Table of Content

    25 March 1987, Volume 2 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Huang Rangtang, Wang Xu, Yao Zhijun
    1987, 2 (1):  1-8.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (996KB) ( )   Save
    Through the regional integrated survey and system atic analysis of the relations between water need and water supply, some conclusions are drawn. (1) Water-deficient problem is a historical certainty due to the development of industry and agriculture. (2) Water need for agriculture is influenced by regional uneven distribution of monsoon climate and annual variation. (3) The proposed diversion of water from, the Huanghe (Yellow) River and the Chang-jiang (Yangtze) River can mitigats, to a certain extent, the contradiction between water need and water supply of the Hai-luan plain. (4) It seems desirable to encourage the low water consumption in industry and agriculture, and to control strictly the consumption of water in some departments.
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    Liu Changmmg, Du Wei
    1987, 2 (1):  9-19.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (65KB) ( )   Save
    This paper deals with response of crop yields to water resource allocation. Some approaches for calculation and analysis of the effects of water allocation for agriculture are presented as follows: response analysis; analytic function and systems analysis. On the basis of experimental data of relationship between crop yield and water allocation obtained by the Water Conservacy Division of Xing Tai prefecture, Hebei Province, in the North China Plain, by using computer the authors examine the mathmatical models involved in this paper. The calculation results from the suggested approaches coincide fairly well with exsisted experiences in water management of the examined areas. In addition, the calculation shows that the contribution rate of watering to crop yield among the ofher factors influencing crop production accounts for 30-40% on an average. In the North China Plain the futher agriculture development has faced difficult condition of water shortage for a long time. In such case a countermeasure of scientific allocation of agricultural water resources is of great significance. We think, that the methods adopted by the authors and some results involved in this paper are likely to be useful and helpful for making a desirable water allocation decision.
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    Xu Junliang, Liu Jun
    1987, 2 (1):  20-31.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (644KB) ( )   Save
    The development and management of territorial resources of the coastal zone in Guangdong province are discussed macroscopically and comprehensively in this paper.In light of stipulations of "THE U. N. LAW OF THE SEA", the ownership of territorial sea, the continental shelf and the exclusive economic area belong to littoral countries, We show that Guangdong Province possesses a wide marine territory more than 300 thousand km2 and various coastal territory resources. The coastal zone of Guangdong have been analysed with a great number of data for further developing the utilization, and also for intensifying the legislative management of territorial resources. The dualistic theory (productive profits and public welfares) of communication and transport constructions is illustrated. The method of systematic engineering is used to accelerate the construction of coastal ports both me-soscale and microscale. In order to develop the harbour resources, the inshore breeding should be increasingly carried out at the same time. For developing the deep sea fishing of the continental shelf, the modern deepwater fishery bases should be established at some places, such as Jiazi, Shanwei in easthern Guangdong, Shadigang of Shangchuan Island and Nanaogang of Xi-achuan Island in westhern Guangdong, Baimajin and Shanyagang in Hainan Island etc. In the recent period, two comprehensive and extrorse seashore tourist regions should be established for developing the extroverted seashore lourist trades. The first one is on Feishatan of Shangchuan Island in Taishan county, the second one is on the coastal beach from Xianwush-an to Jinxiang in Lufeng county.About the problem for the legislative management of the coastal zone, according to the in- ternational experiences a responsible department and the special laws should be perfected and the comprehensive laws for managment of the coastal zone must be drawn up as soon as possible. On the basis of the geographical position and developing characteristics of the coastal zone resources in Guangdong Province, while the management regulations of the coastal zone are drawing up, there must pay attention to three aspects: 1) The coastal ports, channels and aquatic resoureces have been seriously destroyed over the years by the enclosed tidelands for cultivation and water conservancy, the problems which have left over historically, must be dealt with harmoniously while drawing up the laws and regulations. 2) Because this province is faced with Hong Kong and Macao, the fishermen of the both sides always engage their economic activities on the same coastal zone, therefore, the legal provisions protecting their rights and interests respectively, must be drawn up. 3) At the present time, the polyadministrative structures of open districts for foreign countries are forming in this province, the activities of introducing the foreign capital to develop the coastal zone are steadily on increase, it is essential to draw up the relevant legal provision for promoting the further development.
