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Table of Content

    30 January 2011, Volume 26 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Discussion
    Value of Carbon Sink: Concept and Evaluation
    XIE Gao-di, LI Shi-mei, XIAO Yu, QI Yue
    2011, 26 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (488KB) ( )   Save
    In the context of carbon emission reduction, how to evaluate the benefit of carbon storage and sequestration was theoretically and practically critical. In this study, we investigated the linkage between global climate change and carbon emission and linkage between carbon emission and economic system, and found out the carbon emission permits was scarce, which constituted the realistic basis of carbon sink utility value. We reviewed components of the economic value of carbon sink and their measurement methods, and pointed out the concept difference between carbon storage and carbon sequestration. We also identified the mechanisms for fulfilling the economic value of carbon sink and classified them into three types, which were carbon trade, carbon tax and cost of carbon sequestration project. Based on the price of carbon sequestration from these three types of mechanisms, the economic value of carbon sequestration could be fulfilled with economic compensation.
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    Resources Utilization and Management
    Evaluation of the China’s Resource-exhausted Cities’ Transformation Effect
    YU Jian-hui, ZHANG Wen-zhong, WANG Dai
    2011, 26 (1):  11-21.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (547KB) ( )   Save
    Since 2001, resource-exhausted cities have been benefited from state strategic policy and financial support, starting the process of large-scale transformation. Now, how are about the transition effects of resource-exhausted cities in this decade? What is the cities remarkable achievement and what is their disconcerting risk existed? The paper tried to establish the index system of the transformation development of resource-exhausted cities with the methods of quantitative analysis by using the data in 'City Statistical Yearbook 2005-2009’, and measured the status of resource-exhausted cities’ transformation which are reflected by their own restructuring and the status of regional development. The results show that the transformation work of these cities is well done generally. In different types of resources, the city’s transformation results are not the same. The transformation of resource-exhausted cities at the county level is usually better than the prefecture-level cities because of their basis of different sizes on urban development. In the prefecture-level cities, the transformation development of the western region is better than that in the eastern and middle. In comparison, the transformation of resource-exhausted cities at the county level in eastern region is better than that in western and middle. Generally, the oil cities’ development is faster and healthier than other types of cities, and forestry cities have the worst situation. This phenomenon is strongly related with the properties of resource and the national policies. Some of the cities’ development is not synchronized with the regional development.
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    Econometric Analysis of the Dynamic Interaction between Urbanization and Economic Growth and Environmental Pressure: The Case of Ningxia
    ZHANG Zi-long, CHEN Xing-peng, LU Cheng-peng, GUO Xiao-jia, XUE Bing
    2011, 26 (1):  22-33.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (565KB) ( )   Save
    The paper analyzed the evolutionary trajectory of urbanization ratio and economic growth in Ningxia for the 21 years from 1985-2005. And based on emergy theory,the paper evaluated the environmental pressures which were indicated by Environmental Load Rate(ELR) and Emergy Waste Rate(EWR) and respectively represent environmental pressure related to natural resource input and pollution emission. Secondly,by using the time-serial data of urbanization ratio,and per capital GDP and environmental pressure indicators,we applied the Co-integration Test,Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) and Granger Causality Relationship Test to examine the causal relationship between these variables (urbanization-economic growth and urbanization-environmental pressures). Thirdly,the relative strength of the causality is gauged by Variance Decomposition method which decomposes the total impact of an unanticipated shock to each of the variables beyond the sample period into proportions attributable to shocks in the other variables including its own,in the bivariate system. The results indicate that the urbanization ratio has been increasing constantly,and per capital GDP as well. At the same time,the Environmental pressure has been rising persistently. The findings of econometric analysis indicate that there is no Granger causality between urbanization and economic growth,and the beneficial interaction between them has not formed. For the relationship between urbanization and environmental pressure,temporal causality result was unidirectional causality from urbanization to environmental pressure. But the relative of strength of causality varies from ELR to EWR. Furthermore,it is very difficult to reduce the environmental pressure in the short run for Ningxia.
