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    20 November 2011, Volume 26 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Characteristics of Variable Association between Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Material Production Sector during the Period of Economic Transition
    WANG Qiang, WANG Xiao-wen, WU Shi-dai, LI Ting-ting, XU Ling-lin
    2011, 26 (11):  1821-1831.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1159KB) ( )   Save
    This paper, applying econometrics model method, makes an analysis on variable association between energy consumption and CO2 emissions in material production process in the recent 30 years in China. The result indicates that: 1) The growth of energy consumption of material production departments and the rising movement of CO2 emissions are affected predominantly by the energy consumption in material production process; 2) the energy consumption equilibrium in material production sector has been at a low level, energy consumption always maintained a high concentration on the specific industries, but the phasic variation also existed, that reflects the phenomenon: imbalance at low level→balance at low level→imbalance at higher level; 3) in material production sector, Tapio indicator of energy-GDP(TIEG) is in a cluster in the weak decoupling range, that indicates the rate of energy consumption growth is lower than the rate of economic growth largely, but the level of energy consumption efficiency still is behind the developed countries; and 4) the Tapio indicator distributions of CO2-GDP(TICG) and TIEG are very similar, but Tapio indicator of CO2-GDP(TICG) was more concentrated and decoupled. Finally, the paper puts forward the next direction and priority of the future work.
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    Scenario Analysis of Urban Residential Land Use Utility Based on Multi-agents’ Spatial Decision
    SHAN Yu-hong, ZHU Xin-yan
    2011, 26 (11):  1832-1841.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1081KB) ( )   Save
    This paper builds a multi-agents model to study the impact of the agents’ spatial decisions to the urban residential space evolution form and land use efficiency in the process of urban extension which contains one environment agent and three micro intelligent land use agents: residents, property developers and urban government. By the method of PEAS, the model induces the interactions among the three intelligent agents on the basis of the recognitions of their behavior characteristics and concludes that urban residential lands are developed in a priority sequence which is decided by the three intelligent agents’ spatial decisions and interactions. First, residents will choose favorable residential locations according to the law of consumption utility maximization. Then, property developers will choose these locations which can bring the maximized benefits. Residents and property developers’spatial decisions represent market mechanism which indicates the self organization of urban residential space in a degree. Furthermore, urban government agents will adjust the residential land developing priority sequence based on the comprehensive consideration of the social and ecological land use utility. So by adjusting the land use and environmental protection policies of urban government agent the model sets three scenarios which respectively represent the compact, relaxed and controlled modes of urban residential space extension and gets the residential developing priority function in every scenario. By the function, the model can get the preview of the evolution of residential space in every set scenario and provide land use planning policy guidance for urban government in advance. Taking Wuchang and Hongshan districts in Wuhan as the experimental areas, the paper compares the land use structure and land use efficiency in the process of the residential space evolution from 1998 to 2008 among the three scenarios and the actual situation respectively. The comparison indicates that land new development holds a lager proportion in the evolution process of the experimental residential space from 1998 to 2008, that is to say the land redevelopment level of old urban in experimental districts is not enough. In fact the government of Wuhan city had focused on residential new development of the suburban fringe areas before 2004, but the emphasis has been transferred to the old city transformation and land redevelopment after 2004, the point verifies the validity of the model to a certain degree. Compared with the model’s simulating results under different scenarios, the factual residential space evolution always has intersections with the three simulating results respectively, which means urban government may adjust its land use policy, natural environmental protection policy and so on under the influence of macroscopic environment in different periods. This is just one of the characteristics of Chinese real estate market. Excepting this, from the model simulating results, urban residents have attached increasing importance to the rights and interests of themselves, at the same time because of the action of market economic mechanism, the property developer also paid more attention to the favorite choices of urban residents; and the urban government gave more attention to the public willingness and the growth of resident welfare as well.
