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Table of Content

    20 February 2011, Volume 26 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Agricultural Land’s Ecological Compensation Criteria Based on the Producers’ Willingness to Accept: A Case Study of Farmer Households in Wuhan
    CAI Yin-ying, ZHANG An-lu
    2011, 26 (2):  177-189.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (591KB) ( )   Save
    Agricultural land plays a multi-dimensional function and role. It provides not only food and fiber, which is the important safeguard to food security of our country, but also serves as various non-market commodities with characteristics of externalities or public goods. As an ecological barrier in protecting environment, it also brings into playing more and more important ecological and landscape functions in land use planning. So agri-environmental policies (AEPs) have become one of the effective methods to protect the rural landscape and agricultural land in western developed countries. It promotes the farmers to engage in ecological agriculture or organic agriculture, circumventing the shortage of agricultural eco-environmental supply. Ecological compensation system involves suppliers, demanders, other market players, the ecosystem services and products, it is similar to the standard elements of the market. According to Provider Gets Principle (PGP), this research estimates agricultural land’s ecological compensation criteria based on the farmer households’ willingness to supply and accept, and the results have some reference for reducing the negative externalities of agriculture. Based on the empirical survey on farmer households in Wuhan area, the current research studied the farmers willingness to accept if they will be given certain compensations for reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals. Several conclusions can be drawn from this study. Firstly, most farmers recognize the negative impacts of fertilizers and pesticides on the agricultural land’s eco-environment. However, they stick to current practice due to the easy use and quick effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Secondly, if we take the application of fertilizer and pesticide under different limits, it is a significant negative relationship between producers’ willingness to supply and application restrictions of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. About 69.32%-85.25% farmers have willingness to provide ecological services as the limitation standards were settled, namely, reducing chemical fertilizers and pesticides applications by 50% or 100%. When the chemical fertilizers and pesticides utilization reduced 50% or 100%, the amount of compensation that the farmers would accept is 3928.88-8367.00 yuan per hectare per year. Based on the simulation of the agricultural products market, about 54.29%-82.12% of the farmers have willinness to produce agricultural products according to the limit standards of utilization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. And, farmers are willing to produce environment-friendly agricultural products when the rice’s price is higher than common agriculture products at 1.65-2.66 yuan per kilogram, which increases 42.52%-68.45%.
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    Spatial Pattern of Food Provision Sevice in Poyang Lake Region, China
    LI Peng, JIANG Lu-guang, FENG Zhi-ming, ZHANG Jing-hua, YAN Hui-min, ZHAO Hui-xia
    2011, 26 (2):  190-200.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (731KB) ( )   Save
    Generally, in southern China with complex growing system, fragmentized and dispersed paddy field, and long-term overcast and rainy weather, the performance of using vegetation index (VI) time-series datasets derived from remote sensing imageries to extract multiple-cropping index was seriously constrained by the lower spatial resolution. Currently, the application of higher spatial resolution images can be the exclusive and effective way to extract the spatial pattern of different rice cropping systems annually in these regions. In this paper, firstly, the spatial distribution of paddy field in Poyang Lake Region (PLR) was obtained through one TM imagery interpretation. Secondly, the annual phenological calendar of various systems of paddy rice was defined with the agro-meteorological data. According to the significant characteristics that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) fluctuates sharply along with the growth process of paddy rice, map of NDVI for paddy field was derived from another TM image within the applicable time window. Then, different cropping systems of paddy rice were classified by means of Unsupervised Classification in Erdas Imagine 9.2. Finally, yield of each raster (100 m) was calculated with unit yield from local statistical department. The results showed that, late April to late June can be the time window to differentiate early rice and single-season rice, while early July till early August and middle September to early October could be the time window for the differentiation between single-season rice and late rice. Specifically, the planting areas of single-season and early/late rice are 3081.58 km2 and 3602.97 km2 in 2005, respectively, indicating that the multiple-cropping index is 153.9%. Single-season rice is generally distributed around the periphery of the built-up area, while double-season rice expanded along the delta. The total yield of paddy rice reached to nearly 16.5 million tons with a proportion of single-season to double-season approximating to 3 ∶7. The two seasons rice both had a higher yield in the lower reaches and delta area of the Ganjiang River.