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    Quantitative Study on the Ecological Compensation for Nature Reserves Based on the “Virtual Land” Method
    WANG Lei, SU Yang, CUI Guo-fa
    2011, 26 (1):  34-47.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (621KB) ( )   Save
    Who to pay and how much to pay are keys and difficulties of ecological compensation in payment for nature reserve from both theoretical and practical perspectives. There are two main problems in ecological compensation of nature reserves in traditional quantitative methods, which was calculated by positive exteriority of nature reserve. One is the infringement of economics principle, and the other is the inconformity with management mechanism and the lack of law or regulation. Consider these issues as well as the fact that most protected areas are disturbed by the activities of residents in the surrounding communities, this article holds that we should achieve the ecological compensation of protected areas by controlling the negative externalities, in order to effectively coordinate the relationship among protected areas, residents of the surrounding communities and the ecological beneficiaries. Based on ecological footprint analysis, this paper presents the concept of “virtual land” and develops a quantitative method to determine the minimum standards of ecological compensation and the applicable conditions of its conclusion. “Virtual land” approach disputes per capita land area occupied through the income terms, and adopts the multiple use of community land out of standard on the whole to determine the weight of different type of land. In this way, we get the optimum ecological population.
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    Resources Safety
    Studies on Characteristics of Soil Seed Bank of Pedicularis verticilata Community
    LIU Yan-yan, HU Yu-kun, WANG Xin, GONG Yan-ming, LI Kai-hui
    2011, 26 (1):  48-57.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (451KB) ( )   Save
    Pedicularis verticilata has already become an intrusion species on Bayanbulak grassland with the biological characteristics of small and excessive seed. In order to control its expansion effectively, the distribution characteristics and the relation with habitats of P. verticilata were studied by field vegetable investigation and laboratory testing analysis. We studied the characteristics of horizontal distribution on soil moisture gradient and the characteristics of vertical distribution under the conditions of different soil types by counting method. Constant temperature and varying temperature treatment methods were used from laboratory germination, P.verticilata’s seed germination response to temperature was analyzed. Correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between P. verticilata’s seed bank and plant diversity and other soil factors. The result shows that: 1) Soil water content is the main influencing factor for P. verticilata seed’s horizontal distribution. The order of vertical distribution of the seed is litter layer>humus layer>subsoil layer, the amount of seed difference was remarkable between each layer. 2) The amount of seed has a significant positive correlation with P. verticilata’s density and coverage, but has little correlation with other plants. 3) Regarding reproduction and growth, soil water content is the limiting factor. The number of inflorescence and the amount of seed reached maximum when soil water content is 0.25, and no seed will be reproduced seed when soil water content exceeded P. verticilata’s tolerance limitation. Varying temperature is propitious to seed germination, the last ten-day of May and the first ten-day of June were the optimum period of germination, the germination rate reached to 76.9% and 72.4%. 4) Soil organic matter is another main influencing factor for the growth and reproduction of P. verticilata, the correlation coefficient is 0.970 (p<0.01).
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    Resources Ecology
    Assessment on the Sand-fixing Function and Its Value of the Vegetation in Eco-function Protection Areas of the Lower Reaches of the Heihe River
    HAN Yong-wei, TUO Xue-sen, GAO Ji-xi, LIU Cheng-cheng, GAO Xin-ting
    2011, 26 (1):  58-65.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (457KB) ( )   Save
    Assessing the ecosystem service function and its value was a hot topic in ecology and economics research, and the establishment of the key eco-function protection areas had great effect on the national security and the socio-economic development in China. This study offered a theoretical basis for the protection and construction of the key eco-function areas. The eco-function protection areas of the lower reaches of the Heihe River were located in Ejinaqi, Inner Mongolia, with an area of 5.1×104 km2. Supported by the techniques of RS and GIS, based on the RS data of 1986, 1996 and 2006, using the sand transport flux models, the sand-fixing function of vegetation and its economic value were assessed in the eco-function protection areas. The results showed that the amounts of the sand-fixing were 9056×104 t, 4972×104 t and 6296×104 t in 1986,1996 and 2006 respectively; the sand-fixing ability of different vegetation covers differed greatly, the forest land was the highest(9532 t/km2), shrubbery land was the second(9494 t/km2), and the low cover grassland was the smallest(5182 t/km2); the sand-fixing function decreased during the period of 1986-1996 and increased during 1996-2006; the spatial difference of sand-fixing function was obvious and the areas having higher sand-fixing ability spread sparsely in the high vegetation fraction areas around rivers and lakes; and the value of the sand-fixing function was higher, reaching 53.1×108 yuan in 2006, which was 5.1 times the value of the GDP in 2006.
