Table of Content

    20 April 2012, Volume 27 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Time-Space Coordination of National Energy Supply
    ZHANG Lei, HUANG Yuan-xi, YANG Bo, LI Jiang-su, CHENG Xiao-ling
    2012, 27 (4):  529-539.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (537KB) ( )   Save
    This study releases a fact that the national energy supply system could extend its spatial bordering as the demands for the fuels, especially oil and gas, increased and the structure of energy supply diversified. It is, therefore, that the time-space coordination of national energy supply would be a key issue for national energy security, not only because an uneven distribution of mineral resources of the world but also the changeable environments for national energy supply. According to the long-term practices of national industrialization in China, the development of time-space coordination for national energy supply could be devised as three stages: namely, local, regional and international. In 2008, for example, the average distance of fuels' movement for the whole country climbed up to 2435 km, nearly 3 folds more than that of 1980 when the time-space coordination of national energy supply came from the regional stage to the international one. More importantly, the national energy supply has faced more and more challenges from the environments such as natural disasters and geopolitics as it growing up. For instance, the freezing and snowing disasters occurred in the early of 2008 brought about 529.8 billion yuan ($76.2 billion) of economic loss only due to a seriously disturbed national coal transport and power nets systems. Such a practice in China strongly implies only when the increase of energy consumption, labeled as the time course, is coordinated with the space expansion of supply, named as the space course, effectively and reliably, can the national energy supply system develop eventually.
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    Route of Multifunctional Cultivated Land Management in China
    SONG Xiao-qing, OUYANG Zhu
    2012, 27 (4):  540-551.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (441KB) ( )   Save
    This paper attempted to explore the way out for cultivated land protection in China from the viewpoint of multifunctional cultivated land based on the development of human living desire. Firstly, we discussed the process of cultivated land function development based on the connotation of multifunctional cultivated land. According to the process, optimization of social utility through conducting the competition of cultivated land function use on the premise of internalization of externality is the key issue of cultivated land function management. After understanding in depth this issue, we categorized cultivated land function management into monofunctional and multifunctional models. The former one is merely the transitional stage during the process of human living desire development. While, the latter one signals the direction of cultivated land resources management. Secondly, we demonstrated the two models by characterizing farmland protection in China, the Netherland and America. Finally, route of multifunctional cultivated land management was designed through integrating the experiences in the Netherland and America and the particularities in China based on the international comparison.
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    Study on Alternative Livelihood Choice and the Factors Affecting Livelihoods Choice: A Case of the Yellow River Water Supply Area of Gannan
    JIANG Jin-de, ZHAO Xue-yan, ZHANG Li, HOU Cheng-cheng, LI Wei, YAN Jiang-ping
    2012, 27 (4):  552-564.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (465KB) ( )   Save
    The research on the choice to alternative livelihoods is of great significance to the implementation of the reasonable alternative livelihoods according to herdsmen circumstances. In this paper, basing on the survey in the study area, the results and characteristics of alternative livelihoods choice were analyzed. Then, the Logistic regressive model was set up to the analyze factors affecting the herdsmen's choice to the alternative livelihoods. Results are shown as follows: 1) Alternative livelihood choice and the diversity of choice differ obviously:As to the selection to alternative livelihoods, the herdsmen in pure pastoral areas mainly choose special products processing, business and modern livestock husbandry while the herdsmen in agricultural and agro-pastoral areas mainly choose business, go out to work and tourism services. In the diversity of alternative livelihood choice, the diversity index in pure pastoral areas is the lowest and the agro-pastoral areas is the highest. Farmers in pure pastoral areas mainly select two kinds of alternative livelihoods while farmers in agricultural and agro-pastora areas mainly select five kinds of alternative livelihoods. 2) The choice of alternative livelihoods has strong path dependence. Business has the strongest path dependence on the original livelihood, followed by animal husbandry, working outside and special products processing. 3) The livelihood capitals have influence on herdsmen's choice preferences of alternative livelihoods. Different capital types, such as natural capital, social capital, the overall labors in the family, the education level of family members, the amount of cattle and sheep, the education background and age of the householder, have different significant influences on the choice of different alternative livelihoods. In order to improve herdsmen livelihood level as soon as possible, the local government should further understand the choice characteristics of alternative livelihoods and the factors affecting the livelihoods choice, then make respective policy according to different circumstances.
