Table of Content

    25 December 1986, Volume 1 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Na Wenjun
    1986, 1 (2):  1-11.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (844KB) ( )   Save
    Qianyianzhou is a red soil and low hilly land, which used to be a poor and needy and less developed area, woodless, waterdeficient, low-yield, and with lots of wasteland, single-product economy.Academia Sinica, the Investigation Team of Southern Hilly Area, in cooperation with the Committee of Sciences of Jiangxi province, proposed in 1983 a programme for land use and compiled the 《Programme for use of Qianyianzhou》 on the basis of integrated investigation of natural resources and agricultural division.Through the practice of three years, the woodland and fruit tree land have been increased from 0.4% in 1982 to 80.1% in 1985. The net income per capita increased by 1.2 times. The profit of state investment is about two times of the loan interest. Both the investor and developers have received really benefit from it.The principal reason for the success in exploitation and management of Qianyianzhou is that adhering to the principle of relative consistency of ecological effect with economic benefit and analysing in some detail their superiority and characteristics. They choose carefully their leading products, turned the river-valley-agriculture of the grain as the main body into stereo-agriculture of wood and fruit tree as the main body, which emphasizes both the hills and th river-valley. For this reason a series favorable conditions have been created, and they ran along a quite different way from the past. The basic experince can be summarized as follows:(1) The stereo-agricultural structure system has been established, which takes superior products as the main body. Thus, a proper balance of the relationship between hills, watershed and cropland is maintained.(2) The developing policy has been determined, that is, taking application as the aim management as the means and combining these two. So an effective way has been found to solve the relationship between preservation management and exploitation, utilization.(3) The developing strategy has been confirmed, that :s providing middle-term with shon term and providing long-term with middle-term, and combining short with long. Thus the relationship between the immediate interests and long-term interests has been put in ordere.(4) The subsidization form of the paid-invenstment and contracted responsibilities, which grants a support before earning the profit, has been chosen. So the relationship between investor's benefit and developer's one.
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    Chen Chuankang
    1986, 1 (2):  12-23.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (852KB) ( )   Save
    Strategy of regional development has different model guiding developments: (1) model guiding development of resources, (2) that of industry, (3) that of technology, and (4) that of commerce A model guiding systematic development can be created by integrating these models. In addition to model guiding development of personal ability, holographic model guiding development can be created. This model aims at raising the value of person and promotes person's transformation from traditional person to modern person with the rhythm of industrial society and initiating the spirit of information societyThus it can be seen that based on raising the value of person, using regional resources, regulating industrial structure, raising technological structure, transforming commercial structure from interversion type to extroversion type, holographic strategy of development creates reasonable structure reflecting the changing relationships.Geography is used to study the interrelations among elements of region (the corresponding and changing interrelations among elements forming geography).Based upon the researches mentioned above, development's strategy of regions takes a forward step to inquire into the corresponding anil changing relations among different structures on the earth s surface Using the theoretial foundations of regional development's strategy, we study internal structures of some regions as well as the structures of background surrounding the same regionsThe corresponding and changing analysis of different structures mentioned above can be illustrated by the relations of framework's network as follows: Background's structures of the surrounding region for the harbour city is emphasized on the basis the structures of different levels of economic hinterland Tor example, four levels of spatial resources of rear-area can be divided for Lianyuu Port: ( 1 ) Gulf opposite to the Lianyungang-Haizhong. The northern part of Jiangsu Province and the southern part of Shandong Province are its near hinterland. Viewed from coastal zone of our country, this region is a relatively backward area, compared with the southern part of Jiangsu Province. (2) Middle and western section of Longhai railroad is the key area for industrial construction of our country, especially for engineering industry. Lianyun Port is a sen port for this section and Central plain, central part of Shanxi Province and eastern part of Gansu Province. (3) Lianyun Port is the most favourable seaport for hinterland Central plain and most part of Northwest area including Qinghai Province, Hcxi Corridor, western part of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia, Uygur, Autonomous Region of xinjiang, even some parts of Tibet. (4) If the railfoad in northern part of Xinjiang is comple:ed anJ connected with the railroad in U. S. S. R. through Ala pass, Lianyun Port will be the most favourable sea harbour also for western Europe and U. S. S. R., entering economic circle of Pacific Ocean