycomb briquette, electric energy and solar energy are the comparative dominant household energy in the plain area, where the location quotient of coal reaches 2.671. Biogas, solar energy, crop straw, honeycomb briquette, liquid gas and corncob are dominant in the loess tableland area, where the location quotient of biogas comes up to 3.465. In contrast, the firewood is only prominent in the hilly area, where the location quotient of firewood is 1.142. It is more diverse for the household energy to be used in the plain area and loess tableland area than in the hilly area. But the commercial energy of successional investment such as honeycomb briquette, coal, electric energy and liquid gas are more in the plain area, while the commercial energy of non-successional investment such as biogas and solar energy are more in the loess tableland area. Comparatively, the energy structure in the hilly area is simple since firewood, the non-commercial energy, is dominant absolutely. Secondly, the regional differentiation features are that a variety of energy are coordinated each other to be utilized by the marketization guidance in the plain area, the biogas is prominent as a result of the guidance of the energy policy in the loess tableland area, and the firewood is major only due to the effect of natural conditions in the hilly area. The regional differentiation of energy use is the comprehensive results of the income level, temperature, development conditions, policy effect, and so on. Finally, per capita income of the plain area (7056 yuan) is higher than that of the others, so per capita commercial energy (204.15 kgce) is the highest in three kinds of regions; on the contrary, per capita income of the hilly area (5750 yuan) is lower than that of the others, so per capita commercial energy (45.38 kgce) is less. Per capita non-commercial energy is influenced faintly by per capita income, so the non-commercial energy use is steady relatively in the study area. Namely, whatever it is high or low for per capita income, the consumption of per capita non-commercial energy is changeless. Based on the correlation analysis it can be obtained that per capita effective cultivated land and per capita cultivated land are more, which will result in more per capita commercial energy and less per capita non-commercial energy. At the same time, the change of per capita effective cultivated land leads to the variation between the commercial and non-commercial energy more obviously than that of per capita actual cultivated land does.
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    Analysis of Wind Energy Resources Reserves and Characteristics in Mountain Area of Jiangxi Province
    WU Qiong, NIE Qiu-sheng, ZHOU Rong-wei, XU Wei-min
    2013, 28 (9):  1605-1614.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.015
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    In this paper, numerical simulation with GIS spatial analysis method and observation with field investigation method are used to find the distribution of mountain area wind energy resources of Jiangxi Province and estimate its reserves quantitatively. In addition, the measured data of two anemometer towers of mountain wind field are used to analyze the wind resources characteristics of mountain area in detail. The results show that the wind resources in mountain area of Jiangxi Province present linear distribution along the mountain ridge or in point distribution on isolated mountain peak, with a technical exploitation amount of wind resources being about 111×104 kW, the technical exploitation area about 136 km2, and the installed capacity about 148×104 kW. Wind speed and wind power density in mountain area are higher, and increase slightly with the increase of the height, and the wind shear indexes are very small, being 0.017 and 0.098 respectively. The daily variations of wind speed and wind power density in mountain area appear obvious U-shaped distribution, that is, the wind speed and wind power density are the smallest around noon, and from early in the morning to morning, the values are large, the largest and the smallest values differ 1-2 m/s. In the mountain wind field, there are two dominant wind directions which are approximately to the opposite, the two dominant wind directions respectively focus on the NW-N section and SSW-SSE section, being helpful to the allocation of wind turbine.
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    Influencing Factors Analysis and Assessment Model of Confined Aquifer Vulnerability in Leakage Area:A Case Study of Jining, China
    MENG Xian-meng, HU Hong-chang, XUE Xian-wu
    2013, 28 (9):  1615-1622.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.016
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    Because of the pollution of shallow groundwater, the deep groundwater exploitation is rapidly increasing, which strengthens the hydraulic connection between shallow groundwater and deep groundwater. Hence, it is very urgent to assess the risk of confined aquifer to contaminants. In this paper, the confined aquifer vulnerability to contaminants is separated into two parts: inherent vulnerability and disturbance vulnerability. According to the characteristics of aquifer vulnerability, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is developed based on normalization of each evaluation factor. The weights for evaluation factors in the model are obtained from the available value of data reflecting the information entropy. By this evaluation method the ranges and ratings of evaluation factors can be omitted, which partially avoid the subjectivity of evaluation results. This method is used to analyze the confined aquifer vulnerability of Jining city. The evaluation results are reasonably consistent with the numerical simulation. And this method is especially suitable for the area where the numerical simulation models of groundwater flow and solute transport can not be established.
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    Resources Research Methods
    Extended Methods of Population Range on Evaluation of Tourism Related Resources Based on Contingent Valuation Method
    XIAO Jian-hong, YU Qing-dong, ZHANG Yun-lei, LIU Juan, GUAN Jian-shi
    2013, 28 (9):  1623-1636.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.017
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    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is important for evaluating tourism related resources. The accuracy of the results was determined by WTP (or WTA) and population range. For CVM, improving the accuracy of WTP (or WTA) was the main research topic from home and abroad, but related studies on extended method of population range were few. In abroad, the population range on evaluation of tourism related resources was extended to users, households in or nearby the areas where tourism related resources located. The domestic population range was extended to users, residents or employees in the areas where tourism related resources located, or related residents or employees in the whole country. All these methods had some defects. According to the survey samples' information, extended methods of non-users and users population range were put forward. The non-users' population range was based on tourism related resources attention degree coefficient, which was represented by relative travel rate. The users' population range was based on tourist numbers. The paper conducts an empirical analysis by the extended methods, which evaluate non-use value of tourism resources of Putuo golden triangle in Zhoushan city in the base year 2008. The result reveals that: the non-use value of tourism resources of Putuo golden triangle is 345.83×106 yuan RMB in 2008. The contribution of domestic non-users, domestic users, and foreign users were 159.21×106, 184.17×106 and 2.45×106 yuan RMB respectively. The result is more reasonable than the others which evaluated by the existed domestic and foreign extended methods.
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    Comprehensive Discussion
    A Review of Assessment Methods, Influencing Factors and Process on Urban Carbon Emissions
    LI Yu, WANG Zhe, WANG Fei, DONG Suo-cheng, LI Ze-hong
    2013, 28 (9):  1637-1648.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.09.018
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    Urban carbon emissions had profound impact on the global carbon cycle and climate change. This paper, based on the studies of urban carbon emissions home and abroad, systematically concludes methods, factors and process of carbon emissions from the aspects of carbon emission effect of urbanization, estimation and impact factors of urban carbon emissions, observation of carbon emissions, carbon cycle and carbon metabolism. Furthermore, we reviewed representative methods with respect to the estimation and observation of carbon emissions such as Kaya identity, LMDI method, CGE model, mixture analysis method, inventory method, UE model, FFDAS model, STIRPAT model, GRID model, Four-part Methodology, building carbon emission model, substance metabolism law and EC carbon flux observation. Research focus is shifting from the macro mode to the microscopic mechanism and from single process of humanities or nature to cultural and natural coupling process. Research hot spot areas have turned to cities of developing countries from ones of developed countries. Data sources have shifted to remote sensing, experimental observation of multi-source data from single data source. Because of the above characteristics, future studies should be based on urban equitable development and low-carbon cities, and build up urban public interest energy research framework. According to function and development level of each city, it is necessary to synthesize vertical flux measurement, econometric model, ecological model, remote sensing and GIS, establish high-precision urban carbon emissions account, construct urban standard classification system of metabolism stock and flow, develop and improve carbon emissions estimation model, increase the results accuracy of urban carbon emissions and correspondingly, the comparability between cities.
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