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    Impact of Cultivated Land Quantity Change on Grain Productive Capacity of Yangtze River Delta in the Next 10 Years—From the Perspective of Cultivated Land Quality Grade
    XIAO Li-qun, CHEN Wei, WU Qun, MA Su-hua
    2012, 27 (4):  565-576.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (495KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the achievements of farmland grading,this paper comprehensively analyzed the change in quantity and quality of cultivated land in Yangtze River Delta. This paper has studied the impact of cultivated land change on grain productive capacity of Yangtze River Delta in the next 10 years using the research methods of quantitative analysis and comparative analysis. The results showed that: 1) The quality of cultivated land in Yangtze River Delta is relatively high and its utilization grade is above the average level in China. 2)A large number of cultivated land has been occupied by construction. According to the new round of land use general planning, the quantity and quality of cultivated land in Yangtze River Delta presented a declining trend during the next 10 years. The number of high utilization-grade cultivated land reduced more. 3) The utilization-grade of cultivated land represented the quality of cultivated land and reflected its grain productive capacity. The standard grain total yield of Yangtze River Delta was 1036.12×108 kg. Standard area compared with the statistics area of grade 3 and grade 13 in Yangtze River Delta, the ratio of reduction or increase in cultivated land quantity was 0.1∶1,while the ratio of reduction or increase in standard grain total yield was 0.52∶1.The impact on grain productive capacity of high utilization-grade cultivated land change was bigger than the lower utilization-grade cultivated land. 4) Because of requisition-higher and compensation-lower in the process of cultivated land requisition-compensation balance, the grain productive capacity of cultivated land was greatly reduced. Based on what mentioned above it could be concluded that we should guarantee the double balances and protections of both quality and quantity. Improving the grain comprehensive productive capacity was the basic strategy to ensure food security.
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    Wind Erosion Hazard Assessment Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Neural Network—A Case Study of Inner Mongolia
    LIANG Hai-chao, SHI Hua-ding, GAO Qing-xian
    2012, 27 (4):  577-587.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (783KB) ( )   Save
    One of the most serious environmental problems in Farming-Pastoral Ecotone of Northern China is land desertification and sand storm. With the support of geographic information system, this paper establishes a natural factor database and takes Erenhot-Zhangjiakou as a typical transect to build regional wind erosion hazard assessment model using fuzzy clustering, expert knowledge and neural network technique, and then analyzes the spatial distribution of soil wind erosion hazard in Inner Mongolia; finally, the natural environment of spatial distribution of soil wind erosion hazard and land use background is studied according to land use type of the study area. Result shows: the integrated application of Fuzzy Clustering and Neural Network is an effective way to assess wind erosion hazard; the trend of wind erosion hazard in Inner Mongolia is increasing from east to west, which is consistent with the nature, land use and climate condition in the study area. The zone of severe hazard is mainly in the northwest Alashan with an area of 6.9×104 km2; the zone of intense hazard is mainly located around the Yinshan Mountains, northwest plateau of the Xilin Gol League, through the Badain Jaran Desert and Hunshandake, the area is 4.3×104 km2; the zone of moderate hazard is roughly located between the severe hazard and intense hazard, the area is 1.5×105 km2; the zone of slight hazard is mainly in the central Inner Mongolia, the area is 7.5×105 km2; and the zone of no hazard is located around Daxinganling with an area of 1.4×105 km2.
