Table of Content

    20 September 2011, Volume 26 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    China’s Contemporary Urban-Rural Construction Land Replacement: Practices and Problems
    WANG Jing, FANG Chuang-lin, WANG Zhen-bo
    2011, 26 (9):  1453-1466.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (740KB) ( )   Save
    Recently, there exists more and more severe urban-rural construction land use problems in China, including lack of urban construction land, low rural construction land use and both of urban and rural construction land increasing. Urban-rural construction land replacement impelled by "increasing vs. decreasing balance" land-use policy is expected to be the method to deal with those problems. It was put into practice in several cities and provinces after unveiling a succession of fresh policies since 2004, and the practices in Jiangsu, Tianjin, Shandong and Chongqing were typical, respectively focusing on the boundless expanse of fertile farmland construction, homestead exchange, rural community-oriented development and land transaction. Based on analyzing the cases and system of the land replacement practice, this paper summarizes problems occurred, the reason and their development are as follows: problems exist for every factor in the practice, especially hidden problems are more obvious, such as the farmers’ interests are harmed including being against farmers’ wills, compensations are not satisfactory, and production and lifestyles changed. The first reason is because of imperfect law, regulation and policy, and unreasonable operation and lack of research are another two main reasons. In the future, it should set up an integrated urban-rural land market system, improve land market mechanism, establish compensation mechanism, and conduct in-depth scientific research. In addition, the future land use development should pay attention to intensive land-use growth, and in the replacement process, combination of small town construction with village landscape protection should be practised properly.
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    Study on the Cultivated Land Use Efficiency between Different Regions of China and Its Convergence
    YE Hao, PU Li-jie
    2011, 26 (9):  1467-1474.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (832KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the value of plant industry output, labor force and agricultural means of production’s input data per hm2, taking cultivated land use efficiency as investigated subject, this paper studied cultivated land use efficiency value of each province per year and its spatial and temporal variation using stochastic frontier production function method. The results showed that: 1) At the present stage, agricultural means of production’s input is dominating production mode in China’s cultivated land use. The cultivated land output’s improvement in China mainly relies on chemical fertilizer increase, the increased mechanization level has little influence. 2) China’s overall level of land use efficiency is low, cultivated land actual output has a great difference to potential output under existing input level. In recent 20 years, cultivated land use efficiency was improved, but its speed slowed gradually. It indicated that agriculture’s high yield’s maintenance required plentiful material input. Continued increase in material input has little significance to improve cultivated land use efficiency. 3) Inter-provincial land use efficiency has a significant difference and aggregate in the eastern, central and western regions. Differences exist with the different regional economic development, the highest average efficiency of cultivated land lies in the eastern and central regions has the least efficiency. 4) In the past 20 years, although the national cultivated land use efficiency has signs of convergence, but the global characteristics of β-convergence is not significant. The eastern, central and western regions show the stronger β-convergence characteristics. From the steady state value of the regional convergence, the eastern and western regions are very close, and shown that the western is less than the eastern, the central is less than the western, which means that with the time passing, each of China’s three economic zones will converge to a higher land use efficiency.
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    Tourism Destination Tourist Loyalty Mechanism Model and Empirical Study: A Case Study of Huangshan Scenic Area
    LU Lin, LIU Ying-ying, Lü Li
    2011, 26 (9):  1475-1483.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (467KB) ( )   Save
    Loyal tourists of tourism destination is an important resource for its development. Research on tourist loyalty mechanism favors a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of tourist loyalty,and helps tourism managers to draw up effective strategies of tourist loyalty cultivating. Based on literature review,the paper attempts to combine trading process with the relationship process in order to analyze the influencing factors of tourist loyalty, and to construct the theoretical model of tourism destination loyalty mechanism. Through the on-the-spot survey methods for obtaining tourists data about the perceived values including factors of service quality perception, price perception, emotional value and social value, satisfaction, trust and loyalty, and taking Huangshan scenic area as an example, the paper uses the structural equation model to test the model’s fitting degree and to examine the variables’ impact on the tourist loyalty. It is found that, in the four influencing factors of overall perceived value,factors of service quality perceived value,emotional value, and social value have passed the inspection except price perceived value, and emotional value has the most important impact on the overall perceived value while social value has the least impact on the overall perceived value. Factors of service quality perceived value, price perceived value, emotional value with positive impact on satisfaction have all passed the test, social value with positive impact on satisfaction does not pass the inspection, and emotional value has the greatest impact on satisfaction while quality of service perceived value has least impact on satisfaction. Among the several factors affecting tourist loyalty, tourists’ satisfaction has the greatest impact on tourism destination tourist loyalty, the path coefficient is 0.41; and trust is another important impact factor, the path coefficient is 0.21.