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    Yang Pingru et al.
    1987, 2 (1):  32-37.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (69KB) ( )   Save
    Mangrove is a special vegetation type in the coast of low latitudes. It is mainly distributed at the flat tidal area of seashore, windless embayment and lagoon coast of Grangdong province and Hainan Island of China; Mangrove with it's soil constructs particular littoral ecosystem. There is closely correlative fitness between the soil properties and the mangrove biological characteristics. It shows: (1) soil acidation and sulfur accumulation of mangrove; (2) soil salinization and physilogical characteristic of mangrove tolerance to salt; (3) soil swamping and variant root of mangrove; (4) soil texture and mangrove growth power. In order to keep the ecological equilibrium of mangrove coast, it is mecessary to protect and develop mangrove resource, and to use mangrove soil resource suitably.
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    Qi Wenhu
    1987, 2 (1):  38-48.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.005
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    The resource carrying capacity calculating is a important base for establishing population growth planning, economic development planning, energy planning, and so forth. This paper gives a brief review of erlier approaches to carrying capacity calculation and assessment ,inclu-ding those of population supporting capacity-considering food only, the potential population supporting capacity of lands (FAO), population supporting potential of Australia, and ECCO model. UNESCO's definition: "The number of people sharing a given territory which can for the foreseeable future and in accodance with the socio-cultural value of that territory, sustain a given standard of living utilising energy and other physical resources, as well as technology, enterprise and skills" is adopted in this paper. Based on such a basic point of view, that resource carrying capacity is a changeable value, which can be enhanced or damaged, and for better serve as a planning tool, author emphasizes the necessity of constructing a systems danymics model to give the integrated expression of the interrelationship between population, resources, environment and development.The paper gives a brief introduction about systems dynamics model, including those basic concepts like feedback, feedback loop, delay, nonlinear, level or state, and those basic elements-stock, flow, information flow, and so on. In this paper, author presents a systems dynamics model for resource carrying capacity calculating expressed by influence diagram, which includes seven subsystems: population, environment, industry, energy, agriculture, culture-education-health, capital formation, and gives the qualitative explanation of these subsystems and interra-lationships between those subsystems. Differ from ECCO model, which emphasizes mainly on the role of energy, this model puts its base on the land use subsystem or the agricultural sector in other words. The land use subsystem is expressed by a causal loop diagram, which consists of four kinds of land use: crop, forest, pasture and city. This subsystyem can be connected with the influence diagram of the model to construct the entity of the system.This paper have not adopted mathematical expression, it points out the difference between the types of data used by static model and of this model. It gives the ways of data collecting and processing to formulate those function relations between two variables in order to satisfy the requirments of the mathematical model, and presents an example: "fertility in relation to income". By four groups of curves of expressing outputs of this model, author gives the results of pilot study of carrying capacity calculating method, and indicates the difference between the contents coming from static and from this model. By running this model we can obtain more information than those models provide. Using earlier approaches, we can understand clearly the long term effects of realizing a certain decision making, and the dynamic relationship between the processes of opulation growth and carrying capacity enhancement. So we can conclude that the systems dynamics model is a kind of useful tool to calculate resource carrying capa-cry.
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    Yang Hankui
    1987, 2 (1):  49-58.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (894KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper we use an fuzzy appraisal method for take stock of scenic resource quality. With the practice of Guizhou high land, the equation of qualitative analisis is:Here Ib-beauty, Id-difference, Iae-scale, Ia-science value. The appraisal equation of a scenic point is:For a sight area, it's all scenic resoureces quality can appraise by equation:Di-dispersion, Gr-green land rate, E-environmental quality, PIM-all scenic point's quality in an area.The scenic resources and its development must demonstrate the feasibility of technic-econo-my, at and development scale can evaluate by frame-figure. Development of scenic resources and initial tourism should act accordiong to the principles of beautiful sight, economic benefit, social benefit, and best environmental effect. The development of sight and area's economy will detaine at the same time.In illustration of scenic resource of Guizhou karst high-land, we will appraisal this mothod and forward the development plan.
