Table of Content

    20 February 2012, Volume 27 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Comparative Study of Urban Spatial Expansion between Regions with Different Economic Development Phases: A Case Study of Fuzhou and Taipei
    ZHANG Jin-qian, DENG Nan-rong, WEI Su-qiong, CHEN Jian-fei
    2012, 27 (2):  177-186.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (635KB) ( )   Save
    The characteristics of urban spatial expansion were different in each phase of economic development. Taipei was in the stage of post industrialization and Fuzhou was in the middle stage of industrialization. Comparative study of urban spatial expansion in these two regions could be a good case because they were similar in biophysical and cultural characteristics but differ in the level of economic development. In this study, we extracted urban spatial expansion information in these two regions based on the TM images of 1988, 2004 and 2010. Urban spatial expansion was studied by analyzing some concerned historical literatures, urban statistics data and urban built-up area maps based on fractal model and compact index. The research results show that, during the period from 1988 to 2010, the magnitude of urban land growth in Fuzhou was 4.03 times that of Taipei. The expansion form changed from a single external expansion to a combination form of external and internal expansion in Fuzhou, while Taipei was in the form of internal expansion. Through discussion, we could see that the main natural factors and human factors influenced urban spatial expansion in Fuzhou and Taipei in the past 22 years,including the following aspects: physiographic environment, economic development, population growth, traffic infrastructure construction, and government policy and planning. Effect of terrain condition on urban spatial expansion in Taipei was notable, but it was not marked in Fuzhou.
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    Impact of Off-farm Employment on the Diversity of Crop Choices: A Case Study of Taixing City and Suyu District in Jiangsu Province, China
    ZHONG Tai-yang, HUANG Xian-jin
    2012, 27 (2):  187-195.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (553KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this study aims to investigate the influence of non-farm work of farm household on the diversity of crop choices at farm household level. A farm household survey was carried out to collect information about off-farm employment and crop choice, and 365 farm households from Taixing City and Suyu District of Jiangsu Province were interviewed. This study differs from the previous research for this investigation was carried out at farmer level, and the farmer is not the household head but the family member in charge of agricultural production. Furthermore, the crop diversity was valued by crop kinds instead of diversity index. Poisson regression model was used to estimate the effect of non-agricultural work of farm household on crop diversity. The result shows that several factors influence farm household's decision of crop diversity. First of all, the crop types grown by farm household increase significantly with the increase of the year of education of farmers managing agricultural production, and the expected number of crop types increases by about 1.5% with an increase of the education year of farmers managing agricultural production, holding all other variables constant. The types of crops grown by farm households also increase significantly with the increase of crop acreage, and the expected number of crop types increases approximately 28% with an increase of 1 hm2 of crop acreage, holding all other variables constant. As far as off-farm employment is concerned, if other factors being equal, the expected number of crop types for a farm household whose family member managing agricultural production engaged in off-farm work is about 11% lower than for a farm household whose family member managing agricultural production didn't engage in off-farm work. Furthermore, the expected number of crop types decreases approximately by 1.4% with an increase of 1 month of non-farm work for the farmer managing agricultural production. In conclusion, engagement in off-farm work for the farmer in charge of agricultural production did significantly decrease farm household's crop diversity.
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    Effects of Cultivation History and Cropping System on Soil Organic Carbon and Its Components in Oasis Soils
    ZHANG Jun-hua, LI Guo-dong, NAN Zhong-ren, XIAO Hong-lang, ZHAO Li-ping
    2012, 27 (2):  196-203.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (797KB) ( )   Save
    Cultivation history and cropping system are the important influencing factors of SOC and its components in the Heihe oasis, the objective of this study is to identify the effects. Soil sampling pits are selected and the space positions are determined by using the GPS instrument. The soil sampling depth of 100 cm are divided into intervals of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm. After soil sample preparation, total organic carbon(TOC) is measured by acid dichromate digestion and FeSO4 titration, active organic carbon(AOC) is measured by potassium permanganate oxygenation, nonactive organic carbon(NOC) is calculated as the difference between TOC and AOC. Biomass including root and crop straw is surveyed by using 1 m×1 m squares and the net weight is weighted. Cultivation history is obtained by field research. Results show the contents of TOC, AOC and NOC are increased with the extension of cultivation time, but to different degrees. AOC is faster than NOC in 0-5 years for easy transformation characters to agriculture activity after the low organic matter natural soil was converted to cotton field, then lower than NOC in 5-20 years, finally the extent of AOC is close to DOC in >100 years. This indicates NOC content significantly increased and extent of AOC and NOC is gradually close to the increase of TOC. In soil profile >100 years, the contents of TOC, AOC and NOC with the order from high to low is rape plot, general corn plot, corn plot for seed and wheat plot, respectively. Compared with annual variation of organic matter restitution in wheat and corn plots, corn plot for seed ranges between wheat plot and general corn plot. The analysis indicates planting of corn for seed causes change of TOC, AOC and NOC, and effective approach of enhancing SOC content is to increase organic matter return of straw and livestock dejection.