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    An Empirical Study on Input and Causal Factors of Non-timber Forest Production
    ZHU Zhen, SHEN Yue-qin, Lü Qiu-ju, ZHENG Xu-li
    2011, 26 (2):  201-208.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (378KB) ( )   Save
    The non-timber forest products(NTFP) became the main source of rural households income in southern collective forest area, but it’s necessary to consider the effectiveness of input and resource allocation for NTFP management. This paper took hickory in Lin’an and waxberry in Xianju as cases, and discussed the role of input and causal factors in non-timber forest production using the C-D production function for 167 households samples in 2009 from these two cases with the micro-household perspective. The results show that the factors of both fertilizers and chemicals input and area have influenced significantly the output of NTFP, and input of labors and planting area per capita for forest labors has influenced significantly the output of hickory. There are many important suggestions for improving the NTFP management such as popularizing the NTFP plantation for farmers, paying more attention to the fertilizers and chemicals input, promoting the labors return to local area.
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    Assessing the Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water: The Soil and Crop Pollution Risk of Heavy Metals
    YANG Jun, CHEN Tong-bin, LEI Mei, LIU Hong-lu, WU Wen-yong, ZHOU Jun
    2011, 26 (2):  209-217.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (479KB) ( )   Save
    It was difficult to precisely assess the risk of heavy metals pollution of reclaimed water irrigation by field survey due to the shortage of irrigated area of long-term irrigation with reclaimed water and the interference cased by wastewater (sewage sludges) used in some reclaimed water irrigated area. The objective of this paper was to assess the pollution risk of heavy metals with reclaimed water irrigation by investigating the areas irrigated with irrigation water from different channels and comparing the heavy metals input from three different channels in the irrigated area. Compared to heavy metal concentrations of soils irrigated by groundwater, heavy metals were accumulated in the soils of wastewater irrigated area and reclaimed water irrigated area to a larger extent. However, there observed no significant difference in heavy metals concentrations of wheat grain sampled from different irrigated areas. Further investigation on the effluent of Beijing wastewater treatment plants and water sampled from Beiyechang irrigation canal showed that the heavy metal concentrations of reclaimed water were much lower than the standards for irrigation water quality. The input of heavy metals by reclaimed water irrigation was close to the input of heavy metals by groundwater irrigation, and was lower than the input by atmospheric deposition and organic fertilizer application. It was proposed that the risk of heavy metals caused by reclaimed water irrigation was small. Compared to early findings about environmental pollution of Beijing in 1976, the present study showed that the current heavy metal pollution of soils in the reclaimed water irrigated area did not necessarily result from reclaimed water irrigation but to a larger extent was caused by early wastewater irrigation (sewage sludges) or organic fertilizer application and atmospheric deposition.