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    Response of Winter Wheat Yield to Climate Change under Global Warming in Anhui Province
    TANG Wei-an, TIAN Hong, CHEN Xiao-yi, WEN Hua-yang, DING Xia, XU Guang-qing
    2011, 26 (1):  66-78.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (749KB) ( )   Save
    In order to study the impacts of climate change on winter wheat yield under global warming, the contribution of climate change to winter wheat yield was analyzed in the north of Anhui Province. Based on the determination of the mutation point of winter wheat yield from the analysis of characteristics of climate elements and winter wheat yield, the extraction of climate factors that related with yield and the establishment of the climatic yield model using regression, the contribution rate of climate change to winter wheat yield was calculated quantitatively by the model for the north of Anhui Province from 1961 to 2007. The result showed that: average temperature had a significant increase, precipitation had unobvious trend but significant fluctuation, and sunshine had a significant decrease during the growing period of winter wheat in the north of Anhui Province. Over-wintering stage maximum temperature, regreening stage minimum temperature and grain-filling stage sunshine were significantly positively correlated with wheat yield, but grain-filling stage precipitation was significantly negatively correlated with wheat yield. In the past 47 years, over-wintering maximum temperature and regreening stage minimum temperature had risen by 0.028 ℃·10 a-1 and 0.855 ℃·10 a-1, grain-filling stage precipitation and sunshine had decreased by -1.157 mm·10 a-1 and -2.695 h·10 a-1.The climate change had a weak negative contribution to winter wheat yield and the contribution rate was -5.89%.In this paper, the climatic yield model could reflect the contribution of climate change to winter wheat yield in the north of Anhui Province in the past 47 years. A certain degree of warm and dry climatic conditions was beneficial for winter wheat yield formation during the winter wheat yield growing period.
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    Study on Soil Respiration in Eucalyptus grandis Plantations with Different Densities in Rainy Area of Western China
    XIANG Yuan-bing, HU Ting-xing, ZHANG Jian, TU Li-hua, LI Ren-hong, LUO Shou-hua, HUANG Li-hua, DAI Hong-zhong
    2011, 26 (1):  79-88.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (902KB) ( )   Save
    From Mar. 2008 to Feb. 2009, soil respiration was measured by infrared gas analyzers (LI-6400-09) of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with different stand densities in Rainy Area of Western China. The results were given as follows: Soil respiration in every stand with different densities exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with the highest rate in July and the lowest in January, and the stand with the density of 883 plants per hectare had higher soil respiration rate (Rs), while the density with 2222 plants per hectare had lower soil respiration rate. The average respiration rate of 24-hour variation of soil respiration in April, July and October 2008 exhibited Rs(883)>Rs(1333)>Rs(2222), and Rs(July)>Rs(April)>Rs (October). The soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil organic matter content and root biomass in 10 cm soil layer showed the same trend, the smaller the densities, the more their contents. Temperature was the main control factor of soil respiration variation. The two-factor model of soil temperature and moisture was better than the single-factor models, and it could explain 78.3%-91. 5% monthly variation of soil respiration. For the Q10 values of stands with different densities, the order was 3.65(833)>2.60(1333)>2.55(2222), implied the trend that the Q10 values decreased with the enhancement of stand density.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Study on Cloud Water Resources of Mountain Ranges in Xinjiang Based on Aqua Satellite Data
    WANG Hong-qiang, CHEN Yong-hang, PENG Kuan-jun, CUI Cai-xia, ZHANG Guo-qing, LIU Qiong
    2011, 26 (1):  89-96.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (494KB) ( )   Save
    CERES SSF Aqua MODIS Edition 1B/2B/2C cloud data from Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) of NASA’s EOS from December, 2002 to December, 2007 were employed and the Altay, Tianshan and Kunlun mountains in Xinjiang were selected as research regions in this study. The variation features of cloud water resources were demonstrated through the analysis of multi-year average spatial distribution, seasonal and annual variation in total cloud coverage. The results showed that multi-year average of the total cloud coverage of the Altay Mountains, Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains were 43.47%, 44.91% and 52.72%, indicating the cloud water resources had potential for artificial enhancing precipitation; the measurement of the total cloud coverage of the Kunlun Mountains was the highest, but the precipitation conversion efficiency was relatively low, so there should be some potential for improving the precipitation efficiency by artificial enhancing methods at the Kunlun Mountains; the total cloud coverage of the three mountain ranges had obvious seasonal and annual variations with different features.