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    Test for the Criticality of Three Kinds of Natural Capital by China Provincial Panel Data from 1949 to 2007
    XIONG Na
    2011, 26 (11):  1842-1849.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (760KB) ( )   Save
    Critical natural capital performs important environmental function, which supposed that it is not able to be replaced by artificial capital. So identifying critical natural capital is the precondition of achieving national sustainable development. The research consists of panel data calculation, test of critical natural capital, as well as case analysis. The first of which aims to obtain the times series of regional critical natural capital ecological footprint of 27 areas in China, the second of which tests the irreplaceability of certain kinds of natural capital, such as water, cropland and fossil fuels, and the third of which analyzes influence of natural capital on China’s long-term consumption. In the paper, the conception of critical natural capital is introduced and natural capital referred is finally divided into three aspects, i.e., productive solid, water and energy. Then the framework of domestic ecological footprint theory is utilized in classifying and calculating the natural capital of regions. The hypothesis of the econometric test used here followed Ferreira’s research is that broader estimates of capital provide more information about changes in capital stocks and thus more information about future consumption prospects. Regression turns out that its performance is more sensitive to changes in the time horizon than in capital measures, and that the fit is best for the time horizon with 20 years, in which the probability of physical capital’s coefficient for future consumption prospects decline to 0.0009 from 0.0073 of the regression with 10 years and 0.5511 with 5 years, while the probability of natural capital’s coefficient for future consumption prospects is persistently above 0.4. The findings prove the irreplaceability by physical capital of critical natural capital, consisted of productive solid, water and energy. In the 20 years’ model, the negative coefficient of natural capital for future consumption prospects predicts the unsustainable utilization pattern of natural capital in the nation, in that domestic ecological footprint theory emphases on exploration of local resources. Additionally, the South-to-North Water Diversion project has been analyzed according to the findings of the research by operating the 20 years’ regression with the data of changing in water ecological footprint of relative regions. As a result of the South-to-North Water Diversion project, the changed distribution of resource will relieve the burdens of hardships in the development of water-receiving areas, which are at the cost of the decrease in the source area of reservoirs.
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    Resources Safety
    Calculation and Impact Factors of Embodied Carbon in Zhejiang Province’s Foreign Trade
    HUANG Min, SHEN Yue-qin, HUANG Shui-ling
    2011, 26 (11):  1850-1857.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (791KB) ( )   Save
    CO2 emissions increased by about 80% from 1991 to 2001, with industrial sectors accounting for 55% of the increased amount. Among all the industrial sectors, iron & steel, petrochemicals, electronics, textiles, pulp & paper and cement account for approximately three quarters of the total industrial CO2 emissions. As a result, understanding driving factors behind increasing CO2 emissions in the six sectors is valuable to related policy formation. This paper applies two-tier input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O) to analyze the sources of change of energy intensive industries’ CO2 emissions from 2002 to 2008. The result shows that: The net export of embodied carbon and the proportion of total domestic emissions are both increased; the export (import) scale effect of the two stages is both positive; the export (import) structure effect of the two stages is quite different. During the period 2005 to 2008, total export structure effect is 72.02 million tons, while total import structure effect is -31.24 million tons; effect of intermediate inputs has greatly improved. The export (import) intermediate inputs effect is -34.28(-49.42)million tons during the period 2005 to 2008, while it is 0.40(0.32)million tons during the period 2002 to 2005; the effect of carbon emissions per unit output value is also significantly improved, and decided mainly by the energy consumption per unit output value effect; effects of export(import) carbon emissions per unit of energy during the two stages are very small.
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    Analysis on Severe Saltwater Intrusion in Modaomen Channel of the Pearl River Estuary in Dry Season during 20092010
    KONG Lan, CHEN Xiao-hong, WEN Ping, LIU Bin
    2011, 26 (11):  1858-1865.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (929KB) ( )   Save
    In this study, measured data was analyzed deeply and three significant characteristics which were "appeared early", "fierce" and "affected heavily" were summed up for saltwater intrusion in Modaomen channel of the Pearl River Estuary in the dry season during 2009-2010. The factors of the saltwater intrusion were analyzed, and the results showed that: the main factor for the severe saltwater intrusion of Modaomen channel in the dry season during 2009-2010 was that the precipitation was extremely scarce due to climate change and the runoff dropped sharply in the Pearl River Basin after August 2009; tide was an important driven factor of saltwater intrusion in Modaomen channel, stronger tide led to severe saltwater intrusion; sea-level rise was another important factor to the severe saltwater intrusion in Modaomen channel. In the context of global warming and sea level rising, this study is of great significance for understanding rational development and utilization of fresh water resources in the estuary deeply, especially for the security of water supplies in rural and urban areas of estuary.
