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Table of Content

    25 September 1996, Volume 11 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    FORECAST OF CHINA'S GRAIN PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT AND ITS GUARANTEE DEGREE ANALYSIS
    Chen Xikang, Guo Ju-e
    1996, 11 (3):  197-202.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (415KB) ( )   Save
    This paper discusses four stern difficulties and challenges faced by the development of grain production in China. According to the basic national conditions of China and the amount of grain resource in the world market, China must meet the grain demands mainly by her own domestic production. Using the input-occupancy-output techniques and system science methods, this paper makes a forecast about China's grain output, grain import and self-support rate in the year 2030.
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    ON ALLOWING FULL PLAY TO THE ROLE OF CROP GERMPLASM RESOURCES IN INCREASING FOOD PRODUCTION
    Lou Xizhi, Fang Jiahe, Zheng diansheng
    1996, 11 (3):  203-209.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (502KB) ( )   Save
    Crop germplasm resources are an important component part of biodiversity and are the material base of agricultural development. Especially they play an important role in increasing food production. Thus, the effective protection and sustained utilization of crop germplasm resources are treated as an essential matter related to the national economy and the people's livelihood in the scientifically and technologically developed countries, such as the United States, Japan, France, Russia, United Kingdom, etc. In China, the collection, conservation, study and utilization of crop germplasm resources are also paid great attention,and a large number of new varieties have been bred through using the excellent ones. After the popularized varieties of main food crop were replaced 4 to 5 times, the food yield were increased from 1 155kg / hm2 in the 1950's to 4065kg /hm2 in 1994. So far, about 240 thou sand portions of food crop germplasm resources have been collected, and 20 thousand of them identified and evaluated for the main agricultural characters, quality, tolerance to environmental stresses, and resistance to diseases and pests. A great number of resources with desirable characters have been screened out, and some of them have played a great role or will play a still greater role in increasing food production. However, compared with the advanced countries, our country still has a long way to go. Therefore, various new techniques should be fully utilized to accelerate the identification and exploitation of the current food crop germplasm resources. Furthennore, new resources should be also continued to collect and screen on the basis of the needs of breeding and production. It is also necessary to create new species or medium materials to provide the breeders with various excellent resources that do not exist before. This will lay a foundation for the sustained development of our food production.
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    COMMENT ON "WHO WILL FEED CHINA
    Chen Baiming
    1996, 11 (3):  210-215.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (428KB) ( )   Save
    According to population, cultivated land, yield potential per unit area, consumption standard and so on, this paper discusses and analyses the main idea and conclusion of the article, "who will feed China" , and puts forward advantageous proposals. The author thinks this should arouse our urgent and crisis feelings of developing agriculture and make us take feasible measures. Only doing so can we feed ourselves and can our economy get sustainable and stable development.
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    A DISCUSSION ON SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION AND AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE UPPER REACHES OF THE YANGTZE RIVER
    Zhang Xiaolin
    1996, 11 (3):  216-220.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (226KB) ( )   Save
    The history of social development in the extensive mountainous and hilly districts in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River proves that soil and water loss seriously destroys the soil and water resources and hinders the development of the local agricultural productive forces.The soil and water conservation key control project in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River has been carried out since 1989. Its remarkable economic, ecological and social benefits show that soil and water conservation not only controls soil erosion and improves ecological environment, but also protects sustainable utilization of natural resources. It has become an important basic project that supports the agricultural sustainable development in the mountainous and hilly districts in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.
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    ASSESSMENT OF CHINA'S AGRICULTURAL WATER USE AND APPROACH TO THE SOLUTION OF EXISTING PROBLEMS
    Shen Zhenrong, He Weicheng
    1996, 11 (3):  221-225.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (391KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of large quantities of data this paper discusses the significance of agricultural water use to the development of agricultute in China, the present status of agricultural water use in China, and the main probiemls of the China's agricultural water use is facing and presents proposals for the solution to these problems.
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    THE DIVERSITY OF ANIMAL AND POULTRY VARIETY RESOURCES OF CHINA AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
    Shen Changjiang
    1996, 11 (3):  231-238.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (554KB) ( )   Save
    This paper points out that the diversity of animal and poultry variety resources is one of the basic elements for sustainable development of animal husbandry. The main studies and the understanding of the diversity of animal and poultry variety resources in China and abroad in the recent half century are reviewed and appraised. Then the diversity of animal and poultry resources of China and its international status and effects are expounded. The difficult position of these resources at present is pointed out. There are six strategies and ways to deal with this situation, which are discussed too. The most important strategy is to completely change the traditional predatory ideas toward the animal and poultry variety resources it is necessary to learn the experiences and lessons from the western developed countries, namely,"to destroy these resources at first, then to look for, to collect and to conserve the diversity". So we should make the correct decision and approach for keeping the diversity of animal and poultry variety resources of China.
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    ON APPLICATION OF DNA MOLECULAR MARKERS TO CONSERVATION OF LIVESTOCK GENETIC DIVERSITY
    Liu Rongzong
    1996, 11 (3):  239-243.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (395KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the feasibilities and methods of applying DNA molecular genetic markers to conservation of livestock genetic diversity is discussed, and a new strategy of marker-assisted conservation (MAC) of livestock genetic diversity is proposed.
