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Table of Content

    20 May 2012, Volume 27 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Hypothesis and Validation on the Logistic Curve of Economic Development and Urban Sprawl —Based on the Investigation of the Typical Cities in East China
    LI Xiao-shun, QU Fu-tian, CHEN You-si, MOU Shou-gou
    2012, (5):  713-722.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1770KB) ( )   Save
    Economic development and urban sprawl have been the scholar’s research hot spot, and the hypothesis is mostly based on the contradiction of the development and protection. This paper, based on the development track of cities at home and abroad, puts forward the new research perspective judgment. There is the Logistic curve between economic development and urban sprawl, and then the authors select the typical cities in East China for empirical test. As the results show: First, economic growth’dependence on urban sprawl weakened gradually abroad from the rapid urbanization, industrialization primary phase transiting to the senior or after the process of industrialization stage. Second, China’s economic growth and urban sprawl has periodical fluctuating characteristics from 1978 to 2003, and there have been significant decoupling or different fluctuations since 2003. Third, the empirical results show that turning points would come in urban sprawl when the secondary。 and tertiary industry GDP of Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuxi and Xuzhou achieved respectively 2.91×1011yuan, 1.02×1011 yuan, 4.43×1010 yuan and 9.42×1010 yuan, and this verified the hypothesis that the scale cap would be 8.99×104 hm2, 6.01×104 hm2, 2.20×104 hm2 and 3.43×104 hm2. Research conclusion can provide scientific basis and the direct reference for the management of urban sprawl and public policy adjustment in China.
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    Hypothesis and Validation on the Kuznets Curve of Construction Land Expansion and Carbon Emission Effect
    ZHANG Run-sen, PU Li-jie, WEN Ji-qun, XU Yan
    2012, (5):  723-733.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1685KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of the data on land use and energy consumption in Wuxi City during the course of 13 years from 1996 to 2008, this paper carries out an empirical research into the relationship between construction land expansion and carbon emission effect in Wuxi City by means of not only pointing up the characteristics of construction land expansion and carbon emission but also setting up Kuznets curve model of construction land rate as well as carbon emission intensity to try to verify the beingness of Kuznets curve between construction land expansion and carbon emission intensity. As shown in the result: 1) Construction land increased sharply by 44032.97 hm2 from 1996 to 2008, and all of the land use types presented a year-by-year increasing tendency except rural settlements decreased year by year. Generally speaking, carbon emission in Wuxi City from 1996 to 2008 also presented a year-by-year increasing tendency, with an increment of 1936.38?104 t. 2) The relationship between gross construction land and carbon emission intensity presents an inverted "U-shaped" curve, that is to say, when construction land expands to the inflexion point which turns up around at construction land rate 1.91%, carbon emission intensity will decrease gradually. The inflexion point just emerges for the moment which shows that construction land expansion in Wuxi City has not reached the standard of intensive and smart growth and it still drives carbon emission to increase. However, it is foreseeable that carbon emission intensity will decrease gradually with industrial restructuring and energy technological advancement. 3) The relationship between carbon emission intensity and urban land shows cubic curve; the relationships between carbon emission intensity and town land as well as rural settlements respectively form positive and negative linear ones. An unobvious Kuznets curve exists between other construction land and carbon emission intensity. Different compositions of construction land types cause different shapes of Kuznets curve. Because urban land and town land have an obvious driving force on carbon emission, the increase of rate will cause the Kuznets curve more steeply, and delay the arrival of inflexion point of Kuznets curve.