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    Appraising Model of Utilizing Efficiency of Resources and Environ- ment for Industry and empirical study in Guangxi and Guangdong
    WANG Cheng-jin, YANG Wei, XU Xu, LIU He
    2011, 26 (1):  97-109.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (569KB) ( )   Save
    The industrial is the most important economic activity of human and has a significant influence on the resources and environment. The relationship among the resources input, economic benefit and environmental pollution determines the utilizing efficiency of resources, environment for industrial economy. But the existing literatures ignore the construction of integrated appraising model on this topic. Based on the review of progress in research, we design the appraising model of utilizing efficiency of resources, environment for industrial economy, including TOPSIS model and SBM of DEA model. The TOPSIS model can merge the several indexes into a synthesis index of resources input, economic benefit and environmental pollution respectively, and provide an integrated discussion. The SBM model of DEA considers the environmental pollution as an un-expected output in the calculating process which is different from the other existing models, and appraises the utilizing efficiency of industrial economy of each specimen region. This model improves the appraising method in this field. Then taking 35 cities in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces as the case region, we describe the spatial pattern of resources input, industrial benefit and environmental pollution respectively, and analyze the efficiency level of industrial economy of each region, and discuss the corresponding relationship between utilizing efficiency of industrial economy and input-output of industry. The result shows that there are two kinds of regions with the efficiency and inefficiency of industrial economy respectively. Twenty cities in the Pearl River Delta, north Guangdong and the coastal regions in east Guangdong and southwest Guangdong, and west Guangxi and southwest Guangxi have the efficiency of utilization of resources and environment for their industrial economy. But 15 cities in east Guangxi and north Guangxi and northwest Guangdong have the inefficiency of industrial economy and those cities are distributed uninterrupted. Moreover, we identify the causation of un-efficiency of industrial economy of each city in Guangdong and Guangxi. The discussion of SBM model demonstrates that the inefficiency of industrial economy largely results from the resources input and un-expected output, including over discharge of the pollutants and the over consumption of land resources, water resources and energy such as the coal, oil and electric power. Then the cities in Guangdong and Guangxi have the enormous potential on the reduction of industrial waste water, waste gas, and on the decrease of water resources, land resources, labor, capital and energy to improve the efficiency of industrial economy. Especially the technical renovation of industrial enterprises, such as the renewal of equipment and the equipment of pollutant disposal, and the improvement of environment access threshold of industrial enterprises, become the practical approaches to enhance the utilizing efficiency of resources and environment input for the industrial economy.
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    Water Dispatch of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Shaanxi Province
    CHANG Jian-xia, JIANG Jin
    2011, 26 (1):  110-118.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (765KB) ( )   Save
    In order to solve the problem of water resources shortage of Guanzhong area, the South-to-North water transfer project i.e. water diversion from the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province has been planned. Based on analyzing the characteristics of users and water supply system in intake area, system network structure is established. The simulation operation model is established, and the objective is to satisfy the water demand of Guanzhong area, and operation rules are then determined. Combining the situation of water diversion project, seven water resources utilization schemes are calculated. In 2020, after diversion water 15.5×108 m3, 10.69×108 m3 more water can be supplied for intake area compared with no diversion project, which is 38.76% of the total water requirement. Industrial water supply reliablity is increased by 32.75% compared with diversion water 10.0×108 m3. The results indicate water shortage can be relieved effectively, and the diverted water plays a major role in improving ecological environment of the Weihe River.