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    Resources Safety
    Scenario Analysis of Energy Zoning and Function Orientation on Sustainable Development of China
    LIU Li-tao, SHEN Lei
    2011, 26 (9):  1484-1495.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (533KB) ( )   Save
    This paper constructs a preliminary framework of energy sustainable development zoning of China by comprehensively using of scenario analysis based on IPAT equation and GIS spatial analysis. And then it carries out research on energy sustainable development zoning and regional function orientation of China based on this framework. From the above analysis we drew the following conclusions: 1) upon entering the mid 21st century, the primary energy demand is still concentrated mostly in developed areas along the east coast of China, while energy supply is mainly distributed in the Northeast China, North China and Northwest China ("Three North" areas for short); 2) the highest energy dependence rates are found concentrated in the east coast of China, such as the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, specifically including the cities of Shanghai, Beijing, the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong and Hainan, while the minimum foreign energy dependence is mainly distributed in the "Three North" areas; 3) we can initially divide China into five regions by energy sustainability: strong unsustainable area (I), unsustainable area (II),weak sustainable area (III), sustainable area (IV) and strong sustainable area (V). Among them, for energy stronger input area (I), in order to achieve sustainable energy, the most significant choice is, on the one hand, to explore the potential of local energy resources realizing the localization of energy resources, while on the other hand, to diversify structure and sources of energy resources; for strong input area (II), achieving localization and diversification of energy resources is the main task; for self-sufficient area (III), enhancing the share of renewable energy in the energy structure and optimizing the energy structure is the core of the area; for strong output area (IV), as a regional energy security buffer is the main function of this area; and for stronger output area (V), as a national energy security protection zone and energy base are the primary responsibilities and functions of this area.
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    Evolutive Characteristics and Differentiation Rules of Agricultural Flood in Dongting Lake Basin from 1950 to 2009
    LI Jing-bao, HU Wei, YIN Hui, MAO De-hua, ZENG Fa-ming, DENG Chu-xiong, DAI Yong
    2011, 26 (9):  1496-1505.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (710KB) ( )   Save
    Dongting Lake Basin is an important agricultural production area in China, however agricultural flood remains obstruction factors in restricting agricultural sustainable development. Based on the flood data from 1950 to 2009, by using the measurable and qualitative methods, the paper analyzes the evolutive characteristics and regional differentiation of agricultural flood in Dongting Lake Basin. The results show that: 1) Annual frequent basin-wide or regional agricultural floods present mountain torrent disasters, among them, disastrous floods and extraordinary floods present increasing trend. 2) Long-term span evolutive process abnormal indices of flood disasters present two wave crest periods and four trough periods, abnormal indices of flood suffering present three wave crest periods and three trough periods. Rates of flood disaster and flood suffering present isochronous changes, but the short-term span has varied in different stages of the inverse relationship between rates of flood disaster and flood suffering. 3) Agricultural flood has mutations, but the characteristics of total evolutive trends present rise. 4) According to disaster environment, flood causing factors, and the level of economic development, the relative and absolute disaster condition of agriculture differs regionally from east to west, and north to south, on aspects of time and space.
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    Resources Ecology
    Ecological Compensation Mechanism on Inter-Basin Water Transfer
    LI Hao, HUANG Wei, LIU Tao, PENG Zhi-min
    2011, 26 (9):  1506-1512.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (724KB) ( )   Save
    The inter-basin water transfer is one of the most important methods of solving water problem in water shortage regions of our country. Nevertheless, the ecological compensation, which derived from the inter-basin water transfer, is the key factor that could restrict the economic and social benefit of the water transfer project. Nowadays, when we design the mechanism of ecological compensation in inter-basin water transfer, the main adoption of general theories and methods applied in the field of inner basin leads to series problems, such as: the absence of compensation subject, incompleteness of compensation objects, irrational compensation standards, and simplicity of compensation methods. These problems greatly limit the practice of ecological compensation in inter-basin water transfer. In this paper, we have compared the different features of ecological compensation between inner-basin water conservation and inter-basin water transfer in the aspects of impacts of projects, the forms of water rights transfer, relationship of stakeholders, management departments and evaluation standards. Then, from the perspective of regional water rights, we put forward a mechanism framework of ecological compensation in inter-basin water transfer, which includes objects, standards, method and guarantee system of ecological compensation.