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    Impacts of the Sloping Land Conversion Program on the Land Use/Cover Change in the Loess Plateau: A Case Study in Ansai County of Shaanxi Province, China
    ZHOU De-cheng, ZHAO Shu-qing, ZHU Chao
    2011, 26 (11):  1866-1878.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (23142KB) ( )   Save
    Induced by population pressure, economic growth, and historic exploitation, a large portion of China’s primary forests and wetland was depleted, and a high percentage of its farmland and grassland was degraded. These ecosystem disturbances caused extensive desertification, flooding, soil erosion, dust storms, elevated levels of greenhouse gas emissions, and severe damage to wildlife habitat. In order to address devastating environmental crises and improve human well-being, China has been undertaking several major ecological restoration efforts, of which the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) (also called Grain for Green Project) is the largest land retirement/reforestation program in the developing world, which can alter the land use/cover pattern in a considerably short time period. Here, we characterized the impacts of the SLCP on the land use/cover pattern and their consequences in Ansai County on the Loess Plateau, China, by using Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+images of six periods of 1978, 1990, 1995, 1999, 2006 and 2010. Land use/cover information was obtained using satellite remote sensing techniques. Then the impacts of SLCP on the land use/cover pattern were analyzed by the statistical models. Grassland, cultivated land and woodland were the three dominant land cover categories of the study area, and the land use/cover change was generally in unbalanced status dominated by one-way transition. In the whole research period, cultivated land declined substantially after a small increase, with an overall decreasing rate of 38.4%, woodland decreased first then followed by an increase, with an overall increasing rate of 4.36%, and shrubs together with grasslands decrease while the built-up area increased continuously. SLCP accelerated the decline trend of the cultivated land, and increased the newly forested land substantially. The area of newly forested land had significantly exceeded that of the natural forest. These changes may reduce soil erosion and water yield, restore the soil structure, and increase the soil organic matter. Most farmers support the SLCP because it can increase farmer’s net income. Nevertheless, the potential negative consequences of SLCP can never be ignored. These findings are not only useful for an integrated understanding over the impacts of SLCP, but also for the planning and decision-making of the eco-restoration projects together with the eco-environmental protection.
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    Resources Ecology
    Land Use Change and Eco-Environmental Vulnerability Evaluation in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area
    LIAO Wei, LI Lu, WU Yi-jin, SHI Zhi-hua
    2011, 26 (11):  1879-1889.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1216KB) ( )   Save
    The Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source of water for the Middle Route Project under the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme (SNWT) in China. The eco-environment of Danjiangkou Reservoir Area (DRA) plays an important role in water conservation and purification and would have significant implications for the economic prosperity in Hanjiang Basin as well as for the SNWT. In order to analyze the relationships between different land use patterns and eco-environment in the DRA, RS and GIS technologies were adopted, and an environmental numerical model was developed using spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) method. The land use and eco-environmental vulnerability dynamic change in the last 18 years were analyzed and discussed. The general tendency of land use change in the study area was that the proportion of forest, shrub, grassland, urban and rural land increased constantly from 48.76%, 10.13%, 5.32%, 0.35%, 0.47% to 50.41%, 12.43%, 6.91%, 0.8%, 1.49% between 1990 and 2007, and that of cropland and paddy field decreased gradually from 28.26%, 0.64% to 20.90%, 0.55% between 1990 and 2007. During this period, the land use pattern in the DRA was under the tremendous pressure from the conflict between the rapid urbanization, economic development and the eco-environmental protection and recovering. From 1990 to 2007, the average eco-environmental vulnerability synthetic index (EVSI) in the study area decreased from 5.96 to 5.56, which showed that the eco-environment of the DRA had been improved. However, the eco-environment in some areas even went worse despite of large-scale eco-environmental protection and recovering. In the DRA, most of forest, shrub and grassland were at potential or slight vulnerable levels, and the rest of the land use types basically at slight, moderate or heavy vulnerable levels. Land use types were closely correlated with eco-environment. The order of EVSI was: urban land>rural residential land>waste land>cropland>orchard>grassland>paddy field>shrub and forest land, which indicated that measures taken based on forest and shrub are the priority and important means for ecological restoration. Furthermore, the urban and rural residential land and cropland were the essential problems of the eco-environmental protection and recovering.
