Table of Content

    25 September 1987, Volume 2 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Huo Mingyuan, Guo Wenqing, Liang Yihuan
    1987, 2 (3):  193-204.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (757KB) ( )   Save
    After pointing out the disadvantages of the original method for exploiting mineral resources, this paper uses a method of system engineering to research mineral resource exploitation as an active open system. A new model of mineral resource exploitation is preliminarily presented which is logic, orderly and well unified as follows:1. Establish governmental and local committees for exploiting mineral resources in our country and give macroscopic instruction with the following five respects.a. Set up data base for exploiting local mineral resources.b. Estimate the ensurement of major mineral resources for national economy development.c. Estimate the value of local economic geology-mineral resources in exploited regions.d. Optimization of limited investment tendency and an overall consideration for economy-society-ecosystem.e. Proposals for local mineral resource exploitation as reference for industry distribution and for local long-term constructing planning.2. Organize a complete industry production line for discovering mineral resources-mine exploiting-the raw mineral products processing-firsthand industry materials-new industry products which are sophisticated and high-excellent, and a trust business management is performed to revise the midcroscopic production condition.3. Establish academy and institute of exploiting mineral resources to do microscopic feedback. Emphasis should be placed on the comprehensive research, multipurpose utilization and exploitation, as well as relatively economic relation and engineering information collection.Finally, the mineral resource exploitation of Ganjiang Basin is taken as an example to make an attempt for analysis, and significant result has been achieved.
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    Hu Zhaoliang
    1987, 2 (3):  205-212.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (538KB) ( )   Save
    Economic centres shift constantly owing to various factors. The United States is entering the Post-industrial period and its economic centres are shifting towards the south, [n China, the southward shifting of the economic centres may take place even before the country enters the Post-industrial period as the northern part of China is in serious lack of water, whereas the southern part of the country ooasts of a host of fine ports.The location of natural resources is one of the reasons that account for the southward shifting of the economic centres. Natural resources form an indispensable conditions of economic development of the society. Although nature is the external cause of social development, but it is as important a factor as the internal cause. Under certain circumstances, it can become the decisive factor in the shifting of the economic centres.There are three types of natural resources whose location has a fairly great impact on the shifting of the economic centres. These three types are as follows:1) Means of production (e.g. fertile soil), which have an attraction for the agricultural society;2) Means of labour (e.g. minerals), which have an attraction for the industrial society; and3) Good environment, which has an attraction for the Post-indutrial society.The location of the natural resources causes the shifting of economic centres between-south and north, east and west.
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    Zheng Hongyi, Gu Chaolin
    1987, 2 (3):  213-228.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (858KB) ( )   Save
    The Chinese coastal urban system has several obvious recent characteristics. They are mainly (1) the rare distribution of the port city, which is dense in the North and sparse in the South; (2) two kinds of port pattern: estuary port and coastal port; (3) lack of special port, wharf and berth; and (4) forming of the open economic system.To make a comprehensive survey of economic developing condition of the China coast,, the development of the coastal urban system has the preponderance in six respects: (1) substantial economic base, developed external trade; (2) strong central position of the seaport city; (3) abundant marine resources, great exploit potentialities; (4) rich and varied tourist resources, more nature scenery with seas and waters; (5) a very long distance of "Golden Coast"; and (6) advance in science and technology, sufficient resource of man power. But, it has also weakness in the short of supply of energy, fresh-water source and a thin over-land network of communications and transportationIn view of all these above, we consider that the development of the coastal urban economy must open to the world market, link closer the port with the interior, modernize the classical sectors of industry and exploit marine resources. The aim of the coastal urban system planning is seeking in an overall view the whole effect according to the law of urban development of China's seaports. The Urban system Planning focuses mainly on particular groups of sub-system planning such as: (1) the territorial spatial structure planning (include the Ringed Bohai Economic Zone, the Changjiang Golden Delta Economic Zone and the Southeast Coastal Economic Zone); (2) the hierarchy planning of the rank-size structure with Shanghai as its head; (3) Organization of the coastal urban function and (4) the mesh system planning (include the seaport system, the transportation network, the castal tourist mesh and the urban economic mesh).