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    Performance Evaluation and Correlation Trend Analysis of Urban-Rural Integrated Development in China
    XU Mei, LIU Chun-la
    2012, (5):  734-746.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3139KB) ( )   Save
    Using the statistical data of urban and rural in 2000-2009, this paper constructed an evaluation index system from aspects of population, economy, society, life and resource, then applied methods of entropy method, comprehensive evaluation, correlation analysis, and correlation calculation to quantitatively analyze the performance and correlation trend of urban-rural integrated development in China. The result showed that the overall performance of China’s urban-rural integrated development is obvious, and has the trend of becoming larger. In aspects of individual performance of urban-rural integrated development, the population and social performance were becoming better; the economic performance was not obvious; the life performance was fluctuant, while the resource performance were poor. The positive and negative correlation calculation result showed that the overall trend of China’s urban-rural integrated development was consistent with the trends of the population, the economic and the resources performance between urban and rural, but contrary to the trends of the social and the life performance trends. The result of correlation analysis showed that the overall performance of China’s urban-rural integrated development has close relationship with the resource performance, the economic performance and the population performance, that is to say, resource, economy and population are the foci of China’s urban-rural integrated development. In addition, there were large internal differences in China’s urban-rural integrated development, such as the total and average weight differences, the input and output differences, the regional differences and the provincial differences.
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    Water Consumption Pattern of Capsicum annuum under Regulated Deficit Irrigation in Desert Oasis
    HUANG Hai-xia, HAN Guo-jun, CHEN Nian-lai, HUNAG De-zhi, ZHANG Zheng, ZHANG Kai
    2012, (5):  747-756.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1796KB) ( )   Save
    A field experiment was conducted to analyze the response of water consumption, yield, water use efficiency and biomass to regulated deficit irrigation taking Capsicum annuum L. cv. Lonjiao 2 and Meiguohong as the materials under field condition in Minqin desert-oasis. The results showed that water consumption was positively correlated to irrigation amount, and water consumption of Meiguohong (434.63 mm )was significantly lower than that of Longjiao 2(482.10 mm). Water consumption rate showed as vigorous period>planting-fruit setting period>telophase, the average water consumption rate of the three stages for Meiguohong was 4.30 mm/d, 3.89 mm/d, 2.82 mm/d and Longjiao 2 was 4.85 mm/d, 4.03 mm/d and 3.57 mm/d, respectively. Water consumption moduls displayed the same tendency(except for regulated-deficit-irrigation treatments at vigorous period)to that of water consumption rate, the two cultivars had appoximately the same moduls under full irrigation with 46%, 40%, 14% at the three period, respectively. Regulated deficit irrigation at each stage significantly decreased water consumption rate and modulus of Capsicum annuum especially evident at vigorous period. Yield and biomass were most sensitive to moderate and severe regulated deficit irrigation at vigorous period followed by severe deficit irrigation at planting-fruiting stage,compared with control yield of Meiguohong decreased 25.24%, 40.71%, 14.17%, individual biomass decreased 7.43 g, 14.18 g, 21.38 g, yield of Longjiao 2 reduced 22.93%, 32.37%, 16.77% and the biomass decreased 9.15 g, 15.87 g, 23.34 g. Moderate regulated deficit irrigation at planting-fruiting stage had no significant effect on yield and biomass and enhanced water use efficiency 0.51 kg/m3and 0.40 kg/m3 for Meiguohong and Longjiao 2, thus moderate regulated deficit irrigated at planting-fruiting stage(keeping soil relative water content at 55%-65% of field capacity), full irrigation at vigorous period and telophase(keeping soil relative water content at 75%-85% of field capacity) can attain the goal of water-saving and high efficiency.
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    Research on Regional Pressure Index of Cultivated Land Based on System Dynamics—A Case Study of Hubei Province
    TAN Shu-kui, ZHANG Lu, QI Rui
    2012, (5):  757-765.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1990KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the theory of system theory,this paper uses the system dynamics methods and Vensim software to set up the dynamic model of pressure index of regional cultivated land system. It puts up computer simulation technology to forecast the dynamic changes of cultivated area, grain output, farmland gap, pressure index of cultivated land and so on from 2000 to 2020 in Hubei. Then four different scenarios are set to simulate the dynamic changes of pressure index of cultivated land in Hubei Province. Forecast results show that: 1) Due to the limited grain yield and the technology level, the rising of the population and the per capita share of grain consumption, the farmland gap will constantly increase in the future and the pressure index of cultivated land will constantly rise, and the security of cultivated land will suffer serious threats. 2) It has a positive meaning for the security of cultivated land to actively adjust policy of the cultivated land protection. Then the cultivated land will keep in safe condition over the next 20 years if making sure that the new farmland will keep rising by a rate of over 10% and the reduction of farmland will drop at a rate of 10%.