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    Landscape Pattern Change and Soil Erosion Research—Take Malian River Basin in Loess Plateau as an Example
    ZHANG Jian-xiang, ZHANG Bo, ZHANG Hua, ZHANG Duo-yong, DAI Sheng-pei, MA Zhong-hua
    2011, 26 (9):  1513-1525.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (764KB) ( )   Save
    Quantitative research on the pattern of landscape changes and soil erosion of Malian River Basin in Loess Plateau was carried out by means of Landsat ETM+ (2000) and Landsat TM (2007) satellite images, and supported by GIS and RS technology and methods in landscape ecology. Landscape pattern analysis software (Fragstats 3.3) was used to calculate all kinds of landscape index. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was employed to analyze soil erosion. The results are as follows: important changes took place in the past eight years in landscape patterns and soil erosion of the Malian River Basin. On the one hand, for landscape pattern change: 1) we analyzed the patch types from the level of classification. Construction land, water body, high covered grassland and forest area were increasing, especially in high covered grassland,which was increased from 593108.80 hm2 (2000) to 940098.90 hm2 (2007). Rivers, forests, construction land and reservoirs did not significantly increase and their area increases were 21278.82 hm2, 12561.13 hm2, 4863.72 hm2 and 52.11 hm2, respectively. Instead of low covered grassland, farmland areas were decreased, and the low covered grassland decreased greatly. The low covered grassland area was 542020.78 hm2 in 2000, while it was reduced to 219987.30 hm2 in 2007. The arable land, came the next, reduced by 63712.40 hm2. It can be easily found that over 5% of the low-cover grassland before 2000 was added into the high covered one in the course of the entire landscape pattern change. 2) The landscape level analysis shows that: the total number of landscape patches were 1375428 in Malian River Basin in 2000, but it decreased to 805769 seven years later; patch density decreased from 71.98 patch/hm2 in 2000 to 42.21 patch/hm2 in 2007, indicating the reduction of plaque fragmentation; diversity of the index decreased from 1.31 in 2000 to 1.23 in 2007, reflecting the gradual reduction of the number of landscape elements; patch numbers, patch density and diversity index were decreasing. That indicated a reduction for plaque fragmentation, tending to stabilization for ecosystem and gradual increasing of ecological functions. On the other hand, for the quantitative research in the soil erosion, 1) from 2000 to 2007, the landscape soil erosion modulus was decreased except reservoir. The reducing of forest land was the most significant, whose average erosion modulus decrease was 348.38 kg/(hm2·a) from 2000 to 2007. The construction land came the next, the average amount of erosion modulus decreased by 144.25 kg/(hm2·a) during this period of time, other landscape types of soil reducing was not obvious. 2) Total soil erosion decreased by 12506.76 t, which showed a significant reduction of soil erosion. Most area of Malian River Basin fell into the category of slight and mild erosion, especially the forest in the downstream areas of Ziwuling, where soil erosion was clearly changed from the moderate erosion to the ligh erosion. The river erosion in the deposition zone was more serious, and individual regions were severe erosion. The reasons for the change caused by the restoration of the local vegetation, influence of human activities, urbanization, increasing of construction land and other factors, particularly in the World Bank projects, the state policy of returning farmland to forest and grassland and the effective implementation on it.
