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Table of Content

    20 January 2013, Volume 28 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Regional Model and Mechanism of Rural Labor Transfer Response to Rapid Urbanization in Eastern Coastal China
    WANG Guo-gang, LIU Yan-sui, LIU Yu
    2013, 28 (1):  1-9.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1686KB) ( )   Save

    Rural labor transfer and sustainable development in rural areas are major issues which developing countries have been deeply concerned about. And more and more scholars have paid attention to these scientific issues. The aim of this paper is to analyze urbanization process and the scale and intensity of rural labor transfer in eastern coastal areas in 1978-2008 from two aspects—spatio-temporal process coupling, and morphology and dynamic conjugated. Firstly, the rural labor transfer response intensity model was constructed, which was used to measure the patterns and space differentiation of rural laborers response. And then, the paper divided the regional types of rural labor transfer response intensity to urbanization in eastern coastal China. The results show that: 1) During the study period, the level of urbanization in eastern coastal areas increased from 19.7% in 1978 to 58.2% in 2008, which is higher than the national average level. With urbanization level developing quickly, rural labor transfer scale and strength were growing constantly, with obvious difference in periodicity and regionality. 2) The development of non-agriculture, regional disparity, and expected income are prime dynamic driving factors of rural labor transfer mechanism model revealed. In other words, the development of non-agricultural industries has a huge role in promoting the regional rural labor transfer; while the average wage for urban workers also has a significant role in promoting the transfer of rural labor. 3) The area of eastern coastal China can be divided into metropolitan-core region, periphery region, marginal region, traditional agricultural-special region. But each type orientates and focuses on different industrial structure and urban system regulation. And finally, we give some policy recommendations for conclusions.

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    Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of the Hollowing Village Degree—Based on the Survey Data of Sample Villages in Shandong Province
    WANG Jie-yong, LIU Yan-sui, CHEN Yang-fen
    2013, 28 (1):  10-18.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1900KB) ( )   Save

    Rural hollowing is a widespread phenomenon all over China, which is a special form of rural geographical system evolution during the process of urban-rural transformation. The degree of rural hollowing is influenced by economy, nature, social culture, and systematic management etc. The research on the influencing factors of the rural hollowing is largely qualitative from the macro perspectives; however, there is few quantitative study based on the sampling survey, namely, the micro perspectives. In this paper, the methods including GIS, RS and Participatory Rural Appraisal (RRA) were used, and the high spatial resolution airborne images and house-to-house survey data of 76 villages in Shandong Province were adopted. The quantitative relationship between the degree and its factors that influence rural hollowing was explored, by employing the method of multiple regression analysis. It turned out that the rural hollowing degree was positively correlated with numbers of homestead each household and cultivated land area per capita, and was negatively correlated with per capita income in the village. 'One household owns more than one suite of homestead', which was caused by the lack of village development planning and inefficient administration, is the direct cause for the empty, waste and unused housing lands; lower per capita income stagnant economic development, and degrading abilities of rural endogenous growth caused continuous loss of village elements and resources aggregation, which was the root cause for village hollowing; the emergence and evolution of rural hollowing have certain dependence on the cultivated land resources, the richer the cultivated land resources were, the easier for the villages to become hollowing. In order to prevent rural hollowing, it is necessary to establish the village homestead planning system and strengthen the village homestead management system. The enhancement of endogenous development capability and elements cohesion of the village is also important. According to the dominating factors of rural hollowing, differentiation strategies should be carried out for different regions.

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    Environmental Kuznets Curve of Resource-based Cities in China—An Empirical Research Based on Panel Data
    LI Hui-juan, LONG Ru-yin
    2013, 28 (1):  19-27.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1448KB) ( )   Save