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    The Application of Hierarchical Cluster Analysis to the Prediction of Grain Security of Small Research Areas—A Case Study of Kunshan
    YAO Xin, YANG Gui-shan, WAN Rong-rong
    2011, 26 (2):  218-226.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (449KB) ( )   Save
    Grain security is fundamental to the sustainable development of our society and national economy. As research regions with small area are vulnerable to the impacts of policy changes, indexes related to grain security of these areas often change in the form of stages, which means that the mathematical regularity of long-term datasets is not significant. As a result, it is difficult to implement grain security programming for the future.We put forward a new method of combining hierarchical cluster analysis with traditional mathematical models, and established a quantification standard for the validity judgment of the clustering results. Meanwhile, a criterion for the using of hierarchical cluster analysis was also proposed, but we strongly recommended that mass data from other research areas are needed to calibrate and perfect it.Kunshan (1985-2007) was chosen as a study region to prove the new method, because it is small in area but with rapid economic development. The results of analysis showed that: the indexes related to grain security did change in the form of stages, which were stage 1 from 1985 to 2001 and stage 2 from 2002 to 2006; new models based on hierarchical cluster analysis showed better results in simulating the grain security situation from 1985 to 2006 and smaller deviations in predicting it in 2007 than traditional models—the prediction deviations of total population,farmland acreage and grain productivity in 2007 were 3.4%, -10.9% and 5.6% with clustering and -25.7%, 96.1% and 122.5% without clustering, while the determination coefficients of three different models were 0.977, 0.981 and 0.914 with clustering and 0.801, 0.518 and 0.426 without it; in 2015, Kunshan would have a decreased grain self-sufficient ratio of 6% and a decreased minimum farmland acreage per capita of 0.022 hm2. After a comparison with works of other researchers(on average, the minimum farmland acreage per capita of Zhejiang Province and East China were 0.044 hm2 and 0.075 hm2 respectively) and a subsequent analysis, we concluded that the new method of combining hierarchical cluster analysis with traditional mathematical models was both feasible and scientific.In the discussion, we thought that although such models with hierarchical cluster analysis can be applied to predict the grain security in the future, the predicting precision of the model is dependent on the duration of the recent stage to a great degree. However, the deficiency does not harm its function as a decision support implement for future grain security programming as well as town planning.
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    Research of Ecological Occupiability Based on Least-cost Distance Model—A Case Study on Xijiang River Economic Belt in Guangxi
    LI Ping-xing, CHEN Dong, FAN Jie
    2011, 26 (2):  227-236.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (574KB) ( )   Save
    Ecological occupiability refers to the attribute of ecological space when it was occupied by human being. The space is of low occupiability if the whole ecosystem was damaged from the perspective of structure and function for the occupation. The structure, function and its connections with surroundings are of great importance in determining the ecological occupiability. The least cost distance indicated the work or cost from the source to the destination through units with different resistance. The resistance value indicates the suitability of certain landscape units for distribution of ecological space. Adopting Xijiang River Economic Belt (XREB) for a case study, we designed the resistance of different rasters with a size of 90×90 m2 based on land use of XREB and built resistance surface. Using nature reserve as sources, we carried out calculation on minimum cumulative resistance from sources to destination through cost-distance model of ArcGIS. The ecological occupiability of landscape unit and zoning of XREB were calculated and established accordingly. Results indicated that the low-, lower-middle-, middle-, higher-middle-, and high-value zones of ecological occupiability accounted for 12.17%, 18.75%, 38.55%, 28.69% and 1.84% of the whole study area, respectively. Moreover, most of the construction land distributed at higher-middle-value zone, accounted for 55.29%, 58.73% and 63.86% of the urban & town land, rural land and industrial & mining land. The distributions of the rest parts of the three types of the construction land were different. Most of the rest of the urban & town land was located in high-value zones; while most of the rest of the rural and industrial & mining lands was located in middle-value zones. Minute quantity of the rural and industrial & mining lands was located in nature reserve. The high-value zone has been already developed intensively, and the optimization of spatial structure and function should be carried out in the future. The higher-middle value zone should be the focus for future urbanization and industrialization, while the middle-value zone could be developed but to a within certain intensity. Ecological construction should be the main task of the lower-middle-and low-value zones. We concluded that the analysis of ecological occupiability based on the least-cost distance model could explain the distribution of various types of construction lands and spatial pattern of ecological space. Although the analysis and corresponding zoning were affected by the spatial distribution of source, extent and scale, it is of great significance for guiding the regional development and establishment of ecological security pattern.