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    Study on Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Rainstorm in Taihu Lake Basin
    YU Wen-jin, YAN Yong-gang, ZOU Xin-qing
    2012, (5):  766-777.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3895KB) ( )   Save
    Rainstorm disaster is a major meteorological disaster, this paper, taking the economic developed Taihu Lake Basin as a study area, uses wavelets, simulation of linear trend, P-Ⅲ type probability density function, Mann-Kendall and other methods to study and analyze temporal and spatial variation and trend of storms in Taihu Lake Basin. The results showed: 1) Taihu Lake Basin had an annual average rainfall days of 2.9 in the past 55 years with also more intense annual variation rate. The period 1991-2000 witnessed frequent occurrence days of heavy rain while the years of 1959, 1968 and 1978 had fewer days of heavy rain, presenting a weak "inverted U-shaped" pattern. The spatial distribution of storm frequency means was high in the south and west and low in the north and east. Taihu Lake has a total annual average rainfall between 202.1-238.3 mm, but the spatial distribution of rainstorm quantity and rain days is uneven, appearing more in the north and east, and less in the south and west. 2) The study showed that P-Ⅲ curve method of precipitation extremes in the region has a good effect, the maximum precipitation trend in the Taihu Lake region showed a "U-shaped" pattern, which is inconsistent with the evolution characteristics of the number of days with heavy rain in the region. In the last 55 years, the maximum rainfall occurred in Taihu Lake Basin is no more than 250 mm, namely, a 200-year occurred rainstorm flood disaster in the region is of modern extreme value. 3) The typical site of torrential rain has an increasing trend to varying degrees, to three sites south of the central lake, i.e., Dongshan, Hangzhou and Cixi are most significant, the point mutations exist to different degrees, but the abrupt time differs. 4)The wavelet spectrum results show that the aummer rainfall in Taihu Lake Basin presents multi-scale changes of 2 a, 9 a, 13 a and 25 a, but the stability and significance of the wave period differ.
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    Modeling Evapotranspiration and Its Components in Qianyanzhou Plantation Based on Remote Sensing Data
    WEI Huan-qi, HE Hong-lin, LIU Min, ZHANG Li, YU Gui-rui, MIN Cheng-cheng, WANG Hui-min, LIU Ying
    2012, (5):  778-789.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3070KB) ( )   Save
    In this study, with the verification and improvement to the evapotranspiration(ET)model(PT-Fi model), we simulate the ET and its components of the planted coniferous forest ecosystem at Qianyanzhou during 2003 and 2008 by using remote sensing data from MODIS and meteorological data. The estimated ET is compared with the observation from eddy flux tower sites. The results show that the simulated annual ET is about 2.4% lower than measurement, with a decision coefficient value (R2) of 0.83 and root mean square error of 0.61 mm·d-1. As to the ET components, soil evaporation is 12% of simulated ET with relative stability at seasonal and interannual scale. With obvious seasonal and interannaual variability, interception evaporation contribute 23% of the ET and with the same change tendency as precipitation. Canopy transpiration is about 65% of ET with obvious seasonal variation and interannual stability. During January to March, photosynthesis isn’t to be strong, canopy transpiration and evapotranspiration ration (T/ET) less than 30%, with the enhance of canopy transpiration, T/ET increases rapidly after April, in the end of July up to about 90%. Because of the data is easy to get at regional dimension in this model, which can lay a foundation for the further scaling up of evapotranspiration estimation in subtropical coniferous forest.