    Resource-based cities are a kind of special cities which have developed with the exploration of natural resources, and their resource-based industries account for a large share in the economy. In China, there are 118 resource-based cities which have made momentous contributions to the nation's development for decades. In general, industrial production makes economic growth, as well as environmental pollution. The higher the share of secondary sector in GDP is, the more pollution emission. The average of share of secondary sector in GDP in resource-based cities is ten percentage points higher than that in all prefecture-level cities. The pollution in resource-based cities is also more serious than that in these cities. With industrial dust, industrial waste water and industrial SO2 as examples, this paper tests the relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth of 47 prefecture-level resource-based cities from 2003 to 2009 using Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model. The result shows that three pollutants are significant at 1% or 5% level of significance. Here, the EKC of dust emission shows N-shaped. The turning points are 1750 and 39287 yuan of GDP per capita. But 1750 yuan is out of the sample. In 2010, the GDP per capita is less than 39287 yuan in most resource-based cities. Per capita dust emission decreases with the increase of GDP per capita in most resource-based cities in the past several years, but will increase in the future. It shows that economic growth is not decoupling with dust pollutant. The EKCs of waste water and SO2 show inverted U-shaped pattern, which is consistent with the general findings of the relation between economic growth and environmental pollution. The turning points are 8371 and 16893 yuan respectively. Herein, 8371 yuan is at the right part of waste water EKC in more than half of these resource-based cities, while 16893 yuan is at the right part of SO2 EKC in just a quarter of them. In addition, we find that category of resources influence the shapes and turning points of EKC in resource-based cities. Pollutants have various shapes of EKC in different kinds of resource-based cities. Turning points would come early in cities which polluted seriously and have low GDP per capita. Compared with the whole country, resource-based cities have earlier turning point if there are similar EKC. Finally, some recommendations are offered to improve the sustainable development of resource-based cities such as taking environmental treatments, carrying out green transformation, developing circular economy and enlarging the overall control.

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    Resources Ecology
    Spatial Differences of Variations in Autumn Fractional Vegetation Coverage in Eastern China during 1982-2006
    ZHANG Xue-zhen, ZHENG Jing-yun, HE Fan-neng, DAI Jun-hu
    2013, 28 (1):  28-37.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.004
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    To understand the variations in fractional vegetation coverage (FVC) over eastern China in autumn during 1982-2006 deeply, we analyzed the mean spatial pattern of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in autumn, discriminated the models of variations in autumn NDVI during 1982-2006 by cluster analysis and studied the correlations between variations in autumn NDVI and temperature and precipitation. The results show that: 1) The mean FVC over eastern China in autumn decreased spatially in the order of forest, farmland and grassland, and it is obvious that the regional mean FVC increased before 1998 while decreased thereafter. 2) During 1982-2006, different regional FVC changes were marked by large differences. The variations in FVC within the study area could be summarized as 6 models, which consist of a rising trend with fluctuations in Northeast China, a rising trend with fluctuations before 1998 and a sharp drop thereafter in the northeast of Inner Mongolia Plateau, a sharp transition from mean lower FVC to higher FVC in 1994 in the north of North China and the south of Northeast China, a conversion from a decreasing trend during 1982-2000 to slight rising trend after 2000 in the south of North China, a conversion from a rising trend with inter-annual fluctuation before 1992 to a decreasing trend with inter-annual fluctuation thereafter in Jiang-Huai area, a sharp transition from mean higher FVC to lower FVC in 2000 in the Yangtze River and areas south of it. 3) Excepting for the northeast of Inner Mongolia Plateau where FVC was significantly correlated with precipitation and 66% of inter-annual variation in FVC could be explained by precipitation, a positive significant correlation between FVC and precipitation could be found in northes of the North China and the south of Northeast China and a positive significant correlation between FVC and temperature could be found in areas along Qinling-Daba Mountains-middle reaches of the Yangtze River, however, temperature or precipitation could only explain 21% of inter-annual variation in FVC; in addition, no significant correlation between FVC and temperature/precipitation could be found in the others regions.

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    The Indirect Value of Ecosystem Services in the Three-River Headwaters Region
    LAI Min, WU Shao-hong, DAI Er-fu, YIN Yun-he, ZHAO Dong-sheng
    2013, 28 (1):  38-50.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.005
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    The Three-River Headwaters Region (TRHR) of China is within the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. As the source of the Yangtze, Yellow (Huanghe) and Lancang (Mekong) rivers, the TRHR is of key importance to the ecological security of China and Southeast Asia. This paper quantified the indirect value of ecosystem services in the TRHR by using the replacement cost approach, opportunity cost approach and shadow project approach. The results showed that the indirect value of ecosystem services was some 1.74×1011 yuan in 2008, which included water conservation of 1.07×1011 yuan accounting for 61.38%, soil conservation of 4.60×1010 yuan accounting for 26.50%, carbon sequestration of 2.01×1010 yuan accounting for 11.56%, and air quality regulation of 9.56×108 yuan accounting for 0.55%. The results highlighted the role of the TRHR as the important birthplace of water sources and its outstanding contribution to water balance, water cycle regulation and regional hydrology improvement. Besides, the results offered good information to policy makers on regional sustainable management and payment for ecosystem service policies.