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    Spactial Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Slope Settlements in Zhaotong of Yunnan Province
    WANG Chuan-sheng, SUN Gui-yan, SUN Wei, FAN Jie
    2011, 26 (2):  237-246.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (618KB) ( )   Save
    Slope settlement is an important type of mountain settlement. From the perspective of regional development, the slope settlement is always related to mountain settlement with poor ecological and backward economic conditions, as well as the major region for shaking off poverty of the country. As the state functional planning is put into practice, it is very important to fully recognize these problems, such as ecology, poverty, re-settlement, population relocation and so on. The paper took Zhaotong as a study area to adequately explore the spatial characteristics of slope-type settlements and analyze the mechanism from the perspective of regional development. This not only increased the case of mountain settlement study, but also provided some references for construction of residential environment, rural population movement, migration and so forth.The paper revealed the spatial characteristics of slope settlement in Zhaotong by using 50 m grid terrain data in 2005, 1 ∶100000 topographic map, remote sensing data of land use in 2000, and GIS spatial analysis. The result showed that slope-type settlements in Zhaotong had five distinctive features such as high proportion, high density, scattered layout, high intensity of human activities, and vertical differentiation of national settlements. Besides, from the perspective of regional development, the paper also analyzed the formation mechanism of slope settlement in Zhaotong, and found that the spatial distribution of slope settlements was the result of many factors. Firstly, the steep terrain was the natural background of the development of slope settlements. Secondly, it gathered a lot of people in the historical period, while the topography restricted the improvement of traffic condition, thus limiting the local population to foreign exchange and diffusion. Thirdly, traditional farming industry brought about long-term stable growth of population, which led to high density, decentralized development. Finally, the above-mentioned conditions hindered the process of industrialization and urbanization, which increased the difficulty of reasonable allocation of slope settlements, leading to the co-existence of decentralized and high density, high slope and high intensity of human activities.In conclusion, objectively, the spatial distribution of slope settlements was affected by natural and geographical conditions in Zhaotong, but the fact could not be ignored that irrational regional development and inappropriate regional development path were also the important causes, which not only resulted in worsening slope settlement habitats, but also turned them into the urgent problem of regional development in Zhaotong.
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    Study on the Emergy Analysis and Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of the Coastal Region Cultivated Land System in Jiangsu Province
    XU Hui, HUANG Xian-jin, ZHAO Rong-qin, GAO Shan
    2011, 26 (2):  247-257.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (629KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the connotation defining of the efficiency and sustainability of cultivated lands, the author built an index system for efficient and sustainable cultivated land use evaluation, gave a system analysis evaluation of the cultivated land eco-economic system in the coastal region of Jiangsu Province using the theory of emergy analysis provided by H. T. Odum. The results showed that: 1) Emergy-based resource and environmental loading index of cultivated lands(A1)was on the rise from 0.9 to 1.573 in 9 years(2000-2008). In the temporal sequence, the stability of the input subsystem was strong, but that of the output subsystem was weak. 2) Cultivated land eco-economic system of the coastal region in Jiangsu Province was cost-efficient, the degree of land use intensity(B1)was increasing every year. But the input emergy structure of productive factors was unreasonable, and the input of productive factors was intensive but not economical. What’s more, the difference index of the input emergy structure became increasingly great. It presented that the degree of land use intensity(B1)was 1.85×1016 sej/hm2 and the proportion of both non-renewable resources and non-renewable industrial assistant emergy in the input emergy structure accounted for 61.13% in 2008, which had significantly increased compared with 2000. But the output-input ratio based on emergy(B2) was 1.0364 in 2008, fell by 15.90% compared with 2000, which presented a declining trend. 3) The emergy per farmer was increasing year by year from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the emergy per farmer had reached 1.08×1016 sej, increased by 92.81%, nearly doubled from 2000 to 2008. This indicated that the living index of farmer(C1)had greatly improved. But the growth rate of the emergy per farmer year on year was unstable. The output of emergy density of the coastal region in Jiangsu Province presented an inverted "V" shape on the whole from 2000 to 2008. There was slowly declining trend obviously since 2005, which means that the problem of grain security is very serious.