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    Resources Safety
    Assessment of Water Resources Security—Case of Quanzhou City in Fujian Province
    GAO Yuan-yuan, WANG Hong-rui, XU Xin-yi, GAO Xiong, SHI Qiu-yang
    2012, 27 (2):  204-214.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (472KB) ( )   Save
    Water resources are basic natural resources and strategic economic resources. As one of the important cities of southeast coastal China, the rapid development of economy and society has caused unprecedented pressure to the sustainable utilization of water resources of Quanzhou. Based on the principle of combining subjective with objective, two mathematical approaches were chosen and applied, one of which is the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the other is Cluster Analysis based on Factor Analysis in this study. The main conclusions are as following. The regions with secure water resources were Dehua County, Yongchun County and Anxi County. The regions with basically secure water resources were Nan'an City, Luojiang Borough and Quangang Borough. And the regions ranked into the categorizes of insecure water resources were Huian County, Licheng and Fengze Borough. Jinjiang City and Shishi City were the regions ranked into the categorizes of severely insecure water resources. From the year 2000 to 2004, the water resources security value had a downtrend. From 2004 to 2006, the situation had a improvement, and after that, the value began to decline again. If 2015 and 2020 are dry or extraordinary dry years, Quanzhou City would be confronted by great water stress. The factors drove the different water resources security levels for different regions were analyzed. Some measures and accesses to achieve the sustainable water resources utilization and improve the water resources security were given and proposed.
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    Resources Ecology
    Spatial Characteristic Analysis on Planting Area of Winter Wheat in China from 1961 to 2010
    WANG Pei-juan, ZHANG Jia-hua, XIE Dong-hui, HAN Li-juan
    2012, 27 (2):  215-224.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (839KB) ( )   Save
    Winter wheat is one of the major grain crops in China. It plays an important role in China's grain productivity and food security. In this paper, daily meteorological factors (minimum temperature and snow depth) were collected at 553 weather stations from the year of 1961 to 2010. According to the diminishing law of vertical temperature, minimum temperature in 553 weather stations was disposed to get the value in sea-level for 50 years. The minimum temperature at sea-level was interpolated to get spatial distribution maps by using ArcGIS software. And then, the minimum temperature maps were restored to true value in the appropriate altitude by DEM data. Referring to the northern boundary of winter wheat planting condition inland and Northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, planting probabilities of winter wheat were calculated grid by grid for every decade. Results show that planting areas of winter wheat are expanded toward north and west for the past 50 years. Meanwhile the probabilities of planting are increased for almost each grid. So this study can provide some information for winter wheat planting areas.
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    The Potential of CO2 Emission Reduction by Developing Ethanol in China
    LI Hong-qiang, WANG Li-mao
    2012, 27 (2):  225-234.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (777KB) ( )   Save
    The evaluation of the potential of CO2 emission reduction by developing non-corn based ethanol in China is valuable for setting up countermeasures to climate change and establishing the developing policy of ethanol. According to the land occupation feature of feedstock, the method for feedstock classification is established. The paper selects low quality arable marginal land to plant land based feedstock, as well as utilizing the byproduct of crops as sources for non-land based feedstock. Then, the evaluation model of potential of CO2 emission reduction is set up and used to perform the evaluation of potential of CO2 emission reduction in China in 2015 and 2030, respectively. The result shows that, in 2015 and 2030, China can obtain 10.947 and 49.027 million t of CO2 emission reduction potential. Moreover, it indicates that non-land based feedstock can produce more ethanol so as to get higher potential. With regard to the spatial distribution of the potential of CO2 emission reduction, the regions that contribute low and extremely low potential of emission reduction dominate the spatial pattern in 2015, as well as regions with high and extremely high potential are the majorities in 2030. In addition, the ‘∏-shaped’ spatial structure is exhibited in the distribution of China's potential for CO2 emission reduction in 2030.