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    Study on Industrial Spatial Distribution of Valley Economy in Mountain Areas of Fangshan of Beijing
    MU Song-lin, ZHANG Yi-feng, LI Tao, WANG Ling-en
    2012, 27 (4):  588-600.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (722KB) ( )   Save
    Valley economy is a new mode in mountain areas development that is defined by various characters of valley, and is a distinguishing economic geographic pattern for mountain areas development. By the analysis of the natural geographical pattern, sensitivity and service function of integrated ecosystem, ecological function zone is divided into deep mountain zone, two river zone and shallow mountain zone in mountain areas of Fangshan. Based on function zonation, evaluation of relative resource load capacity was conducted to ensure that economic development would harmonize with the level of the bearing capacity of the natural environment. The results show that according to difference in space and threshold of ecological carrying capacity, the industrial spatial distribution of valley economy is divided into limited development zone in deep mountain, key development zone in Dashi river and Juma river, and priority development zone in shallow mountain. Through the analysis of the characteristics of different areas, it will respectively formulate admittance threshold of industry, industrial scale and industrial development direction, and so on industrial development regulation strategies.
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    Ecological Property Assessment in the Rapidly Urbanized Region Based on RS: A Case Study of Dongguan
    CHEN Ming-hui, CHEN Ying-biao, GUO Guan-hua, AI Bin
    2012, 27 (4):  601-613.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (757KB) ( )   Save
    With the fast development of socio-economic in rapidly urbanized region, more attention has been focused on the property of natural resources and environmental benefits. In this regard, ecological property, which is considered as one of the most significant resource and wealth in a country, has being concerned gradually in recent years. Dynamics of land use/cover at a wide range of scales throughout the world will inevitably result in various effects on the structure and function of ecological systems, with ecological property changing obviously and profoundly. With those reasons discussed above, the assessment of ecological property should be paid more attention, which will be useful for the sustainable development in rapidly urbanized region. In this paper, based on the theory of geography and ecology, with the aid of remote sensing data sources and GIS technology, we attempted to quantify the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological property in Dongguan city, which experienced the fastest socio-economic development in Guangdong Province in the past two decades. The results showed that ecological property in Dongguan city changed prominently since 1988, with high and low values of property transforming frequently. The number of towns with per unit area ecological property decrease increased obviously, and most of these towns are located in the rapid economic developed areas of central and northern Dongguan. Per capita ecological property also decreased obviously with the lowest value in 1996.
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    Ecological Balance between Supply and Demand in China Using Ecological Footprint Method
    LIU Dong, FENG Zhi-ming, YANG Yan-zhao
    2012, 27 (4):  614-624.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (509KB) ( )   Save
    A balanced ecological carrying capacity is important to achieve sustainable development for human enterprise. Experiencing fast population growth and increasing pressure on natural resources and environment, China's ecological balance between supply and demand has been widely debated. In this study the "Ecological Footprint" method was used to analyze the supply-demand balance of China's ecological carrying capacity. Firstly, the ecological supply and demand balance was calculated and evaluated, and secondly, the ecological carrying capacity index (ECCI) was derived. The ECCI was calculated for each county of China in 2007 and systematically evaluated towards its supply-demand balance, so as to bring some scientific references and policy-making supports to the population spatial distribution planning, main function zone and ecological security regionalization of China. The results showed that: 1) Ecological deficit appeared to be the main characteristic of the supply-demand balance of the ecological carrying capacity at county level, referring to 1436 counties and a population of 1052.8×106, accounting for 62% and 81% of the whole country respectively. Ecological surplus accounted for the largest share of 62% of the total area; the ecological deficit area and ecological equilibrium area accounted for 32% and 6% respectively. In general, more than 4/5 of the Chinese population was concentrated in less than 1/3 of the land area and more than 2/3 of the land area was inhabited by less than 1/5 of the population. 2) China's ecological carrying capacity demand-supply balance ranged from significant overloading to affluence from southeastern to northwestern China. And what's more, it appeared to be more dominant in regions located at coastal areas which are attracted by migrants and had a generally higher population density. Along with the rapid development and urbanization trends in China, ecological deficits in these regions will become more severe. As a result,environmental problems should be paid sufficient attentions in order to keep ecology secure in these regions.