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    Comprehensive Evaluation of China’s Water Resources Carrying Capacity
    LIU Jia-jun, DONG Suo-cheng, LI Ze-hong
    2011, 26 (2):  258-269.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (563KB) ( )   Save
    China’s water resources shortages, combined with uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources, does not match the layout of land and water resources. Actually in China water resources deficiency has become an important factor, which constrained China’s social and economic sustainable development. Based on the point of view of system theory, this paper researches on the coordinated development relationship among socio-economic development, ecological environment and water resources in China. Using comprehensive evaluation model for water resources carrying capacity and selecting data of a given year from each province in China (not including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan due to no data), it calculates the comprehensive evaluation index of carrying capacity of water resources,describes the water resources carrying capacity situation of China’s various provinces and autonomous regions,thus to get a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the water resources carrying capacity in China. The results showed that:1) the distribution of water resources did not match the distribution of population and economic divisions in China; 2) the southwestern provinces have relatively large potential of water carrying capacity; 3) the Yangtze River, Pearl River, and eastern coastal areas are no longer having the advantages of water carrying capacity; and 4) in North China Plain, northwestern regions, such as Xinjiang, Ningxia, Gansu etc, water shortage is severe, water carrying capacity overload seriously, and the water resources carrying capacity is becoming exhausted.
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    Spatial Matching Patterns of Land and Water Resources in Sanjiang Plain
    JIANG Qiu-xiang, FU Qiang, WANG Zi-long, JIANG Ning
    2011, 26 (2):  270-277.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (441KB) ( )   Save
    Sanjiang Plain is an important commodity grain production base in China and the spatial matching patterns of land and water resources in the plain hold the balance of regional food security. In the last few years, the quantity, quality and spatial matching status of land and water resources in Sanjiang Plain have changed obviously, owing to the significant increase of rice planting area in the plain. Thus, for the purpose of evaluating the current spatial matching situation of the land and water resources in Sanjiang Plain correctly, the spatial distribution pattern of the land and water resources was analyzed first of all, next the available water resources were introduced into the study as the characteristic parameter of water resources quantity, and then a measure model for matching patterns of regional land and water resources was constructed from the angle that the available water resources matched the arable land resources. Finally, the matching degree was graded. The results indicated that land and water resources in Sanjiang Plain since 2000 showed a situation on the whole that land resources were abundant while water resources were deficient, and the spatial distribution patterns of the two resources exhibited an obvious dislocation phenomenon, which was no longer the known situation that land and water resources in the plain were plentiful and matching. The matching coefficient of land and water resources in Sanjiang Plain was 0.35×104m3/hm2 in 2008, which was far below the national average in the same period (0.56×104 m3/hm2), indicating a poor matching state. In addition, the matching degree of land and water resources had distinct spatial diversity and presented an overall pattern that south and north better than east and west, marginal land better than hinterland, forest zone better than agricultural zone, mountain area better than plain area. Against the characteristics (poor spatial matching degree and distinct regional diversity) of land and water resources in Sanjiang Plain, while constructing water conservancy works, optimum distributing of land and water resources should be conducted simultaneously to increase their spatial matching degree and to guarantee food security of the plain.
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    Evaluation about Tourism Development Suitability of Wetland Resources in Jiangsu
    LU Xiao-xu, LU Yu-qi, JIN Cheng, ZHOU Yong-bo
    2011, 26 (2):  278-290.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (817KB) ( )   Save
    Starting from the three constituents of tourism system—destination system, tourist source system and travel traffic system—this thesis analyzes the constitution of an evaluation index system for the suitability of wetland tourism development, comes up with this system which is composed of 19 indexes in 4 aspects, namely, resources endowment, urban dependence, traffic accessibility and population & economic base, and determines the weighing of indexes through analytic hierarchy process(AHP), with the aim of quantitatively evaluating the suitability of tourism development for the wetland resources in Jiangsu Province.Next, this thesis sorts out 126 wetland nature reserves within Jiangsu Province from the regional planning for important ecological functional area in Jiangsu Province released by Environmental Protection Department of Jiangsu Province, collects or calculates 19 index to figure for these wetland nature reserves. The values of 4 sub-items among the evaluation index system for the suitability of wetland tourism development as well as the total value were calculated by weighted score. It is shown by the calculation results that the total value of suitability of tourism development for 126 wetland nature reserves falls in between 36.64 and 72.98.According to sub-item evaluation result, Jiangsu wetland resources are clustering into four tourism development types by K-means cluster analysis, namely the highest suitability wetland resources,higher real suitability wetland resources,higher potential suitability wetland resources and low suitability wetland resources, including 38, 19, 36 and 33 wetland nature reserves respectively.Subsequently,it is suggested that the highest suitability wetland resources should be actively develop and the higher real suitability wetland resources should be moderately developed, the higher potential suitability wetland resources should be developed accompanying economic growth and the development of low suitability wetland resources should be temporarily restricted. Simultaneously, public welfare development ideas have been proposed.Finally,some topics currently without conclusion have also been discussed,including principle of tourism development of wetland resources, inconsistency between tourism development suitability of wetland resources and environmental bearing capacity, and relation of tourism development of wetland resources and environmental destruction.