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    Natural Ecosystem Restoration Area of Soil and Water Conservation Based on GIS in Shaanxi
    NIE Bin-bin, CAI Qiang-guo, ZHANG Zhuo-wen, LI Guo-qiang, XIANG Yu
    2012, 27 (2):  235-242.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (549KB) ( )   Save
    Study on system consideration and suitability on soil and water conservation are important factors on natural ecosystem restoration. This study combined spatial data analysis tool ArcGIS 9.2 and comprehensive evaluation method to analyze ecosystem restoration situation in Shaanxi Province. Land type, soil erosion, average annual rainfall and population density were selected as soil-and-water-conservation-based natural ecosystem restoration indexes, to indentify areas suitable for ecological rehabilitation in Shaanxi Province. Through analysis of comprehensive implementation on soil and water conservation in Shaanxi, the result showed that artificial administrative areas occupied over 80% of the county areas, but natural banned management area ratio was small. After comparatively analyses of those parameters on ecological rehabilitation for comprehensive treatment of soil and water loss, several results were concluded: the area suitable for natural restoration in Shaanxi Province was about 23911 km2; the most suitable area for natural ecosystem restoration was in Qinling-Daba Mountains, however, it is necessary to strengthen natural ecosystem restoration efforts at regional level.
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    Ecological Water Requirement under Different Land Use/Cover Scenarios in Dongbeigou Watershed
    LÜ Ming-quan, WANG Ji-jun
    2012, 27 (2):  243-253.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (886KB) ( )   Save
    In water source of Beijing and Tianjin, there are some conflicts between ecological rehabilitation water requirement and transferring more water to Beijing and Tianjin. On the basis of meteorology, soil and land use/cover (in 1990 and 2009) data, Penman-Monteith formula was applied to calculate reference evapotranspiration which would be revised through soil and vegetation data to obtain ecological water requirement of different land uses. Taking Dongbeigou Watershed as a study area, the minimum and suitable ecological water requirements were calculated based on land use/cover in 1990 and 2009 and other five land use/cover scenarios. The results showed the accumulative reference evapotranspiration is 715.04 mm from 2005 to 2009; the watershed suitable and minimum ecological water requirements were 399.42 mm and 339.68 mm in 2009 respectively, compared with 254.92 mm and 214.76 mm in 1990. The precipitation in average flow year meets needs of vegetation development of five scenarios. The watershed ecological water requirement under scenario Ⅲ converting grassland to forest is the highest, reaching 784.69×104 m3, while that under scenarioⅡ converting forest to grassland is the lowest, being 687.27×104 m3. The scenario Ⅱ is most suitable for the ecological restoration scheme to transfer more runoff to downstream and enhance water availability in Beijing and Tianjin. The establishment of payments for environmental services from downstream to upstream is the prerequisite to put this scenario into practice.
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    The Influence of Different Types of Fertilizer Application Level on the Gannan Desertification of Alpine Meadow of Plant Characteristics and the Productive Forces
    CHEN Wen-ye, ZHAO Ming, LI Guang-yu, WEI Qiang, WANG Fang, LIU Zheng-heng, ZHU Li, ZHANG Ji-qiang, SUN Fei-da
    2012, 27 (2):  254-267.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (647KB) ( )   Save
    Taking moderate desertification of alpine meadow as a study object, considering the impact of different types of fertilization on grassland community species composition, diversity patterns, community structure and productivity, the paper aims to seek the best fertilization levels of different types of fertilizers. The results showed that: 1) in different fertilization treatments (except for three levels of potash handling), the main advantage of the important species differ significantly between the values. 2) J, D, Ma, C and H' species diversity index of the three levels in the manure handling treatment and three levels of nitrogen fertilizer process increased with fertilizer increases, and three levels of phosphate fertilizer and three levels of N-P-K fertilizer treatment, the trends were convex. 3) Average height of vegetation and four functional groups of organic fertilizer in aboveground biomass of three levels of processing and handling are three levels of nitrogen fertilizer with the increase of the three levels of fertilizer treatment and the three levels of N-P-K fertilizer treatment significantly increased the amount of fertilizer which are convex with the trends, the differences between both reached a significant level. 4) Three levels of potash fertilizer treatment on the species composition, diversity change, vegetation height and aboveground biomass have no significant impact. Taking into account the reasonality and the stability of grassland productivity and community structure, O3, P2, N3, and N-P-K2 are the best fertilization level for the desertified alpine meadow.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Spatial and Temporal Variation of Total Solar Radiation in China in Recent 50 Years
    MA Jin-yu, LUO Yong, LIANG Hong, LI Shi-kui
    2012, 27 (2):  268-280.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (953KB) ( )   Save