from western and central Eurasia.According to this procedure, the research of development's strategy of a region can counect general strategy with sub-strategy, fulfil every strategical policy down to the structure on the surface of the earth, and make "soft consultation" to be realized easily.It is noted that regional superiorities have different levels and some can be brought into play through the local investment. Some belong to provincial or national superioritcs and can be brought into play through investment from higher level, and need to be listed into provincial or national plan.Based upon the theory for development's strategy of a region, we hold that the demonstrative contents of developmental strategy of a region can be summed up: ( 1) Giving full play to local superiority and facilitating economy to start on the way of development; (2) strengthening the lateral connection and extending attractive and radioactive scope, enlivening economy through transportation, circulation and tourism; (3) demonstrating and propagandizing the superiorities on provincial and
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    Ni Zubin
    1986, 1 (2):  24-34.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (779KB) ( )   Save
    The systemetic investigation-research of resource economics is a newborn frontier science which has grownsteadily since the integrated survey of natural resources carried out in China after Liberation. Resource economics studies the relationships among national economic development, exploitation and utilization of natural resources, and environmental effects.lt expounds how to search for and utilize raw materials (resources) needed for production, and how to protect the eco-environment. Theoretically speaking, this is a science of studying productive force and inevitably involves the relations of production and superstructure. Therefore, exploitation and utilization of natural resources is its study object, and rational use of natural resources under proper planning and effective development of productive force are its basic tasks-It is characterized by (1) focusing on the exploitation and utilization of natural resources' (2) emphasizing the long-term strategic goal of regional development, and (3) stressing the suitability and rationality as well as unity with time and space.In this paper four concrete tasks of the investigationresearch of resource economics are put forward as follows: ( 1 ) To evaluate natural and social-economic condition, (2) to study the utilization of natural resources and the present situation of economic development in a given region, (3 ) to give comprehensive appraisal of the means of exploitation and utilization of natural resources with eco-environmental, economic and social benefits consideration, and ( 4 ) to estimate the procedures and the main steps necessary for achieving the long-term goal of regional development.In addition the current situation and experiences of studying resource economics abroad are briefly introduced. It is also pointed out that more attention should he paid to the fundamental study of resource economics and some research work urgently needed should he strengthened
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    Guo Wcnqing
    1986, 1 (2):  35-45.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.004
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    Lying on the south periphery of the middle subtropical zone, the Nanlihg region also has the characteristic of transition to south subtropical zone. This region, with complicated geological structure, and extensive mineralization, can provide rich and various biological resources, while the mineral resources arc concentrated and abundant. All of these provide the rich material foundation for the industrial development. The current industry appears as the heavyduty structure mainly based on fundamental raw material industries. The processing procedure is low with weak energy foundation, and the potentialities for the development of economic connections toward south to southeast coastal areas are great. In the exploitation of the surface and underground resources, the important sign for the development of local economy is not only the guarantee of the primary products for the demands of domestic and foreign markets, but also the develop ment of the processing industries energetically, particularly for the processing industries which based upon the products of agriculture and forestry. The role of local city-centralized industries should be brought into full play, and the district specialized production should be combined with comprehensive production. This is the main direction for the development of district industry. The rational scale and distribution of the main and supplementary sectors should be established in this region bated upon the characteristic of the resources of Nanling, the foundation of the existing industries, the place of the industries in the whole China and the requirements of social and economic development. The products of every 'industry can he divided into two parts: the products which can mainly meet the demands in the district and the products which can meet the demands of the domestic and foreign markets, such as tungsten, lead, zinc, molybdenum, bismuth, rare-earth, minerals, metal materials and their products, manganese, high-grade iron ore, sulphur iron ore, fluorite and their products, timber and its products, sugar, cigarette, can, local products and their processing products. All of these are products with superiority. Priority should be given to the development of these products, thus, every district in the region will depend upon main cities, and the industrial bases of various characteristics can be formed gradually.