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    Assessment on Energy Demand for Rural Household Heating in Loess Hilly Region, Gansu Province
    NIU Shu-wen, LI Yi-xin, DING Yong-xia, QIN Jing
    2011, 26 (2):  291-301.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (600KB) ( )   Save
    The winter temperatures are almost below zero degree Celsius in loess hilly area of Gansu Province, where rural households could not obtain enough heat to comfort farmers through heating. In this research, we obtained the data of temperature change and energy consumption through observation and record in two villages of the region, set up trend surface models and calculated accumulated temperature differences in the heating period. We proposed indoor temperature of 16℃ as a well-off living standard of rural household heating. According to relevant national standards, we compared the thermal efficiencies between actual energy consumption and theoretic consumption under energy-saving technology used. The results are as follows: accumulated temperature differences of Zhangguan Village and Hepan Village in heating period are 23002 h·℃ and 36390 h·℃, and actual energy consumption are 926 kgce/a and 1199 kgce/a respectively, which only meet 39.6% and 46.6% demands of household heating under the well-off standard. Integrated thermal efficiency of energy consumption for household heating is only about 17%. If energy-saving technology was applied, both actual energy consumption and that under 16℃ would be substantially reduced. Therefore, the potential for improving integrated thermal efficiency is enormous. We consider that raising heat retention of houses and reducing heat loss per unit area through houses’ energy saving reconstruction and improving heating appliance are the main direction to solve household heating issues.
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    Dynamic Monitoring and Analysis of Soil Erosion in Chaya County of Tibet
    PEI Sha, YAO Zhi-jun, ZHANG Yu-shu, ZHANG Bo
    2011, 26 (2):  302-309.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (485KB) ( )   Save
    Soil erosion in Tibet mainly includes water erosionand freeze-thaw erosion, the dynamics of which are difficult to monitor. In the study, the method of RS and GIS was applied to analyze the dynamic change of the soil erosion type and level in Chaya County based on respective characteristic of water erosion and freeze-thaw erosion in order to get an effective and quick soil erosion monitoring method in Hengduan Mountain Region in East Tibet. The software of ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images) and ArcGIS were used to synthetically analyze the TM images, the land-use map, the digital elevation maps (DEM) and the vegetation coverage maps of 1995 and 2000 in Chaya County to get the intensity distribution of the soil erosion and the change of it. In the analysis the soil erosion intensity was divided into six categories: the micro-degree level, the mild level, the moderate level, the strong level, the strongest level and the violent level. The results showed that the soil erosion in Chaya was composed mainly of the mild level, moderate level and strong level. Moreover, the freeze-thaw erosion was mainly distributed in the western part of the mountains and canyons, and the proportion of it was small, only 2.06%, but mainly of the strongest level and big hazard. The areas of the micro-degree erosion level zone, the moderate level zone, the strong level zone, the strongest level zone all have increased from 1995 to 2000, from 797.50km2, 1210.90 km2, 66.52 km2, 84.65 km2 to 985.96 km2, 2709.30 km2, 129.88 km2 and 107.82 km2, respectively, and there has large amount of mild level zone that has been converted to moderate level zone in the east of the study area. It was concluded that the soil erosion has been worsened in Chaya County. Furthermore, it was both the human factors such as the increase of the arable land and decrease of forest and the natural factors such as the raise of the precipitation that speeded up the soil erosion rate in the study area.