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    The Response Relationship between Underlying Surface Changing and Climate Change in the Taihu Basin
    JI Di, ZHANG Hui, SHEN Wei-shou, WANG Qiao, LI Hai-dong, LIN Nai-feng
    2013, 28 (1):  51-62.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2286KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the long-term vegetation index dataset of China-Pathfinder AVHRR NDVI(the data produced through funding from the Earth Observing System Pathfinder Program of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth in cooperation with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and were provided by EOSDIS, distributed Active Archive Center at Goddard Space Flight Center which archives, manages, and distributes this data set), long-term vegetation index dataset of China-SPOT VEGETATION NDVI(source for this dataset was VITO), the change of land use data which was analyzed by using the data of remote sensing image, including the interpretation of Multispectral Scanner(MSS) images in 1979, Thematic Mapper(TM) images in 1984, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM) images in 2000 and HJ-1 images in 2009, in combination with the meteorological data gathered from six weather stations in Taihu Basin, variation of vegetation in Taihu Basin and its NDVI in the period of 1956-2007, as well as their relations with major climate factors(temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, sunshine duration),were analyzed. The results show that: 1)The annual mean NDVI in Taihu Basin demonstrated a decreasing trend during the 26 years, with an increase rate of -0.02/10 a. The most significant NDVI decrease occurred in Changzhou area and Shanghai. It remarkably decreased by -0.017 to -0.049/10 a in those two areas. 2)The cultivated area shows significant reducing trend and the urban area shows significant increasing trend, and area of forest land, grassland and water area shows a slow increasing trend during the recent 30 years. 3)Because of the global warming and the increasingly rapid urbanization process, the annual mean temperature in Taihu Basin demonstrated an increasing trend during the 52 years, with a significant rising rate of 0.38 ℃/10 a, which caused the precipitation demonstrating an increasing trend during the 52 years with the increase rate at 1.09 mm/10 a and also caused the average relative humidity demonstrating a declining trend that decreased at a rate of -1.25%/10 a, and sunshine duration presented an decreasing trend, with the decrease rate at -56.66 h/10 a. 4)The analysis of the interrelationship between climate factor and NDVI by adopting the path coefficient shows that the temperature and the relative humidity are highly related with the NDVI(P<0.01). The correlation coefficient was -0.55 to -0.61 for NDVI and temperature, and 0.59 for NDVI and relative humidity. And the sunshine duration is also related with NDVI(P<0.05). The correlation coefficient was 0.49 for NDVI and the sunshine duration. However, no significant statistical relationship was found between NDVI and precipitation(P>0.05). This is because there's no remarkable increasing or decreasing trend found for this climate factors. The correlation coefficient was 0.23 for NDVI and precipitation.

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    The Coupling Relationship between Soil Eco-Processes and Landscape Evolution under the Natural Conditions in Yancheng Coastal Wetland
    ZHANG Hua-bing, LIU Hong-yu, LI Yu-feng, HOU Ming-hang
    2013, 28 (1):  63-72.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.007
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    Yancheng coastal wetlands are the largest coastal wetlands along the Western Pacific. With its unique ecological location and special habitat types, Yancheng coastal wetlands not only play an important ecological role in biological diversity and resources, environmental protection but also has high land utilization suitability. However, humans are strongly interfering in the nature recently. And the landscapes changed promptly. Nowadays, the study of coastal wetlands landscapes has become a hot field. And meanwhile, the coupling mechanism and relationship between landscape processes and patterns has become another significant field. Taking the core area of Yancheng National Nature Reserve as a case, we have used the methods of canonical correspondence analysis, principal component analysis, linear regression analysis and space instead of time to explore the coupling relationship of soil processes and landscape evolution, according to the sampling and analysis of coastal wetlands soil from April to May in 2011. And the results showed the following aspects: Firstly, CCA ordination indicates that soil processes can well response to the landscape pattern of coastal wetlands as soil process and landscape show different correlation and five kinds of landscape types are regularly located in the CCA ordination shaft in an anti-clockwise direction from land to sea. Secondly, PCA analysis suggests that three main components can effectively respond to landscape pattern. The relevance ranking of main composition and types of landscape are as follows: The first principal component is soil nutrients: Spartina marsh>Spartina-Salsa transitional zone>Salsa marsh>Reed swamp>Reed-Salsa transitional zone;the second principal component is salinity, Salsa marsh>Spartina-Salsa transitional zone>Spartina marsh>Reed-Salsa transitional zone>Reed swamp; the third principal components is organic matter and moisture,Reed swamp>Spartina marsh>Reed-Salsa transitional zone>Spartina-Salsa transitional zone>Salsa swamp. Thirdly, use space instead of time and take the distance from the seawall to the landscape as the time variable we find that there is a good correlation between the main components and landscape evolution. The results of multiple regression shows that the correlation coefficient of Salsa marsh-Spartina-Salsa marsh transitional zone-Spartina marsh time series is 0.8592. And the correlation coefficient of Salsa marsh-Reed-Salsa transitional zone-Reed marsh time series is 0.8928. Therefore, the gradient of soil eco-processes is a crucial driver of landscape changes while landscape changes further lead to changes of soil processes. Evolution of coastal wetland is Reed marsh and Spartina marsh expansion, Salsa marsh shrinking process under the interactive driving of pattern and process in Yancheng Natural Reserve. All in all, it is of greatly positive significance for us to correctly understand the coupling mechanism of coastal wetland landscape evolution and ecological processes under natural conditions which is also beneficial for rational development and utilization of coastal wetland resources, protect the ecological functions of wetlands, effective management of coastal environment.