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    A Study on Eco-Compensation Modes for Ecologically Fragile Regions Based on Farmer's Willingness to Accept Eco-Compensation—The Case of Eco-Compensation for Poyang Lake Wetland Restoration
    HAN Peng, HUANG He-qing, ZHEN Lin, YAN Bang-you, YAN Hui-min, JIANG Lu-guang
    2012, 27 (4):  625-642.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (680KB) ( )   Save
    Farmer's livelihood and willingness to accept eco-compensation need to be taken into account when designing and implementing eco-compensation measures in ecologically fragile regions. Taking the Poyang Lake area as a typical case, detailed household surveys demonstrate that there is a consistency between farmers' willingness to accept eco-compensation and the productive value of their cultivated land. Furthermore, it is found from the currently practiced eco-compensation projects that besides farmers' willingness to accept eco-compensation for abandoning their cultivated farmland, labor migration and production-structure adjustment also exert significant influences on the implementation of eco-compensation measures. As a result, three modes of eco-compensation are proposed and the process of their implementation over the next 20 years is simulated. It is shown that among the three modes, the production-structure adjustment mode is much more advantageous than land-abandonment and labor-migration modes. This is because the production-structure adjustment mode uses compensation funds more efficiently through encouraging participation of local governments and creating a large number of job opportunities for agriculture labors.
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    A Stock Assessment of Bohai Sea by Bayes-based Pella-Tomlinson Model
    LI Jiu-qi, NIE Xiao-jie, YE Chang-chen, YIN Zeng-qiang
    2012, 27 (4):  643-649.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.010
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    The fish stock assessment is important groundwork for present-day fish stock management, The report presents a stock assessment of Bohai Sea by Bayes-based Pella-Tomlinson model. All of the data used in this study are from the Bohai-Yellow Sea Fisheries Administration Bureau. The research results show that the carrying capacity K of Bohai Sea is about 3.5×106-5.5×106 t and the Intrinsic growth rate r is about 0.9-1.6; the estimated stock biomass increased from approximately 2332523 t in 1979 to the maximum value 4251292 t in 1985 and then declined to less than 2250709 t in 2002; the estimated MSY is 1400000 t; the estimated effort for achieving MSY is 817771 kW and the effort is 963564 kW in 1991, since then overfishing was started.
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    Analysis on Runoff Variation of Glacier No.1 at the Headwaters of the Urumqi River from 1959 to 2008
    SUN Mei-ping, LI Zhong-qin, YAO Xiao-jun, ZHANG Ming-jun
    2012, 27 (4):  650-660.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.011
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    Based on multiple methods, such as mathematical statistics, Morlet wavelet analysis and Mann-Kendall method, runoff variation of Glacier No.1 at the headwaters of the Urumqi River during 1959-2008 was analyzed in order to detect its changing trend, periodicity characteristics and mutation features. Then the relationships among runoff, climate and glacier change were also discussed. The results firstly showed that runoff of Urumqi Glacier No.1 experienced an increasing trend in recent 50 years; especially since 1993 the increase was more obvious. Secondly, the first principal periodicity of runoff series was 15 years and the secondary one was 6 years. From 13-16 years scale, the glacier runoff would continue to increase in the future years. However, an opposite tendency existed from another time scales of 5-7 years or more. Thirdly, there was a good instantaneous response relation among glacier runoff, glacier mass balance, annual average temperature, temperature in the melt season and annual precipitation. More specifically, the vibration of temperature in the ablation season gave the greatest contribution to glacier runoff vibration, and glacier runoff showed an accelerated growth when the temperature was more than 2 ℃. It was finally concluded that 100 mm change of glacier mass balance could cause 22.9×104 m3 river runoff. The cumulative mass balance of Glacier No.1 reached up to -13693 mm in the past 50 years, which was equivalent to 3135.7×104 m3 additional supplies of river runoff and was about 1.6 times that of the river annual runoff. This study highlighted the relationships between climate-induced glacier change and runoff yield. The mutation and periodicity of glacier mass balance was also analyzed, so the inherent law of glacier runoff was revealed to some extent.