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    Wei Zhongyi, Tang Qicheng
    1987, 2 (3):  229-241.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (889KB) ( )   Save
    Water resources are not only a valuable natural resources but also one of the most active environmental factors in the arid zone. Water resources brought about, in developing and using them, an important influence on socio-economic development in the arid zone. According to statistics, total amount of annual available water resources in the arid zone is 53,160 million m3, which is 51% of the total water resources of Northwest China. At present, annual available surface water is 49,300 million m3, which is 50.5% of the total surface runoff. Annual amount of groundwater exploitation is 3,850 million m3, which is 9.7% of total amount of groundwater recharge in the plain region of the arid zone.Due to large development of water resources after liberation, the increase in the use of water resources has produced numerous hydrological changes, such as changes of rivers runoff regimes, shortage of groundwater resources, dry up or salify of lake water. Furthermore, it has brought about change of used models and ecologic-environment.In order to use water resources reasonably, it is necessary to pay attention to unified planning of river basin, to sum. up experiences of water resources utilization in different regions and to set up optimum models in different types of water resources utilization. Some suggestions for rationally using and protecting water resources are presented in this paper.
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    Ou Yuxiong
    1987, 2 (3):  242-251.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.005
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    The total area of freshwater bodies in Jiangsu province is about 1733 thousand ha. including all types of rivers, reservois, pools and lakes. Taking the amount of water resources, its nature and prospects into account, it seems that the larger and middle-sized lakes ought to be the main part of exploitation in the coming days.In this paper the existing state of larger and middle-sized lakes in Jiangsu province has been discussed. It shows that there is still keen contradiction of larger in resources, great in potential benefit and poor in produtivity. The drawbacks are not only the poor yield but also (1) low-level of primary productivity of the lakes. At present, the natural baits still form the main base of aquatic produts. (2) single-product management. (3) environmental quality goes to the worse.In order to improve production level thoroughly and greatly, the pattern "Water-body Agriculture" was suggested."Water-body Agriculture" means that integrated-agriculture is developped in lakes relying on new technics. This is a new field of scientific research and production. And it combines organically the traditional fishery with modern agriculture, so that the directional exploitation of resources could be accomplished.The theoretical principle of water-body agriculture is to improve the efficiency of solat energy in lakes. In this pattern the function of aquatic plants is stressed. The aim is to use the natural resources of water, soil, space and light more efficiently, increase the primary productivity fundamentally, and set up a material base for the use of resources. In a sense, the water-body agriculture is a "Green revolution".The water-body agriculture is trying to seek a route reaching the "lake self-providing", breeding promoting by planting, prospering both fishery and farming, diversified economy on large water area. The terminus is to turn a lot of large and middle-sized lakes into integrated modernly non-staple food product base with better ecological environment.The paper summarized progress of experiment in water-body agriculture, which has been doing since 1980. About 60-90% of waves have been effaced from the plant effacing wave belt. The maximum output of water chetnut is 10687.5 kg/ha. Gorgon euryale is 3101 kg/ha. Net output of fish feeding with fishnet in large area reached 31050 kg/ha.In order to obtain a stereo-exploitation on surface layer of water body, land plant and algae are culturing in lakes without soil and obtain a good beginning. It shows that the experiment of water-body agriculture has developped a good prospects about production of lakes.Finally, some notable problems about the exploitation and use of fresh water resources in Jiangsu province were discussed.
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    Yin Zhiyong
    1987, 2 (3):  252-263.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (706KB) ( )   Save
    Land is an integrated concept. It is a certain section of the Earth's surface composed of climate, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, soil, vegetation, and other elements important to Man's achievements. It is the place where Man lives and works. So, land is regarded as a kind of natural resource for its usability and limited amount; and the Man's influence imposed upon the land has been enlarged increasingly. There have always been the needs to understand it better in order to use this resource more effectively and harmlessly.Land classification and evaluation, land-use analysis, and land-use planning are regarded as four branches of the land science. In fact, these are just links of a chain as a whole, interlocked to each other. This article is an attempt to explore the relationships in between.In the integrated study of the land in Qinhuangdao Area, the land is classified into 15 categories and 41 types according to its natural features and their spatial proterties. Then, using the land types as basic units, the land evaluation for the purpose of agricultural land development is carried out. The result of the land evaluation is used as a basis for the agricultural landuse planning; also, a method is proposed using the regional land quality to determine the orientations of the agricultural land development of the area.It is concluded that the regional land structure, or the spatial and quantitative pattern of the land types in an area, determines the regional land suitability structure for a given purpose, the agricultural land development; and the latter determines the spatial and quantitative pattern of the land-use of this purpose, i.e. the regional agricultural land use structure.