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    Resources Evaluation
    Colligation Evaluation of Industrial Land Intensive Use in Hubei Province—Based on 365 Valid Questionnaires of Typical Industrial Enterprises
    CHEN Yu, CHEN Yin-rong, MA Wen-bo
    2013, 28 (1):  73-80.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.008
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    Industrial land is the main type of construction land and an important part of urban land, the intensive degree directly related to the urban land use status. With the quickening of the process of industrialization in Hubei Province, the restriction of land to economic development will be more obvious, heavy industry guidance model demanded more land. In order to realize the further development of the industry and the rational allocation of resources, using land intensively will be the inevitable choice. This article established an intensive land use evaluation system for industrial land, composed of four objective layers(which are land use construction, land use intensity, land investment and land productivity) and nine element layers(which are plant and related land rate, outdoor yard and operation field land rate, volume rate, building density, land idle rate, fixed assets investment intensity, labor input intensity, and so on). The land intensive use degrees of 365 typical industrial enterprises are discriminated using Bayes discriminant method. Based on the discriminant results, this paper used geometric mean algorithm to evaluate intensive land use potentiality of moderate and less intensive use enterprises. Results showed that: among the 365 enterprises, 82 will use land intensively, accounting for 22.47% of the total samples; 215 will use land moderately and less intensively, accounting for 58.90% of the total samples. The larger proportions of intensive use are metal smelting and rolling processing industry, communication equipment, computer and other electronic equipment manufacturing. The larger proportions of moderate use and low use are special equipment manufacturing industry, pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and chemical raw materials and chemical industry. There is approximately 865.70 hm2 potential land, accounting for 42.83% of current land, indicating a huge potentiality. In order to improve the industrial land intensive use degrees and mine enterprise potential, we should work out a perfect economic policy, technical specifications and administrative legal policy system, establish reasonable industrial sector land use standards and improve the market proportion of industrial land supply.

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    Decomposition of Energy Intensity Change in Industrial Sub-Sectors and Its Spatio-Temporal Variation in China
    YANG Wei, WANG Cheng-jin, JIN Feng-jun, LI Ling-ling
    2013, 28 (1):  81-91.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.009
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    Differing from previous studies primarily focusing on the change of the total energy consumption intensity of China, the paper analyzes aggregate industrial energy intensity changes in 25 selected industrial sub-sectors of 30 provinces in China (not including Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan due to no data), using the adaptive additive decomposition method. The changes of industrial energy consumption are decomposed into industrial structure effect, technological effect and economic scale effect. By employing adaptive additive decomposition analysis, it was found that the strength and direction of the three effects are different in different provinces and times intervals. Economic scale effect played a dominant role in increasing industrial energy intensity, and its difference is not significant in the two periods 1985-1995 and 1995-2004. But, it played two roles in increasing and reducing industrial energy intensity and its difference is significant in the period 2004-2008. Technical effect played a dominant role in reducing industrial energy intensity, and its difference is significant in different provinces in the two periods 1995-2004 and 2004-2008. And in the period 1985-1995, its strength and direction are both different. Overall, its role in reducing industrial energy intensity needs to be improved in some provinces, to reduce proactively industrial energy consumption. Structural effect played two roles in increasing and reducing industrial energy intensity and its difference is significant in different provinces all the time. Its strength was small in most provinces except Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong. This indicated that its urgent need is to tap the potential of the structural effect in reducing industrial energy intensity. Thus, significant steps should be taken in effective structural adjustment to reduce industrial energy consumption in the future.