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    Evaluation about Composite Attraction Index of Tourism in Chinese Cities
    SHEN Jing-hong, LU Yu-qi
    2012, 27 (4):  661-673.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (23833KB) ( )   Save
    In the paper 338 cities in China are regarded as tourism destinations and tourist markets. Using the attraction opportunity model, the author surveys the attraction index of tourism resources in the Chinese city territory, and taking Nanjing as an example, divides traveling destinations and tourist markets as 5 ranks through the GIS space visualization. The first three higher grades tourism destination cities gradually declining from centre to periphery encircle Nanjing. It proves fully that location acts basic function. The result is that the distribution of different ranks traveling destinations of Nanjing shows the weaken rule away from distance, but it presents the position spanning phenomenon. Tourist markets also are assorted as a five-rank classification. It shows most of the tourist markets of Nanjing cluster around it, and the grade declines from centre to periphery, western to eastern. But there is no strict bound among all grade tourist markets, and they interlock mutually. The phenomenon takes place in the third, the fourth, and the fifth tourism destinations. When a city's tourism size is larger than other cites around, the weaken rule away from distance will be not distinct, and the size of tourism destination will control their grade locations of tourist markets for the destination's immense attraction. Then it causes that the grade of remote tourist market is higher than the nearer one. The grades of tourist market at the two poles are few while those in the middle are many. That is to say, both the higher and lower grade tourist markets are few, and the medium grade tourist markets are many. The author evolves the model of attraction index countering thoughts to survey ranking list of attraction index in the Chinese cities, and divides it into five classifications and visualize it using GIS. The result shows that there are no clear bounds among the five classification cities. They interlace each other. But the attraction of the cities still takes on the dim outline from bigness to smallness. Basically, the most attractive cities are located in eastern and central areas. The attraction gradually becomes weak from eastern to western, from central to southern and northern. In the end, taking the accessibility of Chinese cities as the foundation, the author divides ten classifications of development degree of tourism resources in Chinese cities in terms of uniformity or not between ranking list of attraction indexes and tourist scale to contrast them for development of city tourism. The ten classification cities are fully developed tourism cities and national developed tourism cities, national developing tourism cities, national less developed tourism cities, local developed tourism cities, local developing tourism cities, local less developed tourism cities, outlying developed tourism cities and outlying developing tourism cities and outlying less developed tourism cities.
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    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Surface Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Jinghe River of Shaanxi Province, China
    WANG Ju-cui, WU Yan-qing, DANG Bi-ling, XU Zeng-rang, HU An-yan, ZHANG Xue-zhen
    2012, 27 (4):  674-685.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (680KB) ( )   Save
    The current hot issue of water resource and environment research is the study on regional water environment jointly affected by global climate change and human activities, and evaluating the spatial and temporal variations of surface water quality is an important aspect of water quality assessment. In this study, surface water quality data for 16 physical and chemical parameters collected from Jingcun and Zhangjiashan sections of Jinghe River during the years from 2004 to 2007 were analyzed using PCA and FA in dry and wet seasons. The principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the correlations of water quality parameters, while factor analysis was used to extract the most important parameters of the two sections in dry and wet seasons. Analysis shows that the most important parameters of the two sections in dry season are mainly the index of salinization by natural input and that of Jingcun Section also include the index of organic pollution which is mainly from point discharge of the upstream of Jinghe River; and the most important parameters in wet season are mainly the index of non-point pollution including the index of eutrophication by anthropogenic input and the index of salinization by natural input and also include the index of organic pollution in Zhangjiashan Section which is mainly volatile phenol from tributary between Jingcun Section and Zhangjiashan Section. Sulphates coming from different sources are always the most important water quality parameters in Jinghe River of Shaanxi Province all over the year.