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    Ecological Flow Evaluation Based on Hydrological Alterations in the Dongjiang River Basin
    ZHANG Qiang, CUI Ying, CHEN Yongqin David
    2012, (5):  790-800.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1710KB) ( )   Save
    Climate changes and human activities combine to cause hydrological alterations in Dongjiang River Basin. River ecosystems have adapted to the hydrological status before variation. After variation, the local ecosystem is bound to be affected more or less. In this case, M-K test, the scanning t test and the Rank Sum Test method, combined with the actual situation in Dongjiang basin are used to thoroughly analyze the abrupt streamflow behaviors. Then the ecological flow (minimum, optimal and maximum ecological flow) of four hydrological stations in Dongjiang River Basin is estimated by using the monthly frequency calculation technique. The research results indicate that: 1) The estimated ecological flow in this paper is reasonable when compared to those by Tennant method. 2) There are significant variations in Longchuan, Heyuan and Lingxia stations, after variations, the amount of annual streamflow does not meet the optimal ecological flow in June. So we should increase water diversion appropriately in this month in the near future. Besides, this study also provides a reference technical framework for establishing a ecological flow warning system in Dongjiang River Basin, and is also of scientific and practical merits in ecosystem health and basin scale water resource management.
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    A GIS-Based Landscape Pattern Optimization Approach for Lake Dianchi Watershed
    LIU Jie, YE Jing, YANG Wan, GUO Huai-cheng, YU Shu-xia
    2012, (5):  801-808.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (9274KB) ( )   Save
    Relationship between landscape pattern and ecological processes is a key issue of landscape ecology. By adjusting the components of landscape pattern, landscape pattern optimization aims to maximize the landscape eco-efficiency and enhance the ecosystem stability. The existing researches can not establish quantitative relationships between landscape pattern, functions and processes. The least-cost distance model describes the work or cost for the transformation from one landscape pattern to another with different resistance, and can interpret the relationships between landscape pattern and processes. In this study, the Lake Dianchi Watershed was chosen as a study area for landscape pattern optimization. With the supports of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS), the landscape pattern was obtained through visual interpretation to the Landsat TM image of year 2008. The resistance was determined according to the valuation per unit area of ecosystem services. Taking the large water body as sources, the minimum cumulative resistance through the cost-distance model in ArcGIS was calculated. Combined with ecosystem services and spatial interactions of landscape types, a landscape functional network with sources, corridors and ecological function nodes was constructed. The optimization of landscape pattern strengthened the spatial connection of ecological network, maintained landscape stability, and improved the ecosystem services. The optimization measures and countermeasures for Lake Dianchi Watershed were proposed. For the high ecosystem services, important material support for regional economic and social development, and heavily vulnerability to human disturbance, it’s very important to maintain and increase the area of natural water body. In order to maintain high landscape connectivity, the urban area corridor, forest ecological corridor and agricultural production corridor should be built in Lake Dianchi Watershed. Intervention strategies, such as maintenance of the corridor scale, establishment of buffer zones, strengthening the green vegetation, reduce the emission of pollutants, and so on, can increase the connectivity of the entire corridor. The nodes, which are critical to the ecological flow and connectivity of landscape, should be controlled strictly. This study, which optimized the landscape pattern for the Lake Dianchi Watershed through the least-cost model with combination of ecosystem services and spatial interactions of landscape types would provide scientific basis and reference to ecological planning and optimal layout of land use in basin scale.
