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    25 June 1986, Volume 1 Issue 1    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    DISCUSSION FROM ECOLOGICALLY ECONOMIC VIEW-POINTS ON CERTAIN STRATEGIC PROBLEMS OF EXPLOITATION OF AGRICULTURAL NATURE RESOURCES IN CENTRAL ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA
    Hou Xueyu
    1986, 1 (1):  5-17.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (966KB) ( )   Save
    Ecologically economics means that to develop economy one should consider the relationship between law of ecology and economics, and that between economic efficiency and ecological efficiency. To attain the goal mentioned above, economic policy is necessary. This paper deals with the following two pans:1. Ecologically economic view-points to exploit agricultural nature resources(1) Considering the economic efficiency, one must understand that natural conditions in in area are very complex. Orange trees can be planted in a local condition in central Anhui, but it does not mean that it can be extended everywhere in whole area. Tree species along highway is unique, and so different species adapted to various habitats should be selected.(2) The economic efficiency is related to the ecological efficiency. In the "great leap forward" drive of the late 1950s, people have reclaimed land from lakes only because of thinking to increase production of cereals. Consequently, the function of irrigation and drainage, fisherery as well as sideline products of lakes have been lost. The natural enemies of rats and mice such as foxes, cats, snakes, etc. are caught and told by the far- mers for foreign trade. In consequence, this behaviour has caused to increase the reproduction rate of rats and mice which eat large amounts of cereals, vegetables, fruits, and infect a certain disease posing a serious threat to people's health.(3) The economic law must correspond to the law of ecology. Oliveoil trees producing high yield of oil per hectare are widespread and commonly planted in the Mediterranean area, where the rainfall is low and sunshine is strongest in the world. However, from the ecological point of view, these trees are not fitted to extend in Anhui's climatic conditions.(4) The economic policy is a decisive factor to resolve the accomplishment of both efficiencies of ecology and economics. Fish-breeding is a rational use of water resource from ecological and economic view-points; however, the price policy of fishes and forages would decide to limit or promote the development of fishery.(5) To maintain the view-point of ecosystem is important to obtain economic efficiency. The problems concerning mountains, hills, rivers, farmland, forests, and roads should be tackled in a comprehensive way, as far as the prevention of floods by Huaihe River is concerned.2. Discussion on rational exploitation of mountains, hills, water resource, and fields in central Anhui(1) Protection of forests and afforestation in mountains should be ordered the priorities, since vegetation has been spoiled, and consequently, soil erosion is getting worse. Cultivation of tea trees, sideline production, fisheries, and animal husbandry may be promoted according to the local conditions in mountainous area. Selecting tree species planted on hills with acid and calcareous soills, one has to consider whether its biological and ecological character is fitted. Rice, wheat, and sweet potatoes can be raised in some suitable places. In addition, promotion of animal husbandry, sideline production, and fisheries may also be boosted in places.(2) Rational use of water resourcePromoting and improving the ecological environment is very important. One must comply to a certain degree with the laws of nature, including complicated relationship between man and water. Lakes should be recovered from reclaiming fields for fish-breeding, water-crops planting, irrigating, and navigating to develop their original functions. Of course, recovery would be taken place step by step.(3) Rational use and exploitation of fieldsDepressions, dry lands, paddyfields, and sandy soils should be planted with differentcrops or trees based on their biological and ecological characters. Intensive managementand rational use of chemical and organic fertilizers in crops should be made to increase?their yields. Attention must be paid to the problem of rural energy for which to plantfuel trees is most practical.