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    Research on Noise Reduction Service of Road Green Spaces—A Case Study of Beijing
    CHEN Long, XIE Gao-di, GE Li-qiang, PEI Sha, ZHANG Chang-shun, ZHANG Biao, XIAO Yu
    2011, 26 (9):  1526-1534.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (582KB) ( )   Save
    Among the environmental problems caused by urbanization, noise has become one of the major factors affecting seriously both physical and psychological health of the urban residents. It was found that the green spaces with reasonable allocation had an obvious effect on noise reduction. This paper studied the noise reduction effect and value of urban road green spaces based on the mechanism of noise reduction of green spaces and the results of the noise monitoring experiments, combined with the survey data of green patch. Results were as follows: 1) The noise reduction effect of green spaces differs because of its different structure: the trees-shrubs-grasses strongest, then followed by trees and shrubs, and grasses the worst. Moreover, the noise reduction effect of each kind of the green spaces grows along with the width. 2) The annual quantity of the noise reduction of urban road green spaces was 9.35×107 dB(A) ·a-1 in Beijing, and the trees-shrubs-grasses contributes the most, that is 92.95%. The average quantity of the noise reduction of urban road green spaces per unit area was 20477 dB(A) ·hm-2·a-1, and the trees-shrubs-grasses still was the largest, being 2.92 times of the trees, 17.92 times of the shrubs and 18.64 times of the grasses. 3) The annual value of the noise reduction service provided by urban road green spaces was 713 million yuan·a-1, and the average value per unit area was 156033 yuan·hm-2·a-1. The results showed that the structure of urban road green spaces was reasonable in Beijing, and had played an important role in the noise reduction with considerable ecological benefits.
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    The Spatial-temporal Variation of the Burning Proportion of Crop Straw and Its Influencing Factors —A Case Study of Jiangsu Province
    LIU Li-hua, JIANG Jing-yan, ZONG Liang-gang
    2011, 26 (9):  1535-1545.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (580KB) ( )   Save
    In order to find out the spatial-temporal variation of the proportion of six crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soybean) used as household fuel, direct open burning and its influencing factors in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008), the questionnaire survey during the above four study periods in 47 counties of Jiangsu Province was carried out. Logistic regression model, including the ratio of farmers taking job in cities, age structure of family population going in for agriculture, family incomes, kitchen power consumption, the ratio of crop straw used as domestic fuel and acreage of six crops factors, was set up to discuss the influencing factors of farmers’ willing to chose direct burning crop straw in fields. Results showed that the mean proportion of straw used as household fuel in Jiangsu Province during the above four research periods were 62.81%, 59.76%, 27.55% and 24.13%, respectively, and the mean proportion of straw open burning in fields were 21.16%, 23.93%, 53.29% and 47.87%, respectively. They had an opposite tendency and the obvious change appeared in the second and third research periods. The mean proportion of crop straw used as household fuel decreased obviously in the third research period (2001-2005) compared with the previous periods, while the mean proportion of straw open burning increased significantly. There was regional disparity for crop straw using in northern (including Huaian, Suqian, Lianyungang, Xuzhou and Yancheng), central and southern parts (including Nantong, Yangzhou, Taizhou, Zhenjiang, Wuxi and Suzhou) of Jiangsu Province. The proportion of crop straw used as household fuel (54.22%) in the northern part was higher than the central and southern parts (34.68%), while the ratio of crop straw open burning (29.60%) was lower than the central and southern parts (42.37%). Further analysis indicated that the positive linear relationships (P<0.01) between the proportion of crop straw open burning and the four factors, such as the ratio of farmers taking job in cities, age of farmers, family income and kitchen power consumption. Logistic regression model established declared that four factors had a significant effect on the farmers’ willingness to choose crop straw open burning in fields, and the degree of influence followed the order of the ratio of farmers taking job in cities > acreage >family incomes > the ratio of crop straw used as household fuel.