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    Effects of Cutting on Soil Respiration Rate of Cultivated Grassland in North China Plain
    SUN Zhen-zhong, WANG Ji-shun, PAN Guo-yan, OUYANG Zhu, LI Fa-dong, CHENG Wei-xin
    2012, (5):  809-819.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1963KB) ( )   Save
    Cutting can play a vital role in common management of cultivated grassland. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of cutting on soil respiration rate of cultivated grassland and the variation of soil respiration before and after cutting. Based on experiment data of soil respiration of cultivated grassland for 4 forages [3-year alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ),6-year alfalfa,white clover (Trifolium repens L. ),and triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Triticate-830)] in Yucheng Comprehensive Experimental Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences, daily variations of grassland soil respiration before and after cutting and effects of cutting on grassland soil respirations were determined. The results showed that soil respirations of different grasslands were obviously different before cutting. 1) The intensity of grassland soil respirations were 3-year alfalfa>6-year alfalfa>white clover>triticale. However, the intensity of grassland soil respirations was between 3.0-3.5 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1. 2) Before cutting, diurnal variations of soil respirations of different grassland types were also different from each other. Diurnal variations of soil respirations of 6-year alfalfa and triticale were almost the same. Their soil respirations increased gradually from 9: 00 and keep relative high values between 12:00 and 16:00, and then decreased gradually. 3) Diurnal variations of soil respirations for 3-year alfalfa and white clover were consistent. Their soil respirations increased gradually from 9:00 and got to a climax at 12:00, then decreased gradually after that. Ten days after cutting, grassland soil respirations for all forages decreased by 30%-40% comparing with those before cutting. 4) The values of Q10 were between 1 and 2.32 before and after cutting and the mean value was 1.37. The mean value of Q10 was 1.63 before cutting and was 1.10 after cutting.
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    Research on Structure of China’s Crude Oil Pipeline Networks Based upon Fractal Theory
    YANG Zu-ying, ZHAO Yuan
    2012, (5):  820-831.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1991KB) ( )   Save
    By the end of 2008, about 90% of China’s crude oil transportation has been taken by pipeline, and it has been the primary way of China’s crude oil flow. So that it is important to deeply analyze the spatial structure of China’s national and regional crude oil pipeline networks. On the basis of a huge mass of reference materials, this paper examines three fractal dimensions, that is, weighted length-radius, dendrite-radius and spatial correlation, and then elaborates the influencing factors of this structure, including the distribution of networks’nodes and lines, the development of regional networks and others.In sum, the amended results reveal that:1) As to national networks, the weighted length-radius dimension is characterized as linear distribution in the east while scattered distribution in the west, which reflects that the networks tend to cluster and the networks’density has become lower from the east to the west. Similarly, the dendrite-radius dimension changes from scatters to linear distribution from the east to the west, reflecting the networks’structure gets complicated and the connectivity is improved accordingly. Differed from two dimensions above, the dimension of spatial correlation expresses the whole scattered distribution,which reflects the general low accessibility. The reasons are as follows. First, the trunk of pipeline networks in East China have relatively developed, contrasting with the networks in South China and West China. Second, there are evenly some isolated pipelines in East China’s networks, which limit eastern networks’connectivity. Third, some nodes of national networks are not located at the trunk pipelines, resulting in general low accessibility. 2) As to regional networks, the overall distribution of density characteristics is similar to that of national networks, while the overall connectivity characteristic is different. Specifically, as to Xinjiang Region, its fractal dimension value of dendrite-radius is over 2, that is, its connectivity in the central part of the networks is lower than in the surrounding area, which is abnormal;the dimension value of dendrite-radius in Shanxi-Gansu-Ningxia networks is 1.216, reflecting its connectivity is relatively good, compared with less than one in East China and null value in South China. Furthermore, as to the accessibility, all regions’dimension values of spatial correlation are less than one, but the spatial correlation in East China tends to be in linear distribution. The reasons are as follows. First, the indirect oil transportation pattern of oilfield A-oilfield B-…-refineries in Xinjiang networks, increases the branches of networks, making it too complicated and limiting the connectivity of the networks. Second, the construction of pipeline networks in East China is lagging better than in other regions. Third, the construction of networks in South China is lagging behind other regions, thus its networks hasn’t been shaping. 3) With the theory and methods of fractal, it could be effective to reflect the spatial structure and its distribution of China’s crude oil pipeline networks. In the future, it is necessary to further analyze the harmony or correction between fractal feature of regional pipeline networks and regional oil production and consumption, then to reveal the interactive mechanism between them.