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    REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCE IN CHINA
    Chen Mongxiong
    1986, 1 (1):  18-27.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (636KB) ( )   Save
    Since the establishment of New China, great attention has been paid by the government to the investigation of groundwater resource. Regional hydrogeological mapping covers most parts of the territory, and an overall evaluation of groundwater resource has been made. As a result, the total groundwater resource of our country is estimated at about 872 billion m3/a, in which the amounts of porewater, fissurewater and karstic water are calculated separately, and the consumption of groundwater is computed as well. A lot of prospecting work has also been carried out for the development of wtllirrigation as well as for water supply of industrial cities. The extensive work mentioned above has provided a scientific basis for the rational development and utilization of groundwtter resource.According to statistics, 11.3 million ha of arable land are irrigated with water from wells, and the annual exploitation of underground water has reached 40 billion m3. In 27 cities of Nonh China, the output of groundwater reached 6.86 million m3/d, which amounted to 87% of the total water consumed. The distribution and hydrogeological characteristics of groundwater resource in various regions are discussed in this paper, including some environmental hydrogeological problems related to the exploitation and utilization of groundwater. In short, it is evident that groundwater resource plays a significant role in both urban and rural water supply, and in promoting the development of agriculture and industry in our country.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON REGIONALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DIRECTION OF MOUNTAINOUS AREAS IN CHINA
    Gou Shaoli, Zhang Tianzeng
    1986, 1 (1):  28-40.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (882KB) ( )   Save
    China has a vast mountainous area, covering two-thirds of her total land area. Therefore, the rational exploitation of the mountainous areas plays an important role in China's economic construction.China's mountainous areas encompass a variety of natural conditions. They are rich in natural resouces, such as forests, grasslands, water for hydroelectric production and irrigation, minerals, fruits, wild animals and plant resources as well as resources of tourism, etc. There are indeed great potentialities for development. But, owing to long t-terme misuse of the mountainous areas the ecological environment is out of balance, the productive level is low and the living conditions of local inhabitants are rather poor.In order to rationally develop the resources of the nountainous areas and to devise a better land-use planning, a preliminary regionalization of China's mountainous.areas has been made. The total mountainous areas are divided into 10 regions and 37 sub-regions. There has been a review for each region and sub-region about its natural conditions, natural resources, state of production, existing problems, developmental direction, main approach and measures for future development.The discussion about the strategic points for the development of China's mountainous area can be summarized as the following four aspects:1) to recover China's mountain forest vegetation and to build the stable base of forestry;2) to fully use grassland resources to mountainous areas, and to greatly incrcas herbivorous livestocks;3) multiple-use is a key to becoming rich in the mountainous areas;4) the position of cereals production in the mountainous areas.
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    FORMATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN CHINA
    Zhao Songqiao
    1986, 1 (1):  41-55.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1026KB) ( )   Save
    China's natural resources are quite rich. Yet, owing to a very hrge population, per capita share of different natural resources is rather low.Major factors governing the formation and distribution of different resources include: a vast territory, a mid-latitudinal and east-coastal location, the mountainous landform and the huge impact of human activities. These factors are closely interrelated and usually work together.Most renewable natural resources, including arable land resources, climatic resources, water resources and biological resources are mainly distributed according to the integration of horizontal zonation (mainly determined by temperature and moisture elements) and vertical zonation (mainly determined by topography and landform elements); azonal factors such as geological structure and human impacts are sometimes also significant. Mineral resources which are non-renewable are mainly determined by geological structure and thus distributed very unevenly.Different natural resources are thus characterized by their close interrelationship and conspicuous areal differentiation. Consequently, they should be developed comprehensively by an overall planning.
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    NATURAL RESOURCES OF HAINAN ISLAND RELATED TO THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
    Xi Chengfan
    1986, 1 (1):  56-64.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (648KB) ( )   Save
    Hainan Island is situated in the north periphery of tropical region.It shows monsoonal characteristics of seasonal alternation of hydrothermal condition. The mean annual rainfall is 1000-2000mm. However, the annual precipitation and seasonal distribution is very uneven. Approximately 80% of annual rain occurs from July to September period mostly in the form of typhoon storm. On the east central section of the Island mean annual rainfall is 2000-2500mm; on the west of the coastal region is less than 1000mm. The most heavy rainfall is up to 5500mm. on the east slope of Wuzhi Mountain Thus, it is characterized by humid climate in the east part, while arid climate in the west.Its mean annual temperature is above 23℃, but its absolute minimum temperature may be around 2% during winter time in the northern pan of the Island, which may cause great damage to rubber trees and other tropical economic crops. However in the southern part, the absolute minimum temperature never falls below 5℃,strong so it is safe for the growth of rubber treesThe main soil type is latosol. Under strong chemical weathering, it contains high content of clay and is rich in sesqui-oxide with strong acid reaction. The organk matter decomposes rapidly, and the properties of the soils are low content of organic matter and alto low exchangeable bases. The properties of the soil are quite different on the Island. This shows high degree of hydration with yellowish tint and rainforest landscape in the eastern part, while arid and sandy with savanna landscape in the western.On the basis of the above mentioned, facts, the following problems are discussed.1. To pay attention to reforestation in mountainous and hilly regions to prevent soil erosion and planting wind-break forest along the sea coast.2. To further extend planting of rubber trees and other tropical economic plants run by the state and local people.3. To raise the yield per unit area of. cereals and to promote the self-sufficienty cereal production.In addition, developing fishery along the sea coasts such as shrimps, shellfishes, pearl shell raising, etc. is also discussed.