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    Dynamic and Driving Force Analysis of Salinized Land in the Yellow River Delta Based on RS and GIS
    LI Bai-hong, ZHAO Geng-xing, DONG Chao, QIN Yuan-wei
    2011, 26 (2):  310-318.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (537KB) ( )   Save
    The salinized land in the Yellow River Delta is serious with large area, which restricts the sustainable development of regional agriculture. In this paper, based on RS and GIS technology, selecting three Landsat TM multi-spectral images of Kenli County in the Yellow River Delta, an index model and a comprehensive index model of land salinization, barycenter and vector model of land-change driving forces were established. Land salinization information, its dynamic changes and driving forces from 1987 to 2007 were analyzed in the study area. The results showed that the comprehensive index of land salinization in Kenli County was 24.10, 26.38 and 24.87 in 1987, 1998 and 2007 respectively, presenting a heavy-light-heavy trend. The salinization degree was decreased progressively from coastal areas to inland, and it was also distributed symmetrically taking the Yellow River as the axis. The longshore of the Yellow River and the southwest area were less salinized. From 1987 to 1998 the annual growth rate in area of severe, moderate and mild salinized land was -0.24%, -1.75% and 1.23%, respectively, while that was 0.47%, -0.60% and -0.79% from 1998 to 2007, which showed that the area of severe salinized land decreased first and then increased, while the area of mild salinized land increased first and then decreased, and the area of moderate salinized land decreased persistently. The mutual action of the ocean and the Yellow River affected the water-salt movement, which was the internal driving factors of land salinization dynamic changes, and the effects of human activities expressed by conversion of land use types were the external driving forces. This study provided a scientific basis for regional saline control and sustainable agricultural development, and it had a positive theoretical and practical significance for the sustainable utilization of land resources in the Yellow River Delta.
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    Temporal and Spatial Variation of Grain Production in Jiangsu Province and Its Influencing Factors
    ZHANG Hong-fu, ZHOU Sheng-lu, WU Shao-hua, ZHENG Guang-hui, HUA Sheng, LI Li
    2011, 26 (2):  319-327.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (687KB) ( )   Save
    In order to study the temporal and spatial variation of grain production of agricultural land in Jiangsu Province and its influencing factors, this article researches the spatial patterns of grain yield and the total output of agricultural land in 2000 and 2006 in Jiangsu Province and their changes between the two years, and analyses the impact of human factors and meteorological factors on grain yield of agricultural land by statistical method and special analysis of GIS. The result shows that the difference in spatial distribution of grain yield of agricultural land presents the pattern of constant from south to north in Jiangsu Province. This pattern has remained unchanged between these two years, however, as demonstrated in recent years, the grain yield of agricultural land has increased in northern and central parts more than that in the southern part of Jiangsu Province, and grain yield advantage in the southern part has gradually disappeared. The central part becomes another high-value area of grain yield in Jiangsu Province, and in some localities it is close to the level of grain yield in southern Jiangsu. Lianyungang City witnessed the greatest increase of grain yield. The increase rate of grain yield in 2006 is between 1286 and 1797 kg/hm2 compared with that in 2000 . Nanjing and Zhenjiang experienced the greatest reduction of grain yield, with the rate reaching 254-612 kg/hm2. The distribution of total grain output in 2000 shows a pattern of multi-center of the high value area, which is mainly distributed in the northern and central parts, but after 2006, the high value area of total grain output in the northern and central parts became a continuous area. Meanwhile, all other high-value area of total grain output disappeared. The pattern of total grain output in recent years shows that it is reducing in southern Jiangsu while increasing in northern and central Jiangsu. The greatest increase is in northern Jiangsu and the greatest reduction is in the southern. Human influencing factors and precipitation change are the main influencing factors of the change in spatial pattern of the grain yield in Jiangsu in recent years. The relevant departments need to pay attention to the variation of the spatial and temporal patterns of grain production, and this research can provide a basis for decision-making.