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    A STUDY ON CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF CHINESE PRAWN RESOURCE IN THE HAIYAN ISLAND FISHING GROUND
    Wang Mingde
    1996, 11 (3):  244-248.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (318KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the present situation and production of the Chinese prawn resource are stated. The reasons for its decline and the effects of blooming recapture are analyzed. The measures for the conservation of the Chinese prawn resource in the Haiyan lsland are suggested.
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    A STUDY ON THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL BELTS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PART OF THE QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
    Zheng Yuanchang, Wang Meijuan, Wu Zhengfang
    1996, 11 (3):  249-255.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (266KB) ( )   Save
    With the three-dimensional mathematical model, namely, H=exp(a+bx+cx2+dy+ey2),the vertical distribution laws of natural belts in the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are studied in this paper. The warmth index (WI) and cold index (CI) of the upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaf forest, the coniferous and broad-leaf mixed forest, the montana dark coniferous forest, and the alpine shrub and meadow belt are 65℃ · month,43℃· month, 16℃· month and 10℃·month, and -10℃·month, -24℃· month,-55℃ month and -75℃· month respectively. The potential evaporation values of them are 620mm, 500mm, 410mm and 300mm respectively.
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    ON THE EXPLOITATION STRATEGY AND COUNTERMEASURES OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN NORTHWEST CHINA
    Song Fenglan
    1996, 11 (3):  256-262.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (486KB) ( )   Save
    This paper discusses the purposes and significances of exploiting natural resources in Northwest China and emphatically analyses the exploitation state and exonomic development situation of four kinds of natural resources which have national significance. It puts forward the strategic objectives, strategic focal points and strategic countmeasures of exploiting the natural resources in this region. The aim is to quicken the exploitation of natural resources in Northwest China as early as possible, to balance the layout of national productive forces, to lay the foundation of the core position for the resorces production area in the Northwest, to bring the local superiority into play, and to promote the development of economic growth points in the West.
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    THE FOG RESOURCE IN XISHUANGBANNA OF CHINA AND ITS EVALUATION
    Liu Wenjie, Li Hongmei
    1996, 11 (3):  263-267.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (342KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the type characteristics and the spatial and temporal distribution of fog in Xishuangbanna area are given. The mechanism and laws of the formation of radiation fog and inversion warm belt in mountainous districts and their effects on some climatic elements are described. Lastly, the ways of exploiting and utilizing the mountainous fog and inversion resource are proposed.
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    DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF THE MACRO-FUNGUS RESOURCE IN THE SHENNONGJIA FOREST DISTRICT
    Chen Qiwu, Zhu Lanbao, Yang Xinmei
    1996, 11 (3):  268-271.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (238KB) ( )   Save
    There is very rich macro-fungus resource in the Shennongria Forest District. There are 252 species, belonging to 86 genera, 24 families, 8 orders and 2 classes. Of the many species 114 are edible, 10 are medicinal, 19 are poisonous and about 109 whose usage is yet unknown. These fungi account for 38.36% of the total 657 species collected in the whole country. This paper deals with their natural genesis kinds and distribution, and puts forth some suggestions about their development and utilization.
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    A STUDY ON THE UTILIZATION DIRECTION OF THE TALA SHOAL GRASSLAND, QINGHAI
    Zhao Xunjing, Na Wenjun
    1996, 11 (3):  272-279.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (576KB) ( )   Save
    The Tala Shoal grassland located in Gonghe County of Qinghai Province, is a wide and level grassland. There exist debated about whether it is suitable for farming or for livestock breeding for more than forty years. This paper discusses this question from three aspects: (a) The exploitation of the grassland into farmland will cause serious consequence; (b) There is also the potential ecological crisis if the grassland is under overgrazing beyond the carrying capacity; (3) The best way to use the grassland is the combination of the rational utilization of the grassland with the thorough management of the sand source on purpose to develop the seasonal animal husbandry. It should take the road that includes combining management with utilization, mutual supplement of the shoal and the valley, and mutual improvement of agriculture and animal husbandry.Thus, a new type of grassland will be established.
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    EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT GRAZING INTENSITIES ON THE VEGETATIVE COVER OF THE GRASSLAND OF RED CLOVER AND RYE GRASS AND ON SOIL NUTRIENT
    Wang Shuqiang, Hu Zhiyou, Li Zhaofang
    1996, 11 (3):  280-287.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (455KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the laws of changes of plants and soil under different grazing intensities are studied. The results show as follows. High-intensity grazing applied over a period of three years induces comparatively big changes in the total nitrogen content of soil and in the composition and structure of the grassland. It causes the herbage yield to decrease by 17.1%,the importance value of the main species of the grassland, namely, red clover, to decrease by 33.8%, the coefficient of homogeneity of red clover to increase by 51.1%, and the nitrogen-phosphorus ratio of soil to increase by 1.3. Low-intensity grazing causes the total nitrogen content of soil to decrease by 0.096%, and the coefficient of homogeneity of red clover to increase by 21.0%. Moderate-intensity grazing does not cause the herbage yield and the importance value of red clover to decrease. Meantime it keeps the coefficient of homogeneity of red clover far below the 1.0 level but causes the total nitrogen content of soil to decrease by 0.085%. From the above results it can be concluded that moderate-intensity grazing is the best option of grazing management for keeping the sustained high production of the grassland.
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