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    Evolution Characteristics of the Extreme High Temperature Event in Northwest China from 1961 to 2009
    CHEN Shao-yong, WANG Jin-song, GUO Jun-ting, LU Xu-dong
    2012, (5):  832-844.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4460KB) ( )   Save
    Using over years daily surface extreme air temperature and NCEP/NCAR data of 135 meteorological observation stations in Northwest China from 1961 to 2009, and adopting the methods of linear regression analysis, Mann-Kendall, moving t-examination, wavelet analysis, power spectrum and composite analysis, we analyzed the evolution characteristics of high temperature event in recent 49 years of Northwest China. The results show that spatial distribution of the extreme high temperature in Northwest China presents high value in the western and eastern parts, and low value in the central part. The main areas with extreme high temperature value are located in most part of Xinjiang, the western Hexi Corridor, the central and northern Gansu, southeastern Gansu, northern Ningxia and Shaanxi. The threshold values of the extreme high temperature in these areas are above 30 ℃; but in most part of southern Xinjiang and local areas of southern Shaanxi (Xi’an, Ankang), the threshold values are above 35 ℃, the max-value is 41.5 ℃in Turpan. The annual extreme high temperature is generally low in Qinghai Plateau, and high in Qaidam Basin(25-30 ℃), the other areas are between 15 ℃ and 20 ℃, the min-value is 14.4 ℃in Wudaoliang; the frequency of annual extreme high temperature has obviously increased at a rate of approximately 1.8 d/10 a. The high temperature days changed from less to more in the metaphase of the 1970s, especially the increasing rate is 5.4 d/10 a from the end of the 1980s, and there is an abrupt change phenomenon in 1994. The high temperature frequency has the remarkable periods of 3 to 5 years in recent 49 years. At present, it is still in the frequent phase of high temperature occurence; the annual extreme high temperature becomes more and more frequent in the majority areas of Northwest China. The main significant areas with SE-NW trend are distributed in two banded regions. One is from the Qinghai Plateau to West Tianshan, another from northern Shaanxi, southeastern Gansu-Gansu Corridor to Xinjiang’s Altay. These areas tendency rate is above 2 d/10 a. The high value zone which reached above 5 d/10 a at west Hexi and the Xinjiang-Qinghai’s southern border area. This shows that in the background of global warming, extreme high temperature event occurrence is more frequent in Northwest China; the values of the extreme high temperature are between 22.5 and 47.8 ℃, the maximum value appears in the Turpan Basin, and minimum value appears in Qinshui River of Qinghai Plateau, the high temperature that above 35 ℃appears in addition to the Yili Valley of most part of Xinjiang, Qaidam Basin, Hexi Corridor, central-northern of Gansu, southeastern Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi, and in southern Xinjiang, the high temperature is above 40 ℃; due to influence of altitude the extreme high temperature is obviously low in Qinghai Plateau, the values of most areas are between 25 ℃and 30 ℃, dropped from north to south. The high temperature may appear from April to October, and from June to August it accounted for 93% of the whole year; the frequency of high temperature increases obviously in June and July, and the rest of months is not obvious. There is an opposite geographic distribution between high temperature intensity and the extreme high temperature, namely the areas of the extreme high temperature is accompanied with lower high temperature intensity, so is the distribution of variance of the extreme high temperature. It shows that extreme high temperature interannual changes is smaller in high-heat area. There is most closely relation between annual extreme high temperature and annual high frequency, followed by July, June and August. Therefore, the stronger of high temperature, the more continued days. From the interdecadal change, the high temperature frequent occurrence phase is also the phase of the strongest high temperature, the global warming makes the extreme high temperature events increased and the intensity enhanced. The atmospheric circulation composite analysis indicated that it is beneficial to form the wide range and long-enduring high temperature weather in Northwest China when the Ural Mountain high ridge, the low trough of Balkhash Lake and the Mongolian high ridge are stable, and the atmosphere is at the quasi-barotropic state.