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    Distribution Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon Fractions of the Typical Soil Types on the Loess Plateau
    DANG Ya-ai, WANG Guo-dong, LI Shi-qing, SHAO Ming-an
    2011, 26 (11):  1890-1899.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (941KB) ( )   Save
    In order to evaluate the effects of location, soil depth, and land use on the soil light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) and soil heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC), we investigated the contents and the distribution characteristics of soil LFOC and HFOC of three types (Ust-Sandiic-Entisols at Shenmu, Los-Orthic-Entisol at Yan’an and Eum-Orthic-Anthrosol at Yangling) soils profiles (0-200 cm) sampled along a north-south gradient on the Loess Plateau. The results indicated that the contents of soil LFOC and HFOC decreased significantly (P<0.05) from south to north. The ratios of LFOC in soil organic carbon ranged from 1% to 26%. LFOC content and the ratios of LFOC in soil organic carbon significantly (P<0.05) decreased with soil depth. Both of them were lower than the previous reports in other regions of China. Land use closely (P<0.05) correlated with the contents of LFOC and HFOC fractions in the upper soil layers.Compared with farmland, the contents of soil LFOC and HFOC in grassland were significantly higher at the 0-60 cm layers, but had no significant difference below 60 cm soil layers. Both soil LFOC and HFOC contents positively correlated with soil microbial biomass nitrogen and carbon contents, the former with a correlation coefficient of 0.841 and 0.507, respectively. This suggested that soil LFOC was one of the most important carbon and energy sources for soil microbial growth and thus more liable to the impacts of microbial activities and land use change. Our results also implied that soil LFOC could more effectively reflect the variation of soil organic carbon pools than HFOC.
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    Invasion Mechanism of Spartina alterniflora in Minjiang River Estuarine Wetland
    WANG Wei-qi, XU Ling-lin, ZENG Cong-sheng, TONG Chuan, ZHANG Lin-hai
    2011, 26 (11):  1900-1907.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (768KB) ( )   Save
    To clarify the mechanism of plant invasion, based on field investigation and laboratory analysis, taking Minjiang River estuarine wetland as a case, root-shoot ratio, nutrient distribution and nutrient ecological stoichiometry were measured and analyzed. The results showed that seasonal root-shoot ratio of Spartina alterniflora was 0.49-1.64 and the averaged value was 1.11, which was lower than that of native Cyperus malaccensis var. brevifolius (root-shoot ratio was 3.11-7.95 and the averaged value was 5.29). Seasonal averaged nutrient distribution to root, stem and leaf followed the order of leaf>root>stem for Spartina alterniflora, but leaf>stem>root for Cyperus malaccensis var. brevifolius. Spartina alterniflora leaf and stem seasonal averaged C/N and C/P were higher than Cyperus malaccensis var. brevifolius, and the root C/N and C/P were lower, Spartina alterniflora leaf, stem and root seasonal averaged N/P were higher than Cyperus malaccensis var. brevifolius. Successful invasion of Spartina alterniflora was caused by higher allocation of aboveground biomass, assimilation organ (leaf) and reproduction organ (root) nutrients, as well as higher C/N, C/P and N/P ratios.
