China is a big consumer of coal resources, and the distribution of its coal resources is uneven. Using the Lorenz curve, we analyzed the situation of China's coal resources distribution, production and consumption, and concluded that distribution and production of coal showed a high degree of consistency, and expressed a significant imbalance in the spatial distribution (0.7161/0.6838>0.4), but that consumption and population showed a good balance (0.2738<0.4). Separation of coal production to consumption leads to the transportation of China's coal resource from north to south, from west to east. In 2009, the net output provinces of China's coal resource are Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Guizhou and other three provinces, exchange centers are Henan, Anhui and Hebei, input provinces are Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, etc. In view of the output province, the services scope of Shanxi's coal resources continued to shrink, and service intensity mainly concentrated in the neighboring provinces. Shanxi coal partly transports to north and partly to east China through the coal transportation north and middle channel. The south channel transports along coal resource to Henan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hubei and other places. In recent years, the output volume of coal in Inner Mongolia were increased and mainly served Northeast China. Erdos coal resources are transported to North and Northeast China by Beijing-Baotou and Shenmu-Huanghua railways. Eastern Inner Mongolia coal resources mainly supplied Liaoning and Jilin provinces through Jining-Tongliao railway. Shaanxi's coal resources are mainly transported by the Lanzhou-Lianyungang railway to East and Central-South China. In addition to serve Southwest China, a lot of Guizhou's coal resources were transported to Guangxi and Guangdong provinces via the Nanning-Kunming, Guizhou-Guangxi railways. With the coal resources development in "Three-west" region, the railway transport capacity will become a bottleneck of coal transport. Planning of coal resources service area and adjustment and renovation and expansion of coal transport channel will become the focus of optimization of coal resources flow. When the new planning and constructing new coal transport channels, such as southern Shanxi, western Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang are completed, China's coal resources flow path will have a significant change.