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    Changing Characteristics and Influencing Causes of Groundwater Level in the Lower Reaches of the Heihe River
    AO Fei, YU Jing-jie, WANG Ping, ZHANG Yi-chi
    2012, 27 (4):  686-696.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.014
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    In order to research the changing characteristics of groundwater level depth in the lower reaches of the Heihe River, we selected six monitoring wells along the Donghe River and the Xihe River, used statistical method combining with Mann-Kendall and Mann-Whitney trend test methods to analyze the groundwater level depth data, observed three times per month (from 1990 to 2009) in Ejina in this paper. We found that the mean groundwater level depth is lower in the upper and the middle parts of the two rivers during this time. The groundwater level depth had been increased obviously in the lower part, while it declined not obviously in the upper and middle parts. All the groundwater dynamics of monitoring well changed after 2000, but happened in different years. The main conclusions are as follows: environmental flow controls project put into effect in 2000 is the basic reason for lifting groundwater level, but shortage in water conveyance quantity and water pumping for irrigation in the middle and lower reaches in the area led to constant decrease of groundwater level. What we find is important for assessment and management of environmental flow controls project, furthermore, the conclusions can also guide further research on the groundwater restoration and ecological rehabilitation.
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    Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem and its Spatial Differences Based on Dynamics of Soil Water Storage in Anji County
    ZHANG Can-qiang, LI Wen-hua, ZHANG Biao, YANG Yan-gang, DONG Dun-yi, PAN Chun-xia
    2012, 27 (4):  697-704.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (486KB) ( )   Save
    Water conservation is one of the important ecosystem services and forest soil plays a dominating role in conserving and regulating rainfall. With the increasing demand for clean water, the water conservation of forest ecosystem arouses considerable concerns. Based on the data of Category Ⅱ inventory of the forest resources in Anji County (2007) and daily precipitation, the water conservation of the forest ecosystems was estimated, using dynamics of soil water storage method. We also generated the spatial grid data of soil water storage capacity and precipitation and made raster calculations to show the spatial difference of water conservation. The results showed that a volume of 19.66×108 t was conserved in the forest ecosystem, and the water conservation capacity per unit area reached 14788 t/hm2. The volume of water conservation had a downward trend from upstream to downstream of Xitiaoxi River basin. The bamboo forest was the main contributor to the water conservation in Anji forest ecosystem (52.26%), followed by the broadleaf forest and the coniferous forest.
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    Driving Factors and Spatial Diffusion for the Development of National Park Model for Natural Heritage Sites
    ZHANG Hai-xia, ZHANG Xü-liang
    2012, 27 (4):  705-712.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (385KB) ( )   Save
    The protection and utilization of nature heritages present a worldview and ethnical inclination of human-being. The national parks with heritage conservation and public recreation as main objectives have been considered as a matured model for reconciliation of heritage protection and tourism development. To find out meaningfully theoretical supports for the governance of natural heritages in China, the paper explored the driving factors for the development of national park model (NPM) and tried to find the rules of its global spatial diffusion. After collecting the huge data from the World Database on Protected Areas(WDPA) and other data pools relevant with global economy, environment, tourism and public service, multi-regression analyses were run to explore the driving factors and gravity center analysis was used to interpret the route of global diffusion for NPM. In addition, the multicollinearity problems had not occurred on the test of multi-regression equation. The results of analysis indicated: firstly, the value inclination for public service is the main driving factor for development of NPM; secondly, economic growth may instead squeeze the space for national parks; thirdly, there exist great differences for developed and developing countries because the levels of environmental concern and tourism development are the main factors influencing the growth of NPM for developed countries, while in developing ones, environment concern has no relevance with that of NPM, and the level of tourism development shows negative correlation with it. Moreover, the result of gravity center analysis showed that the NPM has been spreading over the world, and the shift of gravity center for the growth of national parks was influenced by macro background, eco-environmental protection, and other factors. Therefore, to develop NPM in China is really in coincidence with the objective rules. However, the fiscal restraints on public administration of China are not conducive to cultivate NPM and there are knotty contradiction among environmental protection, tourism development and NPM. To advance governance effectiveness of natural heritage sites in China, it's necessary for Chinese government to create the value of public service, to push on the environmental protection, and to improve the quality of tourism development.
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