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    Discussion on Evaluating the Fairness of Domestic Water Use in China
    WANG Xiao-jun, ZHANG Jian-yun, LIU Jiu-fu, HE Rui-min, LIU Cui-shan, WANG Yan-can
    2011, 26 (2):  328-334.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (390KB) ( )   Save
    Currently, many countries are facing the increasingly serious water scarcity problems around the world. Under such a situation, how to ensure fairness of water use for each person has become one of the important tasks for the Chinese government, which is directly related to sustainable development of water resources. In this paper, we give an introduction of the fairness of water use, then set up a model for calculating Gini coefficient to judge it, with the population growth, domestic water use and other data, we calculated the Gini coefficient for domestic water use. Results showed that with the elapse of time, the Gini coefficient for domestic water use present a decreasing trend, this means domestic water use is becoming more and more equitable. However, the trend of 1995-2000 increased slowly, so it is necessary to pay attention to this possible disruptions.
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    Exploration of the Causes for Forest Area Changes in Jiangxi Province
    ZHAN Jin-yan, SHI Na-na, YAN Han-ming, LIN Ying-zhi
    2011, 26 (2):  335-343.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (399KB) ( )   Save
    Changes of forest area in Jiangxi Province is considered to be one of the major threats to wood security and ecosystem services at regional extent. However, knowledge about the explanation of forest area changes is far from completeness. Therefore, this research integrates natural environmental information with socio-economic processes and policy changes to build the econometric model to explore the driving mechanism for forest area changes from 1988 to 2005. Tobit regression analysis was used to measure socio-economic and natural factors. The estimation results show that the influencing factors for forest area include population, per capita GDP and location factors on forest area changes. The research finds that one possible way to promote the reforestation is to improve the economic development level, particularly to quicken the pace of infrastructure construction, of less developed areas in Jiangxi Province. And promoting transfer of rural surplus labor of Jiangxi Province may also be beneficial to relieve stresses of deforestation for farmland reclamation. The research results could provide decision making information support for land use planning as well as forest protection.
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    Review of Research on Mountainous Ecological Restoration Based on Farmer Household Livelihood Evolution
    WANG Cheng-chao, YANG Yu-sheng
    2011, 26 (2):  344-352.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.02.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (437KB) ( )   Save
    With the acceleration of industria1ization and urbanization, there is a phenomenon of farmer household livelihood evolution in the vast rural areas. Therefore, farmer household livelihood evolution reflects the change of rural economy to a certain extent. Pushed by marginal rural economies and pulled by employment opportunities, the rural poor seek new livelihoods in local communities, external cities and foreign labor markets. Then the farmer household livelihood experiences a variety of changes. According to international related reports, the livelihood evolution can affect the mountainous ecological restoration by changing the farmer households’ land use activity. In terms of its natural function and task, research on mountainous ecological restoration based on farmer household livelihood evolution becomes the focus of restoration ecology and rural geography. Based on Chinese and international related research, the connotation of farmer household livelihood evolution, driving forces and mechanism were reviewed. It was put forward that livelihood diversification and livelihood substitution were different forms of livelihood evolution, and mountainous ecological restoration was closely related to farmer household livelihood evolution. It was also recognized that the active household livelihood evolution promoted the upland ecological restoration through decreasing the human disturbance. For example, the evident decrease of deforestation, degradation and mountainous woodland recovery, resulted from the marginal land abandonment, the transition of farmer cooking energy from firewood to coal, are widespread in some developing countries recently. Finally, it was proposed that the relation between farmer household livelihood evolution and mountainous ecological restoration, the influence of a series of governments’ programs on farmer household livelihoods and rural ecosystem, should be promoted for further study. It was also suggested that Chinese official assessment criteria should be optimized, adding to the weight of household livelihoods and environment, in order to increase the governments’ focus on household livelihood and local environment. Government officials should be rewarded for their long-term livelihood and environmental achievements, not exclusively based on the economic accomplishment in their term of office.
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