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Table of Content

    25 September 1995, Volume 10 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    RESIDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN DEVELOPMENT
    Sun Honglie
    1995, 10 (3):  199-202.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (216KB) ( )   Save
    This paper expoundes the problems of the environment and development in China from four aspects. The crux for the improvement of the ecological condition in China is to foster the ecological moral idea, change the appearance of the impoverished regions and reside the environmental protection in development.
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    THE REVIEW AND PROSPECT ECOLOGICAL PLANNING
    Ouyang Zhiyun, Wang Rusong
    1995, 10 (3):  203-215.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (871KB) ( )   Save
    To coordinate the relation between man and the nature and resource exploitation through ecological planning can be traced back to the works and practices of the ecological thinkers and regional planning pioneers at the end of the 19th century, such as George Marsh, Patrick Geodes and John Powell. Ecological planning theory and practice developed very quickly during the period before World War Two but disappeared in the literature for nearly 20 years until the environmental movement in the 1960's. With the occurrence of more and more serious environmental problems and resource degradation ecological planning began its new development era since the late 1960's. Particularly I. L. McHarg's and his colleagues' outstanding work and planning practice made the ecological planning thinking and methods gain widespread application. Recent trends of ecological planning research and practice develop towards applying the modern ecological knowledge and achievements directly and establishing the theory and methodology based on ecology, development economics and other related disciplines. They shift from quality analysis to quantity simulation with powerful computer and geographic information system,and from the single goal planning to urban and regional planning in order to promote sustainable development. It is obvious that ecological planning will become one of the important aspects in sustainable development.
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    ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE SO AGRICULTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
    Liu Xunhao
    1995, 10 (3):  216-224.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (642KB) ( )   Save
    In the first part of this paper some theoretical problems are discussed. They include the definition and actural content of sustainable agriculture, the relation between development and environment, the merits and wrongs of modern agriculture,the traditional and modern technology and so on. The unification of productional, economical and ecological sustainment is emphasized.In the second part some practical problems concerning Chinese agriculture are discussed. They are the direction and ways of agricultural development, the problems faced and the target of Chinese agriculture in the 21st century-agricultural modernization. The intensive sustained agriculture is recommended.
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    THE DIVERSE ECOAGRICULTURAL TECHNICAL SYSTEMS IN CHINA
    Luo Shiming
    1995, 10 (3):  225-231.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (479KB) ( )   Save
    The technical systems of Chinese ecoagriculture mainly include (a) The integrated technique to improve agricultural environment; (b) The technique to protect and enhance agricultural resources; (c)The technique for the comprehensive use of small watersheds;(d)The vertical arrangement technique concerning plant growth, animal husbandry and fishery;(e)The integrated technique in using farmyard resources; (f) The technique for the use of renewable energy resources; (g)The technique for the use of agricultural by-products; and (h)The integrated technique for control. These technical systems inherit the quintessence or traditional Chinese agriculture. They make good use of the resources and also carefully protect the resources. They link different components of agriculture together effectively. In this paper some successful examples using those technical systems in China are introduced.Chinese ecoagriculture will help China to put the 1991 Den Bosch Declaration on Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development and the 1 993" Agenda 21" of the World's Conference on Environment and Development action.
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    ADVANCE IN THE RESEARCH ON THE PRESERVATION OF CROP GERM-PLASM RESOURCES IN CHINA
    Lu Xinxiong
    1995, 10 (3):  232-238.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (447KB) ( )   Save
    Preservation of crop germ-plasm resources has developed rapidly in China. In the last decade a system of preservation was established. Two long-term and more than ten mediumterm storage facilities for germ-plasm preservation have been built. More than 240 000 germplasms of 100 kinds of crops, including 29 families, 164 genera and more than 470 species (subspecies) are long stored in the National Genus Bank of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science. More than 20 000 germ-plasms of perennial and vegetative crops are preserved in 23 National Germ-plasm Nursery. At the same time, the methods used for the preservation of germ-plasm have also been improved.