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    Preliminary Approach to Several Issues about Regional Division of Land Use Function: A Case Study in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province
    CHEN Xing-yi, YANG Zi-sheng
    2012, (5):  845-855.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3017KB) ( )   Save
    The regional division of land use function is a newborn regional division in China’s third round revision of general land use planning, also is the core content of this round revision of municipal (prefectural) general land use planning, which embodies the requirements of major function oriented zoning to land use. Based on expounding the basic concept and connotation of regional division of land use function, this paper has comprehensively summarized the theoretical basis and technical methods of regional division of land use function. Taking Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture as an example, the paper has discussed the principles of regional division of land use function, regional division system, ideas of regional division, technical route, and specific methods and steps of regional division.Overall, the basis of regional division of land use function is the needs of land use function subareas according to the characteristics of regional land resource and the needs of future economic and social development in the study area, and primary purpose of this regional division lies in "controlling and guiding the main function of land use", and thereby the use of land will be more rational.The regional division of land use function is a complicated system engineering, its theoretical basis is mainly regional differentiation theory (i.e.regional differences theory). In addition, the theory of major function oriented zoning, land use function and land suitability evaluation, and overall regional coordinated development are also important theories of regional division.On technical methods, "top-down" regionalization method and "bottom-up" zoning method, which include special charts superposition method, qualitative analysis method (experience method), statistical classification method, process analysis method, system clustering analysis method, comprehensive evaluation method, discriminant analysis method, system evaluation hierarchical analysis, and principal component analysis method, are still the most commonly used methods for the regional division of land use function. Among them, the special charts superposition method and system clustering analysis method are especially widely used. Both have their advantages and disadvantages, and combining the two methods can make more scientific regional division of land use function. The basic principles for the regional division of land use function are mainly principles of spatial distribution, relatively consistent natural and social economic conditions, relatively consistent land use structure and guiding direction of land use (also called the principle of relatively consistent main land use function) and dynamic principle. Taking Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture as an example, and following the standards of highlighting the main function and coordinating the relevant planning, this study in the paper divided Dehong Prefecture into eight land use function regions according to the main function of land use based on the regional difference of land use function in Dehong Prefecture, namely region for agglomeration of the prime farmland, region for agricultural development, region for settlement development, region for incompatible industrial development, region for tourism, region for environmental risk control, region for heritagal protection, and region for forestry development. Moreover, this study has compiled the regional division map of land use function in Dehong Prefecture by using GIS technology on the basis of determining the basic idea, the technical route and the specific steps of functional region division, which was the core content for present round revision of general land use planning. The research results accord with the actual conditions of Dehong Prefecture, thus it is reasonable, and is of great significance to guide future land use and management in the whole Prefecture.
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    Annual Runoff Change and Influencing Factors in the Wuding River Basin in 1956-2009
    ZHOU Yuan-yuan, SHI Chang-xing, DU Jun, FAN Xiao-li
    2012, (5):  856-865.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1984KB) ( )   Save
    The Wuding River is one of the major tributaries of the Middle Yellow River. This basin is the earliest one to implement soil conservation measures. The result obtained through analyzing the changing trend of runoff and influencing factors of the Wuding River Basin, will promote the social, economic and ecological sustainable development; and also help solve the contradiction between supply and demand of water resources, reasonable exploitation and utilization of water resources in the middle reaches. In this paper, firstly, the variation trend of annual runoff and the abrupt change point are analyzed at Baijiachuan station from 1956 to 2009. To estimate the influence of climate change three meteorological factors including precipitation, temperature and humidity are analyzed, at the meantime, the drought trend as an important feature of climate change is also analyzed. Then, the influencing of climate change and human activity are calculated through multiple regression analysis. Result shows that annual runoff is continually decreasing; the drought trend is aggravating; the abrupt change points of runoff series appear in 1971 and 1997; human activity is the main influencing factor to reducing runoff from 1972 to 2009; water and soil conservation measures have significant effects on runoff, ecological restoration measures of converting cropland to forest has a certain effect on runoff since 1997.