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    Chen Jiaqi
    1986, 1 (2):  46-53.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.005
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    Hydrology is derived from Geography as its branch and mainly studies the hydrological regimes of water bodies on land of the Earth. The establishment of water balance and circulation of water conceptions of is a significant progress in the formation of hydrology. The rising of hydraulic engineering demands hydrology to make not only the modifications, hut also the quantitative analysis and calculation of the hydrological phenomena. The Engineering Hydrology rose at the historical moment, then developed rapidly and occupies a principal position in hydrology, rersulting in the advance of hydrometric techniques. The Engineering Hydrology is the subject of technical sciences, and together with the Geographical Hydrology, enrichs the content of hydrological sciences. Consequently, the social develoment spurs the increase of water demands and the exploitation and utilization of water resources in a large scale, and the connotation of hydrological work for rational management and use of water resources, as well as for the safe and economic operation of water resources projects should adapt to this fact. The breakthrough of modern techniques promotes the hydrology to a new Stage, the stage of Wa ter Resources Hydrology. This stage is characterized by dealing with the necessity for water resources system analysis and rational management. The hydrology involves not only the problems of natural sciences and technical sciences, but also those of the, social Sciences. In this paper the characteristics of Water Resources Hydrology and the features of this new stage are discussed. The recent tendency of intermational hydrological scientific activities can prove this transformation evidently.
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    Yuan Zigong
    1986, 1 (2):  54-63.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (734KB) ( )   Save
    Recently, the fresh water resource is facing a crisis which is becoming increasingly acute day by day in most countries as well as in China. The contradiction of water supply-demand is the reflection of relationship between water supply and water demand, affected by water quantity, water quality, distribution pattern and exploitation condition, and closely related to the water resource demands of various departments. The contradiction is the result of comprehensive influence affected by a number of natural and economic factors. As we know, the water in nature is limited, and the distributions of water in different place and times are extremely uneven. With the increase of consumption, water resource has become insufficient in many regions. In China the actual total fresh water consumption reached about 470 billion m3 by the end of the 1970's, around 4.7 times the amount of consumption of the years just following the liberation. In cities living consumption of water has been multiplied by 8 times while that of industry (including thermal power) by 22 times. In some regions and cities, the amount of water consumption has already reached the available point of moderate water year. In the slight low water year the supply does not match the demand. And in the very low water year the problem of scanty fresh water would become really serious.From the point view of tapping new sources of water, desalination of sea water should be developed in regions and cities near the sea. But the cost is much high now. For most cities far from the sea, the sea water is unavailable. By way of the water transported across watershed, the water resource can be redistributed among the districts. Of course, this is the one method worth to be paid attention to. But to do so is much complicated; the con is so expensive that it is difficult to practise in very short period. In many regions and cities water supply insufficient, while tremendous waste of water is really existing. And to reduce consumption is a potentiality in daily life and production. So the basic means to mitigate the contradiction between supply and demand of water resources is to reduce consumption. On the basis of overall reducing consumption, vigorous measures should be adopted to tap new sources and to get a reasonable management of water resource.
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    Li Mingsen
    1986, 1 (2):  64-74.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1050KB) ( )   Save
    The Hengduan mountains is a natural region with strongy dissected relief, and hence a series of virtical bioclimatic zones. Relatively speaking, the land resource is characterized by a series of land types with conspicuous areal differentiation, such as wide cold highland and steep land, land rich in resources suitable for forestry and animal husbandry, less suitable for cultivation and an instable ecology, etc., The agricultural evaluation of less resource and the rational development of land in the Hengduan Mountains should be mainly based on the natural ecology of land, the vertical zonality and, generally, the limitation of slope.According to the suitability and limitation of land for agriculture in the Hengduan Mountains, this paper suggests a land classification system including suitable order of land, suborder of land and class of land, and some relative factors of evaluation and their numerical appraisal indexes.
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    Sun Jiulin, Li Zehui
    1986, 1 (2):  75-86.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.008
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    This information system of the management and decision-making for territorial resources is a comprehensive technical system of many disciplines. This system can be used for providing information, consultations, overall planning and decisions in territorial man-agement.A preliminary discussion on the theory and the methodology of the system is made in this paper. We hope that this study will promote the system establishment and have practical significance.
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    Li Changhua
    1986, 1 (2):  87-96.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (716KB) ( )   Save
    The southern region of China covers Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Rujian, and Jiangxi Provinces, as well as Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi. It is a densely populated area, and the agricultural population makes up 82-89 % of the total population there. The average values per capita for the year 1981 are 0.07 ha for cultivated land, 348kg for grain, about 0.3 ha for arable mountainous -hilly land, 0.11 ha for forest, and 6.75 m3; for timber. The sources of energy, such as petroleum and coal are seriously short. Therefore, in terms of a verge value per capita, natural resources are considerably deficient there. ..In order to reduce the population pressure, the major ways to deal with the situation ought to: (1) vigorously develop, utilize and protect the present natural resonrces; (2) develop the processing industry, export the products, and raise the living standards of the people. In order to attain these goals, a correct policy is most important.
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