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    A DISCUSSION ON THE WAYS OF SUSTAINED AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN TIBET
    Liao Junguo
    1995, 10 (3):  239-245.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (531KB) ( )   Save
    Tibet is a special area of agricutural geography in the world so that the research of sustained agricultural development of Tibet is very important to the world' s sustained agricultural development. The author has analysed the history and current conditions of the agricultural production of Tibet, summarized different agricultural production types and discussed the ways of sustained agricultural development for different ecological areas in Tibet.
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    ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN JIANGXI PROVINCE
    Huang Guoqin, Zhang Taolin
    1995, 10 (3):  246-251.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (431KB) ( )   Save
    This paper discusses the background, contents and significance of sustainable agriculture, points out the current existing main agroecological problems in Jiangxi Province and proposes the countermeasures to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in Jiangxi Province.
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    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCE
    Chen Jiaqi
    1995, 10 (3):  252-258.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (348KB) ( )   Save
    The human race must create sustainable developing society, economy and survival environment. To apply the principles of sustainable development and utilization to water resource, which is the main pillar of life support system and economic development, is the substantial assurance of sustainable development. The global hydrological circulation enables the environments of all parts of the world to be united as a whole, and we have to cope with the problems of comprehensive development, utilization and management of water resource through overall approaches accordingly. Attention should be paid to the possible disturbance to the hydrological circulation process due to the development and utilization of water resource by the people. For the sustainable development of water resource it is important to meet the overall needs of the progress of human society and environment protection, and it is undesirable to talk about water just for water sake. In this paper some basic views related to the issues of water resources sustainable development planning work are expounded,and for attaining this goal it is pointed out that a consensus of the whole society to the principle of sustainable development shoule be acquired.
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    YELLOW SEA FISHERIES:ADVANCING FROM SINGLE-SPECIES AND MULTI-SPECIES RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TOWARDS THE LEVEL OF ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
    Qiu Jianwen, Wu Baoling
    1995, 10 (3):  259-266.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (517KB) ( )   Save
    After briefly reviewing the history of the Yellow Sea fishery management and comparing it with the development status of fishery management in other regions, this paper points out the necessity for using the great Marine Ecosystem strategy as a means to advance the fishery management from single-species and multi-species resource management towards integrated and scientific management. Further more, on the basis of the relevant contents of the" Action Plan for the Yellow Sea Great Marine Ecosystem Monitoring and Protection" submitted to UNDP and the World Bank by the State Oceanic Administration of China, an adaptive management strategy is proposed for the Yellow Sea. It includes:(a) Seeking out the problems to be solved according to the analysis of available data; (b) Selecting the appropriate space; (c) Ascertaining the specific contents of research; (d) Acquiring the adaptive management strategies from the research findings; (e) Implementation of the strategies through transnational cooperation; (f) Evaluation of the implementation results through feedback loop.