    The global radiation data (1961-2009) from 58 meteorological stations is applied to analyze the global radiation characteristics with the annual and seasonal long-term trend, the decadal deviation percentage, the period and mutations by the liner-trend estimation, wavelet analysis and Mann-Kendall (M-K) test. The results show that the stations which decline significantly and change a little are respectively 50.0% and 46.6%. The trend in many sites is different with diverse climate zones. Among provincial capitals, about 2/3 stations decline obviously; the stations which change a little predominate in other cities. In terms of the decadal deviation percentage, the main trend in the 1960s is ascent, being about 80% of the total stations. In the 1970s, approximately 50% of the stations show ascent tendency. In the 1980s the number of the declining trend predominates, being over 80%. From 2001 to 2009, the national radiation trend is mainly decent, being about 50%, but 30% of the stations rises obviously. As for the annual trend of the seasonal global variations, the stations which significantly decrease occur in winter, while the changing trend is insignificant in spring, summer and autumn. The major cycles are 6-9 a, 10-13 a and 20-23 a, meanwhile the principal cycle and subordinate cycle in different climate zones have similarities and differences. In recent 50 years, the sudden change periods also have zonality with difference.
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    Estimating and Analyzing the Optimum Temperature for Vegetation Growth in China
    CUI Yao-ping, LIU Ji-yuan, HU Yun-feng, BING Long-fei, TAO Fu-lu, WANG Jun-bang
    2012, 27 (2):  281-292.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (27849KB) ( )   Save
    The photosynthetic optimum temperature for vegetation growth means the ambient temperature is most conducive to plant growth. In this study, GIMMS NDVI data set and daily temperature data set measured by 752 meteorological stations in China from 1982 to 2006 were used to contrastively analyze the relationship between the NDVI and temperature change characteristics at both spatial and temporal scale. Based on the analysis, we extracted the corresponding temperatures in the process of vegetation growth phase. And finally the optimum temperature range and reference optimum temperatures of Chinese various terrestrial eco-geographical regions were obtained. The study firstly provides a scientific calculation framework and produces the reference optimum temperature of different regions. The relationship between terrestrial vegetation growth and the ambient temperature are close, and the optimum temperatures are distinct in different eco-geographical regions. Thereinto, the lowest temperatures appear in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau eco-geographical regions, about 10 ℃. While the highest optimum temperatures appear in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and South China regions, their values are more than 25 ℃. Moreover, the reference optimum temperature can be availably estimated by two related factors, elevation and latitude. Our results can provide useful references for model parameterization.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Impacts of the Vapor Transportation by Summer Monsoon on Drought and Flooding in Summer of Yunnan
    ZHANG Wan-cheng, TANG Yang, ZHENG Jian-meng, CAO Jie, MA Tao
    2012, 27 (2):  293-301.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (639KB) ( )   Save
    By making use of the reanalysis monthly data(ERA-40) by ECMWF from 1961 to 2002,we calculate the vapor flux and its divergence in summer in the area of 80°-130 °E and 0°-35°N. And the temporal and spatial features of vapor flux and its divergence in summer of Yunnan are diagnosed by employing statistical methods of EOF and wavelet analysis. The result shows that,there are two vapor sources of the summer monsoon rainfall in Yunnan, while the strongest one is the southwest vapor transportation resulted from the cross equatorial flow turning and proceeding northward over the Bay of Bengal, sourcing from the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal, reflecting the influence of South Asian monsoon on Yunnan. The other is the easterly jet in the south of Subtropical High, sourcing from West Pacific Ocean and South Sea, reflecting the influence of East Asian monsoon on Yunnan. And the major vapor passage of summer rainfall in Yunnan is the vapor transportation by South Asian summer monsoon. The first EOF distribution pattern of the vapor flux and its divergence by summer monsoon is roughly the anticyclone vapor transportation, which corresponds to the identical more summer rainfall in Yunnan. The second EOF distribution is roughly the cyclone vapor transportation, which corresponds to the less summer rainfall in Yunnan. The third EOF distribution is cyclone-anticyclone pattern, which may result in the summer rainfall difference from south to north in Yunnan, reflecting the summer rainfall difference from south to north in Yunnan. There is an extensive annual variability in the vapor flux of the first EOF, and 13-15 years time is its more significant period in the interdecadal variability, while 2-3 years time is its more significant period in the annual variability. And the vapor flux has been decreasing by -0.105 kg(m·s) -1/a since the 1960s. The vapor flux of the second EOF has been increasing by 0. 566 kg(m·s)-1/a, and 11-15 years is its most significant period in the interdecadal variability, while its period turns to be 2-3 years since the mid 1970s. The abnormal drought and flooding years in summer have some connection with the intensity and location of the southeast vapor transportation from the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea, and the vapor transportation in the mid-troposphere is the decisive factor.