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    The Inequality of China's Coal Resources and Its Flow Paths
    GAO Tian-ming, SHEN Lei, LIU Li-tao, LIU Yue-xiang
    2013, 28 (1):  92-103.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.010
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    China is a big consumer of coal resources, and the distribution of its coal resources is uneven. Using the Lorenz curve, we analyzed the situation of China's coal resources distribution, production and consumption, and concluded that distribution and production of coal showed a high degree of consistency, and expressed a significant imbalance in the spatial distribution (0.7161/0.6838>0.4), but that consumption and population showed a good balance (0.2738<0.4). Separation of coal production to consumption leads to the transportation of China's coal resource from north to south, from west to east. In 2009, the net output provinces of China's coal resource are Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Guizhou and other three provinces, exchange centers are Henan, Anhui and Hebei, input provinces are Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, etc. In view of the output province, the services scope of Shanxi's coal resources continued to shrink, and service intensity mainly concentrated in the neighboring provinces. Shanxi coal partly transports to north and partly to east China through the coal transportation north and middle channel. The south channel transports along coal resource to Henan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hubei and other places. In recent years, the output volume of coal in Inner Mongolia were increased and mainly served Northeast China. Erdos coal resources are transported to North and Northeast China by Beijing-Baotou and Shenmu-Huanghua railways. Eastern Inner Mongolia coal resources mainly supplied Liaoning and Jilin provinces through Jining-Tongliao railway. Shaanxi's coal resources are mainly transported by the Lanzhou-Lianyungang railway to East and Central-South China. In addition to serve Southwest China, a lot of Guizhou's coal resources were transported to Guangxi and Guangdong provinces via the Nanning-Kunming, Guizhou-Guangxi railways. With the coal resources development in "Three-west" region, the railway transport capacity will become a bottleneck of coal transport. Planning of coal resources service area and adjustment and renovation and expansion of coal transport channel will become the focus of optimization of coal resources flow. When the new planning and constructing new coal transport channels, such as southern Shanxi, western Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang are completed, China's coal resources flow path will have a significant change.

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    Carrying Capacity of Livestock in Cropland of Two Typical Regions Dominated by Agriculture in China
    WU Lan-fang, OUYANG Zhu, XIE Xiao-li
    2013, 28 (1):  104-113.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.011
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    According to the nutrients demand and available loss of current cropping system, livestock density under environmental capacity in two different areas, i.e., Yucheng County in Shandong Province and Taoyuan County in Hunan Province, was analyzed on the basis of nutrition budget of cropland by different input scenarios of manure N and manure P2O5. When the input of manure N accounted for 30%, 60% and 100% of total input of N in cropland, the carrying capacities of livestock in the farmland of Yucheng are 4.1 LU·hm-2, 8.3 LU·hm-2, 13.8 LU·hm-2 and the corresponding load indexes of the farmland are 2.2, 1.1, 0.7; and those in the farmland of Taoyuan are 4.4 LU·hm-2, 8.7 LU·hm-2, 14.6 LU·hm-2 and 1.4, 0.7, 0.4 respectively. When the input of manure P2O5 accounted for 30%, 60% and 100%of total input of P2O5 in cropland, the carrying capacities of livestock in the farmland of Yucheng are 6.7 LU·hm-2, 13.5 LU·hm-2, 22.5 LU·hm-2 and the corresponding load indexes of the farmland are 1.3, 0.7, 0.4. Those in the farmland of Taoyuan are 2.5 LU·hm-2, 5.1 LU·hm-2, 8.5 LU·hm-2 and 2.4, 1.2, 0.7 respectively. The results show that the carrying capacity of livestock in farmland of Yucheng depending on nitrogen budget is smaller than depending on phosphorus budget and the load index by nitrogen budget is higher than by phosphorus budget, and that of Taoyuan are opposite with Yucheng. Furthermore, the obvious differences existed among townships within the two areas. Therefore, to prevent regional environment from livestock manure related pollution the livestock density and the quantity of manure should be restricted based on the assimilative capacity of cropland to nutrition. Nitrogen balance in Yucheng and phosphorus balance in Taoyuan should be paid special attention to separately; and the livestock and manure should be distributed evenly within each region.