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    Cheng Guangchao, Wu Licheng, Zhang Ting, Zheng Xiaohui, Duang Zhangxiong
    1987, 2 (3):  264-269.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (375KB) ( )   Save
    By use of seven operationally monospecific sera of chicken (see Annual Report of the Institute of Genetics, Academia Sinica, 1981", p. 34-35), analyses of constitutions of flocks and genetic relationship were studied among some breeds of "White Plumage Ukokkei" (Chinese native chicken breeds). Comparative studies on "Peking Yukei" (Chinese native chicken breed) and White Leghorn Beijing Line 1 were also carried out. The experiment results denoted as follows:First, 7 blood-group factors in the same breed of domestic fowl inter different genie factors or in the same genie factor of the different breeds were measured. The significant differences were found among distribution frequencies of the blood-group factors (P<0.01). Second, the highest and lowest distribution frequency of blood-group factors are specific in each breed. Third, the amount of constitutive type of blood-group factors and their frequencies varied with flocks. It means that genetic constitutions of different flocks are different.The coefficients of homozygosity of blood-group gene in these flocks are lower (0.1519-0.1768).The genetic distances (calculated by the distribution frequency of the blood-group factors) of some "White Plumage Ukokkei" are smaller, but their genetic similarities are larger. On the contrary, the genetic distances between some "White Plumage Ukokkei" and White Leghorn Beijing Line I are larger, but their genetic similarities are small, whereas the genetic distances, between all the breeds described above and "Peking-Yukei" are of intermediate type.
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    Chen Guonan
    1987, 2 (3):  270-278.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.008
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    During 1963-1972, a large-scale "International Biology Plan" was led and organized by UNESCO. Quite a few countries and a great number of scientists took part in the plan. The plan accumulated many data about primary biological production in the different regions of the world. But it also costs a great deal of time and money. Therefore, several scientists started to set up various models to calculate the biological productivity and to draw up biological productivity maps. The Miami Model is one of them.The Miami Model consists of two formulas that described a large number of mutual relationships between the real survey value of biological productivity and the local average temperature and average rainfall of different zones on the earth. The two formulas are:where: y1 = Primary biological productivity according to temperature (g/m2/year); y2 = Primary biological productivity according to rainfall (g/m2/year); t = Local annual average temperature (°G); p = Local annual average rainfall (mm); and e = The base of natural logarithm.Finally, according to Liebig's restrictive factor law, the local productivity is either y1 or y2 whichever is smaller. We collected some 600 meteorological data, and culcalated them using Miami Model, and then, drew up" Miami Model Productivity Map (Isogram) in China".Due to the map, the total primary biological productivity in China is 8.27×109t per year. It is 6.64% of the total world's primary productivity (124.5 X 10't per year). China's per km2 productivity is 861.45t per year which is equal to the world's level. China's per capita productivity is 8.14t per year which is only one-third of world's average (28.55 t per year).
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    Yao Jianmin
    1987, 2 (3):  279-286.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.03.009
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    In this paper, the maternal detecting system, which main functions were to monitor the variations of lands areas, was rebuilt by means of the mass sampling technique. This new rebuilt system may raise the accuracy of the surveyed land areas. The surveyed land area increase from one land area to four. The system may reduce the least surveyed land area from 30 thousand hectare to 7 thousand hectare within a county. These results were proved by the simulating trial information of masses. By experiments of the 10 distances on the 50 detected wheat points, 111.11 metres is selected to be the best distance.This new system made it possible to detect variations of the more agricultural resources, for example land areas, crops yields, soil water etc.
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