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    Study on the Simulation of Soil Organic Carbon Content under Different Tillage Modes
    MA Yu-fang, CAI Li-qun, ZHANG Ren-zhi
    2011, 26 (9):  1546-1554.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (623KB) ( )   Save
    During the past century decreases in soil organic carbon content and soil fertility have been widely observed in many agricultural regions. Maintaining farmland soil organic carbon content is essential for the sustainable development of Chinese agriculture. Dingxi County with typical inland agro-ecosystems was selected as a geographic domain for a modeling study reported in this paper. A process-based biogeochemical model DNDC (Denitrification Decomposition) was linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) database holding spatially differentiated information of climate, soil, vegetation and management for Dingxi to quantify impacts of farming management alternatives on C sequestration in farmland of this region. DNDC was first validated against a long-term SOC dataset observed in Dingxi County in Gansu Province. Based on the feasibility of DNDC model in the hilly areas of the Loess Plateau, which was validated using database of a long-term experiments on different tillage practices in Dingxi experimental station of Gansu Agricultural University, continuous SOC changes and carbon cycle features under different tillage patterns were studied by using DNDC model. The results derived from four tested simulations for long-term periods (100 years) showed that SOC increased greatly in the treatments of no-tillage with straw cover and conventional tillage with straw incorporated, by 74.76% and 71.13% respectively; but in-creased gently in the treatments of no tillage with no strew cover by 39.18%. Sensitivity tests indicated that soil property especially initial SOC content was the major source of uncertainty generated from up scale modeling. The simulation of soil organic carbon content under different tillage modes showed that SOC can be increased depending on higher manure, higher proportions of straw returning. According to the simulating results of DNDC model on the hilly areas of the Loess Plateau, straw addition, fertilizer application or no-tillage will be an effective measure for maintaining improved soil fertility, increasing the amount of storage of the organic carbon pools in soil.
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    Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Water Resources Ecological Footprint and Ecological Carrying Capacity in Sichuan Province
    WANG Wen-guo, HE Ming-xiong, PAN Ke, ZHU Qi-li, ZHOU Yun, FAN Yi, HU Qi-chun
    2011, 26 (9):  1555-1565.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (635KB) ( )   Save
    According to the basic principle and calculation model of water resources ecological footprint, the water resources ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity in the years from 2001 to 2009 in Sichuan Province were analyzed. The results showed that the water resources ecological footprint per capita of Sichuan Province increased in the past nine years, while the water resources ecological footprint per 104 yuan GDP in Sichuan Province continued to decrease. This indicated that the utilization of water resources in Sichuan Province gradually increased in the past years. On the other hand, water resources ecological carrying capacity was impacted by drought, however, the ecological carrying capacity of water resources in Sichuan Province was more than the ecological footprint, the ecological surplus was existed. That is to say that the sustainable utilization of water resources in Sichuan Province was well. But the water resources in Sichuan were unevenly distributed. The economically backward western Sichuan where water resources are less demanded was rich in water resources and had large ecological surplus. On the contrary, the economically more developed eastern Sichuan where water resources are highly demanded was short in water resources and had small ecological surplus. Even in the cities of Mianyang, Suining, Neijiang and Zigong the ecological deficit appeared, showing a state of insecurity on utilization of water resources. The changes of ecological footprint of water resources were closely related to socio-economic development; it should fully considered the spatial-temporal distribution of water resources in Sichuan Province, adjusting the industrial structure, rational ma-nagement and use of water resources, promoted the sustainable development of the overall socio-economy of Sichuan Province.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Cause of Water Level Fluctuation in Qinghai Lake from 1960 to 2009 and Its Future Trend Forecasting
    LI Lin, SHI Xing-he, SHEN Hong-yan, DAI Sheng, XIAO Jian-she
    2011, 26 (9):  1566-1574.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (636KB) ( )   Save
    The hydrological and meteorological data of Qinghai Lake in recent 50 years and future climate scenarios from regional climate model (PRECIS) during 2010-2020 are used. The cause of water level fluctuation is revealed from 1960 to 2009 and possible trend in the future 10 years is forecasted. It is found that the level shows a continued decline trend in fluctuation during the past 50 years, but continued rising in recent five years occurs for the first time in the 50 years. Based on which, the decline trend of water level becomes slow, the short cycle weakens and the long cycle intensifies; the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau monsoon makes the climate of the Qinghai Lake Basin warm and humid, but the increasing precipitation and rising temperature cause runoff into the lake increased, hence leading to the water level of the Qinghai Lake rising continuously in recent five years. The prediction results of combined statistical methods and regional climate model PRECIS indicate that water level of the Qinghai Lake is likely to drop generally during 2010-2020.