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    Resources Evaluation
    The Multi-time Scale Analysis on Climate Change and Runoff Processes in the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang
    LING Hong-bo, XU Hai-liang, ZHANG Qing-qing, SHI Wei
    2011, 26 (11):  1908-1917.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1141KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the temperature, precipitation and annual runoff data of the Tianshan Mountains, the paper studied the changing trend and multi-time scale correlation between the annual runoff and climatic factors by using methods of wavelet transform and nonparametric test. The results show that: 1) the increasing trends of the annual runoff, temperature and precipitation are significant in the Manas River Basin and Tarim River Basin; 2) the primary periods of the temperature are respectively 11, 18 and 22 years, that of precipitation are 10, 20 and 22 years on decadal time scale in the headstream areas of the Tarim River Basin; in addition, the temperature of the Manas River Basin holds the periods of 10 and 22 years and the precipitation represents the periodic variation of 20 and 22 years; meanwhile, both temperature and precipitation show the inter-annual periodic variation of 3-6 years in the headstream areas of the Manas River and Tarim River; 3) the abrupt change points of annual runoff, temperature and precipitation occurred respectively in 1993, 1993 and 1992, however, that of the Manas River are significant in 1995, 1988 and 1996; and 4) the multi time scale correlativity is significant between the annual runoff and climatic factors in the headstream areas of the two basins.
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    Change Tendency and Cyclicity Analysis of Extreme Precipitation over Sichuan Province during 19612009
    ZHANG Shun-qian, MA Zhen-feng
    2011, 26 (11):  1918-1929.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1110KB) ( )   Save
    According to the daily precipitation data from 1961 to 2009 and the disaster data from 1998 to 2007 of 141 meteorological stations in Sichuan, by using those methods like climate trend rate, Mann-Kendall check, complex Morlet wave, Gumbel distribution function, information diffusion theory, we analyzed the changing trend, mutation site and cyclicity of five extreme precipitation indices in seven subregions, and the spatial variability of the extreme daily rain and the flood loss risk about 50- and 100-year repeat period, obtained the main conclusions as below: the extreme precipitation was slightly increased and enhanced, and mutations happened at the early 1980s in the mountainous region of southwest Sichuan. They were also increased and enhanced in the northeast of Sichuan Basin and south of Western Sichuan Plateau, but not significant. While the trend in northwest and south of the basin and north of Western Sichuan Plateau was decreased and weakened. The frequency of the extreme precipitation tended to increase but its intensity became weaker in the middle of the basin. The most extreme precipitation indices shown a 25-year a long period and 6-9-year short period in most regions as well. From the 25-year long period, the recent extreme precipitation is being in a process of increasing and enhancing. By Gumbel distribution function, the maximum daily precipitation was fitted, the extreme area of it was in mountain areas around the basin and in the transitional zone of the plateau and basin. Three extreme centers are located in southwest, northwest and northeast of the basin, the daily precipitation with a 50-year return period is above 230 mm. The flood loss rate with a 50-year return period is about 38% in the most regions of the basin, it can reach 45% in northeast of the basin and 60% in the southwest of Guangyuan.
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    Characteristics of Precipitation and Air Temperature Variation during 1951-2009 in North China
    ZHANG Yi-chi, WU Kai, YU Jing-jie, XIA Jun
    2011, 26 (11):  1930-1941.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1073KB) ( )   Save
    Annual and monthly observed temperature and precipitation data at 64 weather stations in five provinces of North China are used to estimate the areal temperature and precipitation using the Thiessen polygon method. The regression equations between the observed temperature/precipitation at seven stations with long time-series records and areal magnitude from 1961 to 2009 were then built. The areal temperature/precipitation time series was extended back to 1951 through the seven stations with long time-series records. With this extended dataset, the temperature/precipitation trend for 1951-2009 was investigated with Mann-Kendall, Mann-Whitney and the moving average method. The results indicate that: 1) the temperature increased by 1.5 ℃ during the past 59 years and showed a statistically significant increasing trend with the magnitude of about 2.2% per decade; the time series of annual temperature appeared step change around 1993 and the temperature anomalies changed from negative periods to positive periods from 1989. 2) The annual precipitation did not present a statistically significant trend and showed a decline of 1.3% per decade; the precipitation anomaly showed that the year 1976 is the turning point from wet to dry. The result of this paper can be used as a reference for further analysis of climate change and its impacts as well as the responses of water resources to climate change in North China.