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    Effect of Abandoned Cropland on Stability and Distributions of Organic Carbon in Soil Aggregates
    ZHENG Zi-cheng, WANG Yong-dong, LI Ting-xuan, YANG Yu-mei
    2011, 26 (1):  119-127.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (514KB) ( )   Save
    Soil can be source or sink of atmospheric C depending on land use,cropping system and management practices. Soil aggregate,which has significant influence on soil physical and chemical properties,is an important process of C sequestration. The distribution and stability of soil aggregates are important indicators of soil physical quality,reflecting the impact of land use and soil management on aggregation or degradation. Although soil organic carbon content in aggregates was mainly controlled by land use and soil management,abandoned cropland is considered to be an important factor affecting soil organic content in cropland. In this study,the stability and organic carbon of soil aggregates were studied under different abandoned cropland modes by the method of field investigation and laboratory analysis. The results showed that: 1) Under the condition of dry sieve,soil aggregates were dominated by >5 mm particle size and the changes of soil aggregates were from decreasing to increasing and decreasing again with the decreasing of particle size for all the abandoned cropland modes. Under the condition of wet sieve,soil aggregates were dominated by <0.25 mm particle size and the changes of soil aggregates were from decreasing to increasing with the decreasing of particle size for all the abandoned cropland modes. The contents of dry and wet sieve aggregates had the great difference under different soil layers for all the abandoned cropland modes,and the difference was more obvious under the condition of wet sieve. 2) Under the condition of dry sieve,the average weighted diameter and the geometric mean diameters of soil aggregates were the highest for the conversion of farmland to Eucalyptus plantation and were the lowest for the conversion of farmland to tea plantations in the surface (0-20 cm) layer,and the results were opponent in the subsurface (20-40 cm) layer. Under the condition of wet sieve,the average weighted diameter and the geometric mean diameters of soil aggregates were the highest for the conversion of farmland to eucalyptus plantation and were the lowest for the abandoned farmland in the surface (0-20 cm) layer,and the average weighted diameter and the geometric mean diameters of soil aggregates were the highest conversion of farmland to tea plantations in the subsurface (20-40 cm) layer. 3) The organic carbon contents of different particle sizes in the surface (0-20 cm) layer were higher than those of the subsurface (20-40 cm) layer,and the organic carbon content reduced gradually with the decreasing particle size for all the abandoned cropland modes. The organic carbon contents of soil aggregates were the highest for the conversion of farmland to eucalyptus plantation in the surface (0-20 cm) layer and the highest for the abandoned farmland in the subsurface (20-40 cm) layer.
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    Evaluation of Agricultural Suitability on Geothermal Water in Guangdong
    LIU Zhong-zhen, XU Gui-zhi, OU Jun, HUANG Yu-fen, LIU Hui, YANG Shao-hai
    2011, 26 (1):  128-134.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (399KB) ( )   Save
    Guangdong is one of the provinces possessing the richest geothermal resources in China. The properties of 15 different hot springs water come from 10 different regions of Guangdong were collected from relevant literatures or measurement in lab. We have analyzed the pH, salinity, fluoride, heavy metals, arsenic and ion contents of the geothermal water, and gave the preliminary evaluation on its agricultural suitability. The results are as follows: Fluoride content is the most important limiting factor for agriculture, followed by chloride, and salinity is the third limiting factor. The water coming from hot springs in most areas of Guangdong was unsuitable for directly using on farmland. Scientific and reasonable recharge system for hot springs was recommended.
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    The Multi-time Scale Features of Runoff and Sediment Discharge in Harbin
    MU Xing-min, SONG Xiao-yan, GAO Peng, WANG Fei, WANG Shuang-yin
    2011, 26 (1):  135-144.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (597KB) ( )   Save
    Multi-time scales analysis may provide a scientific basis for short-term and long-term projections of runoff and sediment discharge. The multi-time scale features of precipitation, runoff and sediment discharge were studied using wavelet analysis test in Songhuajiang River. The data of areal average precipitation, runoff and sediment discharge from 1955 to 2005 were employed for Harbin Hydrological Gauging Station. The results showed that precipitation, runoff and sediment discharge had significant approximate periodicity and multi-time scale features. Their first main periods were 24.0-26.0 years, the second main periods were 17.0-18.0 years, and the third periods were 6.0-7.0 years. At the 7 years scale, changes of precipitation, runoff and sediment discharge had the synchronization from the 1950s to the 1960s; in the 1970s, due to massive population movement, as well as the irrational development of water and land resources, a three-curve disorder was resulted; after the 1980s, the implementation of comprehensive measures made three curves re-converge. At 17 and 26 years scales, because of water diversion project, the construction of reservoirs and other human activities, there is not always synchronization between the three curves. Wet and dry years and singular points were closely related to the time scale, so the trend divorced from time scales is meaningless.