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    Study on Precipitation Parameters Input of SWAT Model
    NING Ji-cai, LIU Gao-huan, YE Yu, LIU Qing-sheng, XIE Chuan-jie
    2012, (5):  866-875.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2807KB) ( )   Save
    The operation and simulation accuracy of hydrological model mainly depends on the quality of input parameters. The precipitation parameters of SWAT model input were acquired through different approaches. To evaluate the data inputs, this article compared the accuracy of model simulations. It was found in SWAT model that the choice of precipitation site is generally fixed during one simulation, and the model will use the weather generator to fill in gaps in measured records. The weather generator functioned inaccurately on extreme weather conditions, which leads to precipitation input error. The SWAT model simulation was suitable for the years with less variable rate of precipitation and operated imprecisely in heavy rains events. The changing range of precipitation should be evaluated before the simulation. On regions of lacking precipitation observations the spatial interpolation method can serve as a good tool to produce data needed by SWAT model. The using of GIS tools will promote the development of hydrological model.
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    Estimation of Soil Surface Resistance Based on Field Experiment
    TIAN Jing, SU Hong-bo, SUN Xiao-min, CHEN Shao-hui, YANG Yong-min, RONG Yuan
    2012, (5):  876-882.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1221KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the field experimental data, soil surface resistance was deduced from the theoretical formula of soil evaporation and the relationship between soil surface resistance and soil water content was studied in the paper. Soil evaporation obtained by weighing method, air vapor pressure calculated from relative humidity and air temperature, soil surface saturation vapor pressure calculated from soil surface temperature and aerodynamic resistance obtained by eddy covariance method were used to calculate soil surface resistance. The results showed that there is an obvious exponential function between soil surface resistance and soil water content, namely soil surface resistance exponentially declines with the increase of soil water content, which provides an alternative way of computing soil surface resistance. It should be noted that aerodynamic resistance is the key parameter in the calculation of soil surface resistance. In the study, aerodynamic resistance is derived from the formula of surface sensible heat flux. The error of aerodynamic resistance may even cause negative soil surface resistance value. The accuracy of soil surface resistance is determined by aerodynamic resistance to some extent.
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    Research Progress and Review on Non-market Value Evaluation Methods of Farmland Resource
    TAN Yong-zhong, WANG Qing-ri, CHEN Jia, MOU Yong-ming, ZHANG Jie
    2012, (5):  883-892.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (959KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this study is to elaborate research progress of non-market value evaluation methods of farmland resource at home and abroad, and points out research direction of this area in future. The results of this paper are that CVM is the main method for evaluating non-market value of farmland resource in China, and it lacks case studies in applying other non-market value evaluation methods to compare those of CVM, which cannot clearly identify the defects of CVM and then improve it, meanwhile, there are some shortcomings of CVM method itself. Overseas non-market value evaluation methods show two characteristics: first, research methods expand and Mixed Logit Method is gradually applied; second, research methods deepen, and the design of the questionnaire is studied deeply, and it comes up studies that combine non-market value evaluation model with spatial analysis. This paper suggests that: 1) CE model is proposed to introduce to the study of evaluating non-market value of farmland resource in China; 2) the study of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-market value of farmland resource and spatial differentiation mechanism and dynamic evolution of the formation of non-market value of farmland resource should be enhanced; and 3) the questionnaire visualization can be tried to use in the future studies.
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