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    Estimation of Spring Wheat Yield by Remote Sensing Information from China’s Environmental Disaster Mitigation Satellite —Taking Chen Barag Banner of Inner Mongolia as an Example
    DENG Kun-mei, SUN Jiu-lin, CHEN Peng-fei, WANG Juan-le, LIAO Shun-bao, YIN Fang, ZHU Hua-zhong, YANG Fei, YANG Ya-ping
    2011, 26 (11):  1942-1952.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1036KB) ( )   Save
    Taking Chen Barag Banner (County) of Inner Mongolia, one of the most important spring wheat producing areas as an example, the spring wheat yield (per unit area yield) was estimated by using China’s environmental disaster mitigation satellite data with a resolution of 30 m. The NDVI data of spring wheat at milk ripening period of the satellite on 2009-07-29 were selected, and the relation between NDVI values and wheat yield data was built up. And the estimation model of spring wheat yield was established by using mathematical statistics and regression methods, with the precision validated estimation model by the ground survey spring wheat yield data. The results show that the image extracted NDVI has good singular parabolic line relation, y=cx2+bx+a with measured per hm2 yield of spring wheat. NDVI is closesly related with measurement of spring wheat yield, with the correlation coefficient R being 0.87, the yield estimation difference being -160 kg/hm2, and the error was -3. 89%. This indicates that the precision of yield estimation of premature spring wheat using the NDVI of China’s environmental disaster mitigation satellite and the model for measuring the yield of spring wheat can also gain the same predicted efficiency by using any foreign remote-sensing satellites.
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    Design and Analysis of Oil Resources Accounts Based on Resources Value Depletion: Taking Oil Industry Development of the Yellow River Delta as an Example
    FAN Chao, LI Ping, CHEN Dong-jing, PENG Chang-sheng
    2011, 26 (11):  1953-1962.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (947KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the concise introduction of the system of integrated environmental and economic accounting (SEEA) proposed by United Nations, the oil development in the Yellow River Delta was studied to explain the compiling procedure of oil resources accounts with oil exploration and refining data from 2003 to 2008. Oil resources accounts include physical account, monetary account and integrated account in this paper. The results show that, in the Yellow River Delta from 2003 to 2008, value depletion of oil resources for exploration estimated by applying "user cost approach" are 15.40 billion yuan, 11.13 billion yuan, 12.16 billion yuan, 10.49 billion yuan, 10.60 billion yuan, 8.30 billion yuan, respectively. Then the adjusted indicators of production by subtracting depletion are less than traditional indicators. Meanwhile according to the integrated account, the ratio of oil industry added value with deduction of depletion to industry added value and local GDP (changes from 80% to 40% and 50% to 30%), and loss percentage of industry GDP and local GDP for depletion (changes from 20% to 5% and 30% to 6%) have reduction tendency during the years from 2003 to 2008. Additionally, the average results are 59.1% and 42.0%, 14.3% and 9.8% within the study years, respectively. From this perspective, although poor sustainability of oil resources utilization can be found by huge depletion value for exploration, it is also revealed that sustainability of local entire economic growth brought about by oil industrial development in the Yellow River Delta is enhanced to some extent. And finally the results are analyzed and discussed.