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    Time Series Analysis of Soil Water Dynamics in the Shallow Groundwater Areas of North China Plain
    SONG Xian-fang, WANG Shi-qin, XIAO Guo-qiang, WANG Zhi-min, LIU Xin
    2011, 26 (1):  145-155.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (799KB) ( )   Save
    The typical shallow groundwater areas of Cangzhou and Hengshui experimental sites were selected and the observed soil water potential and groundwater data from 2004 to 2006 were used to study the soil moisture dynamics with different soil textures. The temporal and special distributions of soil moisture show that soil moisture in the soil profile increases from top to down depth in normal year or in dry year after rainy year and it increases, then decreases and increases in dry year. At Cangzhou site, where soil texture is composed of sand loam and silt loam with good vegetation cover, the soil moisture displays seasonal dynamics of storing moisture period and missing moisture period. It doesn’t show the seasonal dynamics at Hengshui site with homogeneous sand loam and scarce vegetation. The results of time series analysis show that precipitation is the random event, however, soil moisture and groundwater have high autocorrelation with themselves. There exists a significant difference between the shallow soil above 100 cm depth and the deep soil below 100 cm depth at Cangzhou site in rainy year. And the stability of soil moisture increases from shallow to deep depth. However, the difference between shallow soil depths and deep soil depths is insignificant at Hengshui site. In dry year the difference is smaller than normal or rainy year. Soil texture plays a prominent role in the correlation between precipitation and soil water and between precipitation and groundwater.
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    Resources Research Methods
    Short-interval Land Use Change Detection
    CHEN Xiao-yue, YEH Anthony Gar-on, QI Zhi-xin
    2011, 26 (1):  156-165.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (643KB) ( )   Save
    As the fast economic development and urban expansion, it is difficult for traditional methods to monitor land use changes in short time interval. Moreover, remotely sensed data acquired by optical sensors is often limited by bad weathers and cloud cover. SAR images, such as Radarsat-1, are an ideal tool for weather-proof observation on ground surface. This paper analyzed the results of land use change detections with time lags of 24 days, 48 days and 72 days according to the period of acquisition dates of Radarsat-1. The results need a compromise between accuracies and efficiencies related to the time lags. For most of the situation, it is sufficient of using a time lag of 24 days to obtain accuracy of 60% or above. In some cases of months, a time lag of 48 days is needed. For obtaining higher accuracies, longer time lage such as 72 days are needed.
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    Special Forum
    Law Discussion on the Ten Major Relationships That Should Be Carefully Dealt with to Harmonious Development of Cross-border Water Resource
    HAO Shao-ying
    2011, 26 (1):  166-176.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.01.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (477KB) ( )   Save
    Cross-border water resources have a great diversity of interests to a country, and the conflicts resulting from its exploitation have become increasingly prominent. As for the conflicts and the new potential conflicts, according to the International Water Law at present, we have an overall balance and understanding on how to deal well with the development and protection of transnational rivers, the plan of water use in future and the conflicts resulted from the interests of neighboring countries. In order to develop cross-border water resources harmoniously, it is critical to deal well with several relationships as follows: national sovereignty and water rights; the upstream and downstream countries, the countries earlier and later developing water resources; cross-border groundwater and surface water; national sovereignty and meteoric water such as mist; fair utilization and rational development of water resources; the conflicts of cross-border water resources and international cooperation; benefits sharing and accountability; the development and damage and prevention of cross-border water resources; and basin countries and non-basin countries, etc. China should also be inspired from cross-border rivers’ development and utilization. As a result, water planning should meet both its own needs and interests and other countries’ in order to achieve sustainable use of cross-border water resources.
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