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    Area Variation and Its Causes of Bamu Co Lake in the Central Tibet
    Bhasang Trilie, LIU Jing-shi, NIU Jing-fei, Dhawa Tontrop, Ci Bian
    2012, 27 (2):  302-310.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (818KB) ( )   Save
    Some inland lakes located in eastern Qiang-tang Plateau of Tibet were enlarged in the last decade due to the climate change. The paper mainly focus on analyzing the Bamu Co lake area monthly and yearly variation and its causes based on the remote sensing technique and correlation analysis. The major results could be summarized as follows: 1) The gauged annual precipitation,air temperature,soil temperature and relative humidity of Bange meteorological station were increased,while the wind speed was gradually decreased; 2) There are three maximum values of lake area in February,May and August of 2009,respectively because of fully freeze lake,rising air temperature and the monsoon precipitation as well. 3) According to statistical analysis,the monthly variation of the lake area was controlled by three variables,and they totally contribute 90.0% of water supply which is in annual precipitation>evaporation>temperature, and the annual variation was influenced by four variables,contribute 65.2% and in wind speed of Shenzha Station>precipitation in July>soil temperature>temperature.
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    Contents and Distribution of Exchangeable Magnesium and Their Relationship with the Chemical Properties of Main Farm Soils in Shanxi Province, China
    DING Yu-chuan, JIAO Xiao-yan, NIE Du, CHENG Bin, ZHAO Rui-fen, LIU Ping
    2012, 27 (2):  311-321.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (558KB) ( )   Save
    The exchangeable magnesium (Mg) contents in soils depended to a large degree upon the soil parent materials, soil physio-chemical properties, the climatic and other environmental conditions, and factitious factors. Using both field investigation and indoor analysis, the soils of 636 samples from the main types of farmland soils in Shanxi Province were sampled and analyzed to investigate the contents and distribution of exchangeable Mg and their relationship with the chemical properties of main types of farmland soils in Shanxi Province, China. The results indicated that the average content of exchangeable Mg in top soils (0-20 cm) of main types of farmland soils in Shanxi Province was 255.1 mg/kg, varied from 78.1 mg/kg to 641.8 mg/kg. 3.5% of exchangeable Mg contents in total soil samples were below 100 mg/kg, 85% of them were between 100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, and 11.5% of them were over 400 mg/kg. The exchangeable Mg contents in top soils varied obviously within different regions, the largest content was 378.5 mg/kg in the areas of Taiyuan City, and the lowest content was 144.2 mg/kg in the areas of Yangquan City. The contents of exchangeable Mg in soil profile (0-100 cm) varied from 78.1 mg/kg to 713.3 mg/kg. As a whole, the exchangeable Mg contents in soil profile had an increasing tendency with deepening of soil layers. The exchangeable Mg contents in the order from high to low in different types of soil were fluvo-aquic soil>cinnamon soil>chestnut-cinnamon soil>calcareous cinnamon soil>loessal soil>cinnamony soil. Correlation analysis between the exchangeable Mg contents and the chemical properties of main types of farmland soils revealed that there were significant positive linear relationships between exchangeable Mg contents and pH value, EC (electric conductivity) value, organic matter content, available nitrogen content in top soils, and the significant negative linear relationship between exchangeable Mg content and the ratio of K/Mg in top soils, as well as the significant curvilinear relationships between exchangeable Mg contents and total phosphorus content, available phosphorus content and available potassium content and ratio of Ca/Mg in top soils. This study demonstrated that the contents of exchangeable Mg are at high level in major farmland soils of Shanxi Province. The exchangeable Mg contents in top soils varied obviously within different types of soils and different regions. There are close relationships between the exchangeable Mg contents in top soils and chemical properties of the major types of farmland soils in Shanxi Province.