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    Trend and Periodicity of Precipitation, Air Temperature and Runoff in the Taihu Lake Basin
    LIU Zhao-fei, WANG Yi-chen, YAO Zhi-jun, KANG Hui-min
    2011, 26 (9):  1575-1584.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (643KB) ( )   Save
    Trend and periodicity of mean air temperature, maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, maximum daily precipitation, precipitation, and runoff over the Taihu Lake Basin, which is one of the most developed regions in China, were analyzed in this study. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Morlet wavelet were used to detect trends and periodicity of major hydro-climatic variables respectively. Results showed that air temperature experienced an increasing trend, while precipitation and runoff exhibited a decreasing trend during the past 50 years. Air temperature of stations located near big cities showed much greater increasing trends than that in other stations, which might be due to urban heat island effect. Maximum air temperature in summer, a season with the highest air temperature in a year, showed much greater increasing trends than mean and minimum air temperature. It was included that extreme higher air temperature events in summer exhibited an increasing trend during the past 50 years. Although annual precipitation in the basin exhibited an insignificant increasing trend, maximum daily precipitation did show an increasing trend which is significant at 95% confidence level. It indicated that extreme higher precipitation events (storms) also experienced an increasing trend in the past. Trends of runoff were similar with that of precipitation. Both of runoff and precipitation showed insignificant increasing trends, and magnitude of these trends was with little difference. There existed significant periods of about 4 years and insignificant periods of about 8 years for all six hydro-climatic variables at 95% confidence level, included mean air temperature, maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, maximum daily precipitation, precipitation, and runoff over the Taihu Lake Basin.
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    Study on the Percentage of Trend Component in a Hydrological Time Series Based on Mann-Kendall Method
    YU Yan-sheng, CHEN Xing-wei
    2011, 26 (9):  1585-1591.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (563KB) ( )   Save
    The researches of trend in a hydrological series usually focus on detecting whether the trend characteristic is significant and judging whether the trend characteristic is increasing or decreasing. The paper proposes a concept about the weight of trend component in a hydrological time series which is usually decomposed as trend, period, random component and so on. The calculation formula of the weight of trend component is derived based on Mann-Kendall method. The results show that the difference of dual number p and p0 affects directly the significant level of the trend, and the weight of trend component depends on the value of (p-p0) and the sequence length of series. It also reveals the effects of the sequence length on the weight of trend component for a series with significant trending level. Firstly, it verifies the conclusion that at least 10 samples are necessary to conduct the trend analysis using Mann-Kendall method. Secondly, the weight decreases accordingly with the increase of the sequence length, which also indicates that whether the Mann-Kendall method is applicable for the analysis of trend characteristic should be further studied when the sequence length exceeds a certain range in a hydrological time series. The annual runoff series of Zhuqi Gauging Station in the Minjiang River Watershed from 1936 to 2007, about 72 years, has been taken as an example. The results show that the trend of the series is decreasing, but not significantly. And the weight of the trend component for the runoff series is 24.73%, which is nearly 1/4.
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    Climate Verification for Tobacco Planting in Parts of Yunnan Based on Comparison with Foreign High-quality Tobacco
    HUANG Zhong-yan, KONG Guang-hui, NI Xia, DENG Jian-hua, ZHANG Ru-yang
    2011, 26 (9):  1592-1602.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.015
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    Based on data of tobacco quality and meteorological observation for Zimbabwe tobacco-planting area and eight places in Yunnan, contrastive analysis and hierarchical clustering method are used to investigate the relationships between meteorological conditions and chemical quality for main components, smoking quality of tobacco leaves as well as the contents of its flavor matter. The results showed that five chemical quality types of tobacco leaves had different requirements for meteorological conditions during tobacco field growing stage. And the climatic conditions of mature period for tobacco leaves affected the quality forming of tobacco significantly. Meanwhile, the influence of content indices for primary chemical components and flavor matters on smoking quality evaluation of flue-tobacco had both consistency and difference. In Yunnan’s tobacco-planting belt, if there are less sunshine duration and abundant rain from intermediate to final growth phase during tobacco field growing stage (especially mature period for tobacco leaves), some ratios of major chemical components for tobacco would be unbalanced, and the contents of a great number of flavor matters would decrease while minority flavor matters increased, which would result in the downgrade of smoking quality for tobacco leaves particularly, the quality and volume of aroma would be severely affected. Climatically, there are less areas similar to one of Zimbabwe that can produce high quality tobacco leaves in Yunnan. In order to get the tobacco leaves similar to foreign high-quality tobacco, homologous cultivation bases should be selected from the areas where sunshine is sufficient, rainfall is relatively less and temperature appropriately higher from intermediate to final growth phase during tobacco field growing stage.