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    Resources Research Methods
    Characteristics of Soil Condensation Water and Its Influencing Factors on Different Underlying Surfaces in the Lower Reaches of the Tarim River
    GUO Bin, CHEN Ya-ning, HAO Xing-ming, LI Bao-fu, CAO Zhi-chao
    2011, 26 (11):  1963-1974.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1366KB) ( )   Save
    Condensation water is an important source of water for ecosystem in arid region. Connected and unconnected micro-lysimeters were used to study the variation characteristics of soil condensation amounts, condensation processes and its influencing factors on three underlying surfaces (Populus euphratica forest, Tamarix bosk and bare land) in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The results showed that the total soil condensation amount on bare land was more than that on Tamarix bosk and Populus euphratica forest, and the value was 2.60, 2.49 and 1.26 mm, respectively. ANOVA analysis results indicated that the average daily soil condensation amounts on different underlying surfaces were significantly different (P<0.01). Condensation water began at 22:00 and ended at 8:00 the next morning, and a continuous condensation water was also observed after sunrise. Diurnal dynamics trend of soil condensation amounts on three underlying surfaces showed a clear double-peak curve, with the first peak value at 2:00-4:00 and the second at 8:00. Condensation amounts in connected micro-lysimeters were significantly more than that in unconnected micro-lysimeters(t<0.01). And condensation water was mainly affected by air temperature, air relative humidity, soil temperature, wind speed and underlying surface. The results may assist in the calculation of rational ecological water demand and ecological restoration in the lower reaches of the Tarim River.
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    Special Forum
    Exploration on Classification of Interconnected River System Network
    LI Zong-li, HAO Xiu-ping, WANG Zhong-gen, LIU Xiao-jie, LI Hao
    2011, 26 (11):  1975-1982.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (931KB) ( )   Save
    Presently, operating Interconnected River System Network (IRSN) is the new policy and strategy for guiding various water activities and ensuring the water safety in China. Generally speaking, the IRSN is a multi-factor, multi-scale and multi-function system with the prominent feature of extreme complexity and hugeness. While scientific classification of IRSN practices is the foremost and required issue, which aims at providing reliable basis for the researches and practices of IRSN activities. In the present paper, according to the property and essence of the IRSN, we first proposed five criteria for the classification of IRSN, namely scientificalness, systematicness, dominance, direction and maneuverability. Then, by considering the natural, economic and social properties of the IRSN practices, and also followed the above five criteria we comprehensively analyzed various factors concerning the IRSN, including the contention properties, contention functions, contention regions, contention scales, contention objectives, contention duration, contention pattern, and contention direction, and further established an IRSN classification system. Furthermore, based on the IRSN classification system established, we summed up and classed a large number of typical ISRN practices in China. Finally, we selected the connection property-based, connection function-based, and regional water resources character-based classification types, and discussed the contention characteristics, contention objective as well as several other main problems of the three classification types, respectively. The results gained from this paper can provide helpful guide for the researches and policy making about the IRSN activities in China in the future.
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    Review on Several Issues of Travel Cost Method in Tourist Resources Valuation
    DONG Xue-wang, ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Jin-he
    2011, 26 (11):  1983-1997.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.11.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1520KB) ( )   Save
    Travel Cost Method (TCM) is a revealed preference approach for valuing tourist resources based on observed economic behavior. In TCM research, several problems, including selecting model, measuring travel cost and estimating the demand function, are controversial. Based on the literature review and analysis, this paper discusses the biases in TCM research and puts forward some solutions respectively. After that, the validity, applicability and legality of TCM are discussed and the emphasis and direction of the future research are proposed. The result of literature review shows that: 1) there are six categories of TCM, including ZTCM, TCIA, GTCM, ITCM, HTCM and RUM; 2) the following problems, which include endogenous stratification, sampling errors, opportunity cost of time and multi-destination trip during the measurement of travel cost, and multi-colinearity, endogeneity and the choice of function form during the estimation of recreational demand function, may lead to biases in TCM valuation; 3) although there are various defects in validity in developing countries, and its applicability and legality are controversial, TCM is still an effective method to measure the recreational value of tourist resources; and 4) the development of TCM should shift gradually from case study to bias analysis and validity test, and then, modification and improvement of the TCM model, especially the combination of the TCM and CVM, should be emphasized to establish and perfect the TCM implementation rules that are suitable to developing countries.
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