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    THE NATURAL DISASTERS,CONSTRUCTIONS WORKS FOR DISASTER REDUCTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA
    Shi Peijun
    1995, 10 (3):  267-278.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (777KB) ( )   Save
    China, a country with a vast territory and a huge population, has been plagued by nearly all kinds of natural disasters except volcanic eruption. In a certain sense, therefore, the history of the Chinese Nation is a history of combating natural disasters. In the course of history,China has created many great water conservancy engineering projects of very long standing ,such as the Dujiangyan Water Diversion and Irrigation Project of Sichuan Province and the Sea Dike of Zhejiang Province, and. has accumulated rich experiences in disaster reduction.On the basis of natural disaster information of the China National Committee for the IDNDR and the researches in regional natural disasters of China supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China, this paper mainly analyses the natural disasters,construction works for disaster reduction and sustainable development of China, the conclusions are as follows :a. The main features of natural hazards in China are great variety, high frequency and serious damage. As a country with vast territory and complex climatic and geographical conditions, China suffers mainly from such kinds of natural hazards as drought, flood,typhoon, earthquake, hail, cold spell, snow storm, forest fire, plant disease and insect pest ,landslide , cave breakdown, mud-rock flow , sandstorm, storm surge, sea wave, sea-ice, red tide, etc. Among these , drought , flood. typhoon and earthquake are most destructive. Since 1949 when the People's Republic of China was founded, on an average, drought has occurred 7. 5 times each year , flood 5. 8 times, typhoon (including tropical storm ) 6. 9 times , and cold spell 2. 5 times. They are all relatively high in frequency. In addition, China has suffered more than 50 earthquakes of force 7 or greater magnitude on Richter's Scale ,including three force 8 magnitude earthquakes. Natural disasters usually cause heavy losses of life and property in China and have become important factors hampering the sustainable development of China's economy. In the last 5 years,the direct economic losses caused by natural hazard were: 1989, 52. 5 billion yuan ; 1990 , 61 . 6 billion yuan; 1991 , 121. 6 billion yuan; 1992, 85. 4billion yuan ; 1993 , 99. 3 billion yuan.b. China's construction works for disaster reduction mainly include engineering works beneficial to large areas ,such as flood prevention/control and drought combating engineering works; seismic prevention and quake-resistance engineering works ; landslide and mud-rock flow control projects; shelter-forest ecological engineering projects; desertification control engineering projects; forest disease prevention and insect pest control projects; agricultural ecological-disaster control engineering projects; forest and grassland fire control engineering projects; and other engineering projects to address hazards of lesser impacts. China's nonengineering undertakings related to disaster reduction include the establishment of systems for disaster monitoring, assessing, forecasting and early-warning; land use programming;disaster and risk zoning; disaster reduction planning; disaster insurance; disaster rescue and relief, etc.c. China's national strategies of disaster reduction are: (a) The guiding principle of China's strategy to mitigate natural disaster is to minimize the losses and human casualties caused by natural disasters in the light of China's specific conditions and the need to promote sustainable economic development and social stability; (b) For increasing the national financial input of disaster reduction and calculating the cost of disaster reduction,the regional development is combined with natural disaster reduction and the natural disaster insurance is combined with disaster rescue and relief; (c) Adhering to the principle of "promoting what is beneficial and minimizing what is harmful", and the step-by-step approach"from easier tasks to more difficult tasks", China should be ready to continue taking part in the relevant activities for the national sustainable development programs-the 21st century agen
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    THE ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF NATURE RESERVES IN CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES
    Zhao Xianying
    1995, 10 (3):  279-285.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (482KB) ( )   Save
    The current new idea and viewpoints in the world are used in this paper, and by combing with the international developing trend of natural resources conservation and in accordance with the China's actual conditions. the natural resources conservation of China has been discussed in three parts as follows: (a) The characteristics of China's nature reserves; (b)The construction theory of nature reserves in China and the main issues that affect the development of nature reserves; (c) Some knowledges that may promote the development of nature reserves in China. This paper has put forth a feasible scientific basis for the harmonious development of natural resources conservation and social economy in China.
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    CONTRIBUTIONS OF NATURE RESERVES IN CHINA TO BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
    Xue Dayuan, Jiang Mingkang
    1995, 10 (3):  286-292.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (473KB) ( )   Save
    Nature reserve establishment is the most effective approach of biodiversity conservation.By the end of 1993, 763 reserves has been established in China with a total area of 66 184 100ha that occupied 6. 8% of the country's whole land. On the basis of summing up the achivements of the nature reserve development in China, the present status of all categories of reserves is presented in this paper, including their numbers, areas, distributions and managements. Then the effects of reserves on conserving various natural ecosystems, wild species, domestic species and germplasm resources are evaluated. Also the existing problems are analysed and the measures for enhancing the in situ conservation of biodiversityproposed.
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