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    Spatial and Temporal Changes of Hainan Coastline in the Past 30 Years Based on RS
    YAO Xiao-jing, GAO Yi, DU Yun-yan, JI Min
    2013, 28 (1):  114-125.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.012
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    Understanding of changes of coastline has significance in developing and protecting coastal resources. In this paper, based on the technology of GIS and RS, coastlines in the year of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 of Hainan Island were interpreted from remote sensing images using baseline method. The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of coastlines and the driving forces shows that: Hainan Island coastline changes are mainly affected by human factors; the total length of the coastline had increased by 55.4 km in the past 30 years, which is evidently in the changes of artificial coastline; and the temporal and spatial variation that is mainly reflected in aquaculture reclamation, industrial land use, town and port construction, was significant, especially in southern region where is relatively flat. These results imply that the changes of Hainan Island might lead to a set of environment problems such as coastline erosion, and it is really particularly important to develop coastlines and use the coastal resources reasonably.

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    Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of Light-Temperature Potential Productivity on Cropland Occupation and Supplement in China in the Last 20 Years
    WANG Jing, YANG Xiao-huan, CAI Hong-yan, LI Yue-jiao
    2013, 28 (1):  126-136.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.013
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    It is of great significance to study the light-temperature potential productivity (LTPP) on cropland occupation and supplement for reasonable developing cropland resources and instructing grain production. This paper analyzed spatial-temporal characteristics of LTPP on cropland occupation and supplement for recent 20 years in terms of LTPP per unit area based on multiperiod land use change data and average annual LTPP from 1990 to 2010. The results demonstrate: 1) LTPP per unit area on cropland occupation was higher than on cropland supplement at country level from the 1980s to 2010. 2)At regional level, LTPP per unit area on cropland occupation was continuously higher than on supplement in the last 20 years in producing areas of Northeast China Plain, arid and semiarid northern China, Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, South China and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Cropland with lower LTPP per unit area was occupied and cropland with higher LTPP per unit area was supplemented in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. LTPP per unit area on occupation was higher for the former 10 years but however, lower for the latter 10 years in Sichuan Basin and the surrounding area, the Loess Plateau, and Hainan. The cropland with higher LTPP per unit area was supplemented for the former 10 years and occupied for the latter 10 years in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. 3)Better cropland occupied and worse cropland supplemented had an important effect on total LTPP at country level. 4)The regions (Northeast China Plain, etc.), with a greater deal of cropland supplement than occupation were remarkably affected by better cropland occupied and worse cropland supplemented, which had a slight effect on the regions (South China and so on) with a greater deal of cropland occupation than supplement. Better cropland supplied than worse cropland occupied also slightly impacts the regions (the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and so on) where more cropland was occupied and less cropland was supplemented.

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    Resources Evaluation
    Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Heavy Precipitation Long-Term Changes in Northeast China and Causation Analysis
    ZOU Li-yao, DING Yi-hui, WANG Ji
    2013, 28 (1):  137-147.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.014
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    Based on daily precipitation data from April to September within 45 years (1961-2005), this paper calculates the precipitation concentration degree (PCD) and precipitation concentration period (PCP) of the heavy rainfall, analyzes the temporal and spatial characteristic of heavy precipitation PCD and PCP, finally discusses the impact of PCD and PCP on circulation background features. The results showed that PCD in Northeast China has a very good correlation with heavy precipitation, which is a very good indication for heavy precipitation. The PCD was increased from east to west in spatial distribution. In view of the temporal, the mid-1960s to the early 1980s, we saw a low-value period of the PCD, and after 1991, PCD in Northeast China was mostly concentrated in high-value period. Heavy precipitation PCP had many low-values only in the 1970s. For most parts of Northeast China (except for northwestern part) PCD increased after the 1990s with a frequent increase in high value years while the changes in the northwestern are just opposite. When the PCD tended to be high, low pressure center existed through the region with the occurrence of high pressure center over the sea surface in the east. The existence of intersection of the west-trend air current with the southeast warm-moist air current is observed along with "+ - +" fluctuations between 40-50 °N latitude. There is a rising vertical velocity center in the east of Northeast China when PCD is high and speed enhanced with the rise of the altitude (below 300 hPa). The water vapor mainly comes from the cold wet air of the Okhotsk Sea water. In Northeast China there is a water vapor flux divergence of the negative anomaly center, and the formation of the abnormal water vapor convergence zone is conducive to the emergence of heavy precipitation.