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    Resources Research Methods
    Analysis Method of Urban Growth Boundary of the Changzhou City in the Yangtze River Delta
    SU Wei-zhong, YANG Gui-shan, CHEN Shuang, WANG Dan, WU Jian-ping, GAO Qun
    2012, 27 (2):  322-331.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (689KB) ( )   Save
    Urban growth boundary (UGB) is a common tool employed by planners to constrain urban expansion in order to increase density of urban services and protect surrounding rural landscapes. Many countries have adopted the method of UGB to control urban sprawl. China's current urban and land use planning start also to have a clear requirement to delineate UGB, but the analysis method is also relatively weak. Especially, few models have been developed that simulate the UGB. We use system dynamics model, cellular automata in combination with the analysis of urban capacity to study the UGB of Changzhou City. Firstly, based on the analysis of the system dynamics model, urban land area of Changzhou City is 30847 hm2 by 2020. Urban growth mainly performs the urban land spread model of urban fringe area, simultaneously, and infill development model in inner city area of the northern and southern groups and the main city area. The boudaries of urban growth is enclosed along the Yangtze River-Desheng River-Shanghai-Nanjing Expressway-New Meng River-Desheng River-Wu-Yi Canal-Ningli high-speed-Shanghai-Nanjing Expressway-city district boudary. UGB curve simulated in the paper and GH-UGB proposed in actual urban comprehensive planning spatially fit well in the northern and eastern parts, but not in the western and southern parts. We think that it reflects the flexible nature of planning tools and the deficiencies of model prediction on considering macro-space pattern and the elements inner contacts of urban system. However, the forecast value of urban land size has a weak gap between the UGB and GH-UGB, and it reflects the subjectivity of the planning tools and the objectivity of the model prediction. This method in our paper has the advantage of using a variety of model combined with the urban capacity analysis, but needs to be improved in fully considering random policies, urban elements contacts and spatial overall pattern.
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    Regional Factor Decompositions and Difference of the Change in Agricultural and Industrial Water Intensity in China
    CHEN Dong-jing
    2012, 27 (2):  332-343.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (533KB) ( )   Save
    It is a core task to make water use intensity decrease in the process of save-water society construction. In the paper, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) technique is used to analyze and compare the contribution of regional factors to the intensity change of agricultural and industrial water consumption in China from 2003 to 2009. The results show that: technological progress is confirmed as the dominant contributor to the decline in water intensity, and industrial structure change is also an important contributor to the decline in water intensity, but regional economic scale change plays a minor role in the decline in water intensity; there are significant differences in the technological progress effect, industrial structure effect and regional structure effect to the decline in water intensity among eastern region, central region and western region in China; agriculture makes a greater contribution to the total decline in water intensity than industry; industrial structure change is the dominant contributor to the decline in water intensity in agricultural sector, but technological progress is the dominant contributor to the decline in water intensity in industrial sector. In order to maintain the decline trend in water intensity, some work such as technological progress, industrial structure change, efficiency management and regional cooperation, should be enhanced.
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    Special Forum
    Research Progress of Biofuel on Environmental Impact
    YANG Hai-long, LÜ Yao, FENG Zhi-ming, WANG Lu
    2012, 27 (2):  344-352.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (554KB) ( )   Save
    With the fast development of biofuel industry, high-energy input in large-scale cultivation of energy crops and agricultural land use change have brought series of potential environmental impacts. After reading much relevant literature, this paper introduces the general development of biofuel, summarizes the environmental impact of biofuel development in the world, such as the greenhouse gas emission, land use change, the impact of water and soil resources and biodiversity. 1) Some scholars believe that despite the benefit is different, the biofuel, to a certain extent, reduces greenhouse gas emissions. However, some scholars believe the biofuel doesn't reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with fossil fuel, even worse. 2) The development of biofuel causes great potential environmental impact on land use, but the impact is of great uncertain. 3) Large-scale development of biofuel affects the quality of soil and water resources, and is harmful to biodiversity. But the appropriate management may bring positive benefits. 4) The research results are various as the study angle and scale, methodology, data accuracy and accessibility are very different. The development of biofuel and its environmental impact are extremely controversial. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the present situation and lack of biofuel study. Furthermore, the development prospect and research focus of biofuel are projected.
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