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    PHYTOCOENOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SUBTROPICAL GRASS-HEATH ON ACID SOIL MOUNTAIN IN GUANGXI AND ITS RATIONAL UTILIZATION
    Wang Xianpu, Hu Shunshi
    1986, 1 (1):  65-78.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (913KB) ( )   Save
    The subtropical grass-heath is formed after evergreen broad-leaf forest and mountain mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaf forestare cut. It is quite evident that this grass-heath is a successive stage in the developmental process of subtropical forest. Analysis of its phytocoenological features shows that its physiognomy is characterized by herbaceous, simple-leaved, microphyllous type of winter withered hemicryptophytcs with erect stem, Phanerophytes also occupy certain proportion, especially with much deciduous broad-leaf nanophanerophytes. As for the structure of the community, in the general, there is only one layer, namely the herbaceous layer,But synusia structure is also considerably complex, having different kinds of herbs and shrubs. Floristic compositions of the community is dominated by East Asia elements and endemic subtropical plant species, among which Gramineae, Hicriopteriaceae and Pteriaceae occupy important position, and Compositae and Cyperaceae also play a certain role. This indicates that its subtropical nature is very obvious as shrubs intrude rapidly into the community in tireless case, grass-heath will be replaced by bush. It must be realized that diversification is an appropriate measure for the rational utilization of this grass-heath, including agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry etc. and their combination according to concrete condition of different regions.
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    LIVESTOCK ECOLOGY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA
    Shen Changjiang
    1986, 1 (1):  79-86.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (595KB) ( )   Save
    The significance and principal fundamentals of livestock ecology, a new scientific branch in animal science and Ecological science, are discussed in this paper. This new scientific branchisconsidered as a necessary tool and theory for the utilization of natural resources, especially of the biological resources, as well as for animal production, i. e., an ecological way for increasing the productivity of farm animals. The author describes the main rules and principles of this new scientific branch Finally, a brief history of Livestock Ecology in China is summarized, and particular emphasis is laib on the progress of the recent years. The author has also enumerateb three main view points of the development of animal husbandry, the rational utilization of natural resources and the theory and methodology of this new scientific branch.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON NOAA IMAGES FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PASTURE BIOMASS
    Tong Qingxi et al.
    1986, 1 (1):  87-95.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (853KB) ( )   Save
    The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer(AVHRR)data from NOAA Meteorological Satellite have been used to study the vegetation biomass in a test area, the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang in northwest ern China.The major data from NOAA Satellite was acquired through Meteorological Ground Station by National Meteorological Buereau. For the assessment of vegetation biomass the two channels of multispectral data were used to form the Normalized Difference (ND).The spectral bands of these channels were 0.55-0.68μm (CH1) and 0.725-1.10μm (CH2)- The Normalized Difference value is very sensitive to the existing vegetation. The digital processing technique was used for estimating the relationship between the Normalized Difference and the vegetation biomass production. The ND data of satellite image were compared with field-sampling biomass data. It was found that the relationship between the above two values was positive and satisfactory. The regression coefficient even approached 0.95. This results show that the satellite remote sensing technique or non-destructive methods for the estimation of biomass of vegetation in western part of China is prospective and effective.
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