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    Evaluation on Urban Tourism Industry Performance and Formation Mechanism of Pattern Evolution during the Transition Period —A Case Study of the Pan-Yangtze River Delta
    CAO Fang-dong, HUANG Zhen-fang, WU Jiang, XU Min
    2013, 28 (1):  148-160.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.015
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    This article builds the evaluation system of tourism industry performance from four respects including economy, market, efficiency as well as equity, measuring comprehensively urban tourism industry performance of the Pan-Yangtze River Delta in 1998, 2003 and 2008. Moreover, combined with GIS spatial analysis model the paper analyzes systematically the evolution process of spatial pattern of urban tourism industry performance of the Pan-Yangtze River Delta. The results display: the regional difference of urban tourism industry performance of the Pan-Yangtze River Delta is distinct, most of the urban cities are listed in the low value area while presenting the advancing situation on the whole. At the same time, the differentiation of the spatial pattern is obvious, in detail, all the three time sections have presented the distributional pattern, namely East-West direction increasing and South-North direction having the inverted "U-shaped" pattern. Adjacent geographical units show the characteristic of the weaker space concentration, the overall coordinated degree of inner performance system is not strong, the coupling between the performance level and coordinated degree of partial urban tourism industry is good. The anatomy of the formation mechanism of the regional difference pattern of tourism industry indicates that there are some main factors influencing tourism industry performance level, such as economic factor, market size, service level, traffic conditions as well as human resources. The common effects of driving force including economy, market, industrial chain, government and synthesis motivate the spatial pattern transition of tourism industry.

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    Resources Research Methods
    The Regional Evapotranspiration Estimation Using A Two-layer Model Based on Quantitative Remote Sensing in Shahe River Basin
    ZHAN Che-sheng, YIN Jian, WANG Hui-xiao, CHEN Shao-hui
    2013, 28 (1):  161-170.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.016
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    Based on the TM/ETM+ data and relevant meteorological data for typical days in different seasons during 1999-2007 in Shahe River Basin, we developed the land-surface evapotranspiration (ET) remote sensing retrieval system to estimate the daily ET in Shahe River Basin. The system is based on the two-layer ET model of quantitative remote sensing, which includes three parts: inversion of the evaporation ration using two-layer model, calculation of total daily net radiation, and estimation of daily ET based on evaporation fraction method. The results show that the average daily ET of the typical days is about 2.28 mm in spring, 2.97 mm in summer, 1.59 mm in autumn, and 0.5 mm in winter. The ET of upstream areas covered by forest is higher than that of the downstream plain covered by settlements and farmland. In summer the difference of ET between the upper reaches and lower reaches is smaller compared to the other three seasons. Using the large aperture scintillometer and eddy correlation instrument, Jia, Xu, et al. got some observed values of ET in the Shahe River Basin. By comparing the observed data with the estimated data, we found the estimation system had a high precision with the relative error between 0 and 16% (mean error of 11.1%), and the variance of 0.77 mm.

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    Comprehensive Discussion
    A Review of Research on the Urban Green Space Cooling Effect
    KONG Fan-hua, YIN Hai-wei, LIU Jin-yong, YAN Wei-jiao, SUN Chang-feng
    2013, 28 (1):  171-181.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.01.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1018KB) ( )   Save

    Since the global warming is now accepted by the majority of the scientific community,and it is unlikely that these effects can be fully prevented,it is essential that related strategies are identified early so they can be implemented to adapt to such change. Urban green spaces are the important green infrastructure in a city. Urban green space can reduce the surface water runoff and provide the cooler microclimates as well as other environmental functions,therefore,it will play an important role to mitigate the urban heat island,and cope with future climate change. However little is known about the quality and quantity of the green spaces required and what kind of the green space spatial pattern will be the best. Consequently,how to plan and design the green spaces in different spatial scales is always a key topic. This paper examined research progress in the field of green space cooling effect,identified existing problems,and accordingly tried to explore the potential of urban green space in adapting cities to climate change in the future.

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