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    Resources Research Methods
    Water Vapor Resource Vertical Stratification Characteristics Retrieved Basing on the Radiosonde Datum
    CAO Yu-jing, LIU Jing-miao, LIANG Hong, CHU Yan-li
    2011, 26 (9):  1603-1612.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.016
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    The paper analyzes the water vapor vertical stratification characteristics in Beijing using the radiosonde datum from 1999 to 2009 and uses the Weibull and exponential distribution to fit the water vapor content probability density to study the vertical distribution of the atmospheric water vapor content. The preliminary results is as follows: all the fitting passed the chi-square goodness of fit test with good correlation coefficients, high accuracy and low root mean square errors; average fitting correlation coefficients of Weibull and exponential distribution were 0.93 and 0.95 respectively; and the fitting root mean square errors were 0.009 and 0.01 g/m3 separately. The vertical distribution of atmospheric water vapor resource of Beijing agreed with Weibull distribution. The water vapor content agreed with some stratification structure on rainy day and decreased with the height on sunny day.
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    Analysis of Water Exchange between River and Lakes in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River in Low Flow Years
    ZHAO Jun-kai, LI Jiu-fa, DAI Zhi-jun, YAN Hong
    2011, 26 (9):  1613-1627.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (14337KB) ( )   Save
    This paper focuses on analyzing water exchange between river and lakes along the middle and lower Yangtze River in typical low flow years of 1978 and 2006, by using water level and discharge data at Yichang, Hankou, Datong, Chenglingji and Hukou hydrologic stations. The empirical formula for explaining water interchange coefficients of river and lakes are obtained and by this, degree of water interchange between river and lakes can be showed in a quantitative way. Result indicates: the data in 1978 can stand for conditions before the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) and reflect water interchange process between lakes and main streams in typical low flow years. While the running of TGR in 2006 shows that lakes have exerted positive effects on runoff regulation of main streams in typical low flow year. What’s more, water exchange coefficients at Dongting and Poyang lakes in 1978 are 0.57 and 0.56, and this shows that Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake water exchange is stable. However, the coefficients are 0.89 and 0.51 in 2006 and this shows water exchange in 2006 is stronger than that in 1978. The quantities of water supplied by Dongting and Poyang lakes to the Yangtze River are 1990×108m3 and 947×108m3, respectively accounting for 29% and 14% of the runoff in the corresponding period at Datong Station in 1978. While the quantities of water in 2006 are 1962×108m3 and 1564×108m3, respectively, accounting for 28% and 23% of the runoff in the corresponding period at Datong Station. Especially the Poyang Lake, its recharge is 5% more than the normal years. Thus, the discharge at Datong Station is more than 10000 m3/s all the year round in 2006.
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    Special Forum
    Monitoring and Mechanism Analysis of Severe Drought in Southwest China during Spring 2010
    GUO Wei, WEI Ming
    2011, 26 (9):  1628-1636.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.09.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (606KB) ( )   Save
    A severe drought occurred in Southwest China in spring of 2010 and it resulted in serious economic loss and social problems, especially in Yunnan Province. The distribution and dynamic change of drought are revealed using the TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) based on EOS/MODIS data. Several different types of data, including weather situation, V-3θ diagram, ncep reanalysis data, water content of atmosphere are used to analyze the characteristics of the temperature and humidity on land, atmospheric circulation and energy structure. The results show this severe drought is the result of together with the atmospheric circulation, the air energy structure and evaporating by the land high temperature: 1) Since January 2010, most areas of Yunnan Province experienced the drought, except the Nujiang River Basin in the northwest part of Yunnan Province. 2) The TVDI are sensitive to both the land surface temperature and water content of atmosphere, which lead to the conclusion that it is reasonable to take both of them into consideration when monitoring and evaluating drought. 3) During this severe drought, the vapor content of atmosphere was lower than the multi-year average, as a result of the maintenance of dry northwest wind in the southwest of China. 4) The solar radiation made the temperature of surface increased significantly, leading the relative humidity was low throughout the whole troposphere. These results can provide some theoretical bases and useful references for the forecast and monitoring of the severe drought.
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