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    Han Xianglin et al.
    1987, 2 (1):  59-70.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.007
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    Studies on the characteristics of climatic resource were made with different cropping systems both on irrigated and rainfed plots and different climatic types in three places, Beijing, Quzhou, Huaiyang, located on the northern fringe, in the central and southern parts of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, respectively. The results indicate that the efficiency of solar energy application of double cropping on irrigated land increased by 98-111% in all the places, as compared to single cropping. On rainfed land, however, the efficiency increased only 35% in Beijing, on the northern fringe of the plains, and 98-100% on the southern plains (Huaiyang).Systematic observations indicated that the soil moisture in the top 1 m soil layer on the rainfed land during the winter wheat growth at Huaiyang was higher than that on irrigated land in Beijing.The analysis of the ratio of solar energy utilization indicated that if the precipitation and heat were not enough to meet the need of the growth of crops and the value of Leaf Area Index (LAI) was small, more attention should be paid to increasing the value; otherwise, growth season would be delayed. In the case of the latter, double cropping had many advantages than single cropping for raising the efficiency of climatic resource.The study of components of productivity was made based on the natural and artificial energy with the energy intercepted by crops.
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    Li Shikui et al.
    1987, 2 (1):  71-83.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.008
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    Based on the 1951-1980 climatic data of about 500 stations and a wealth of the agro-climatic information, a summary of the agroclimatic regionalization of China is given in this paper. This regionalization is made up of three levels.The first level, there are three main agroclimatic areas. The east monsoon main area, humid and subhumid, with tolerable and plentyiful rainfall in the warm period, has good climatic productive potentiality. In the northwest main area, water deficit greatly himders the function of light and heat factors. Its southern boundary is set by the 50% frequency line of the annual precipitation ≥ 400mm, with number of days of gale wind as a subsidiary index. In the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau main area, the heat insufficiency hampers the full utilization of the light-water resources. The accumulated temperature (above 0℃) of 3000℃ and the warmest monthly mean temperature of 18℃ are taken together as the boundary of this area.The second level: Fifteen agroclimatic zones are delineated based on the heat demand of the cropping systems and main crops. The east monsoon main area, is divided into ten agroclimatic zones using mean annual lowest temperature and the accumulated temperature above 0℃ as the criterions. In the northwest main area, the accumuluted temperature above 0℃ is used as index. There are two zones, i. e. the arid middle temperate zone and the arid south temperate zone. In the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau main area, ∑t( ≥ 0℃) and the temperature of the warmest month are taken as criterions for delineation. On this basis, Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is divided into three agroclimatic zones, i. e. plateau temperate zone, plateau subfrigid zone and plateau frigid zone.The third level reflects agroclimatic types. Based on regional agroclimatic features, with emphasis on moisture condition and agroclimatic calamity, fifty-five agroclimatic regions arc delineated (see Fig. and Tab.).
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    Kou Youguan
    1987, 2 (1):  84-91.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1987.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (321KB) ( )   Save
    The basic task of the agricultural production is to transform into commodity and economy. .The direction of the agricultural development and the aim of the information System for agricultural resources are to promote the agricultural commercialization, specialization and regionalization.This system is divided into four levels-national, provincial, prefectural and district. The information centre is composed or three softwares: the data bank, the model base, and the dialogue sub-system. The national information centre includes the date bank, the model base, the image base, the simulation base, the documentation base and the bialogue generation and management sub-system.The internal source data base stores the specific data obtained from the survey of agricultural resources. The image base stores the remote sensing images and digital geographic maps. The model base deals with decision making.
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