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Table of Content

    25 December 1997, Volume 12 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    DEVELOPING THE STUDY OF HIGH EFFICIENT UTILIZATIONOF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES
    Shi Yulin, Feng Zhiming
    1997, 12 (4):  293-298.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (215KB) ( )   Save
    etting off from the necessity of developing the study of the high efficient utilization of agricultural resources and combining with the present situation of studying the high efficient utilization of agricultural resources at home and abroad. This paper advances the problem of the high efficient utilization of agricultural resources, taking promoting the efficient utilization of resources of China as the core. It proposes 5 fields of studying the high efficient utilization of the agricultural resources of China as the following: (a) To explore the present situation,the optimum zoning and the rational layout of the agricultural resources of China; (b) To study the integrated productivity and the population carrying capacity of the agricultural resources of China; (c) To integrate the technological system and the optimum models of the high efficient utilization of agricultural resources in different regions; (d) To evaluate the prospects of applying the new technology and the technology policy in the high efficient utilization of the agricultural resources;(e) To research the monitoring and management technology in the high efficient utilization of agricultural resources.
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    A DISCUSSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THEENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) OFWATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
    Shi Xiaoxin, Xia Jun
    1997, 12 (4):  299-306.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (236KB) ( )   Save
    ustainable development is a new type of development mode ,which is proposed to overcome the disadvantage of tranditional development mode. The disadventage is to develop the social economy at the expense of the environment. The essence of sustainable development is emphasizing the coordination between the social economy development and the resources and environment protection to ensure the sustainability of the social economy development.Under the great transformation of development mode of human society, the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of water resources engineering which is at intersection between environmental science and resources science also should fit the demand of this new transformation. In this paper, on the basis of an analysis of the tranditional mode of the EIA of water resources engineering and its five problems, we give the EIA of water resource engineering the connotation of sustainability and study its theory and method, then proposes the mode system of the EIA of water resources engineering of sustainable development which adapts the situation of China. It includes the theorical basis,evaluating contents,evaluating methods,evaluating index system , evaluating criterions and working procedure of the EIA of water resources engineering of sustainable development.
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    THE TIDAL FLAT RESOURCE OF CHINA
    Yang Baoguo, Wang Ying, Zhu Dakui
    1997, 12 (4):  307-316.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (388KB) ( )   Save
    ecause of land deterioration, soil erosion, desertification, salinization, alkalization, swamping, occupation of arable land for nonagriculture use, and the effect of natural calamity, the amount of arable land of China has declined to 957 billion ha. This means the per capita arable land area is less than 008 ha. With the increase of population, the pressure on the land resource becomes greater and greater. At present, China is among those countries of which the per capita land area is the smallest and the population supporting capacity of land is the largest. The total population in China will reach 13 billion by the end of this century. Then China will support a population which is 22% of the world total with the arable land which is 7% of the world total, and the man land conflict will become more and more acute. As a potential land resource, the tidal flat will be the new growing point of the national economy of China.This paper mainly deals with the distribution, formation factors, classification, and the existing problems in exploitation and utilization of the tidal flat of China. The total length of coastline of tidal flat is 4000 km and distributes at the margins of Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea, mainly in Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay, Laizhou Bay, Shandong peninsula, along the coast of Liaodong, northern part of Jiangsu province, Shanghai, Zhejiang province, Fujian province ,Guangdong province, Guangxi province, and Hainan island. The total area of the tidal flat of China is 235 ha (among them the cultivable area is 797 ha) and it still grows at the rate of 20~30 thousand ha each year. The important thing is that all the tidal flats distribute in the eastern regions of China where the economy develops rapidly but lacks land resource, so the exploitation of the tidal flat of China is becoming extremely urgent.There are many factors which control the development of the tidal flat, such as the sediment supply in coastal zone, original coastal slope, intensity of wave action, tidal range, etc. The major factors are the supply of fine grained sedimentary material and the tidal range.The tidal flat of China can be classified into two major types: the plain type and the embayement type. The tidal flat of plain type distributes in Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay, along the coast of northern Jiangsu province, Changjiang estuary, Hangzhou Bay, and Zhujiang estuary. The embayment type distributes along the coasts of Zhejiang province, Fujian province and Guangdong province.In exploiting the tidal flat of China, there exist lots of problems, such as backward technique, relatively low economic benefits, drastic natural calamity, relatively low exploiting level, and lacking the scientific guidance.The realization of sustainable development of the tidal flat is to meet the increasing material demands of the people during the process that improves the utilization coefficient of the tidal flat. To realize the sustainable,stable and coordinative development of the tidal flat we should consider not only the needs of ourselves but also the necessary requirement of the next generation. So we should take as a goal the increase of social wealth during the process of exploitation and management rather than only care about the present benefits that usually may destroy the natural environment of the tidal flat.The ecological development of the tidal flat is one of the ways that can realize sustainable development. It means the improvement of the quality of ecological system under the coordination among human beings, creatures and environment. The combination of research and exploitation and of utilization and protection will make possible the realization of sustainable development of the tidal flat.According to the natural characteristics of the tidal flat, the economic and technical conditions, and the present utilization situation, 5 utilization zones are divided and the general aspects of each zone are illustrated for further exploiting and utilizing the tidal flat resource of China.
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    IMPACTS OF CLIMATE ON GRAIN OUTPUT PER UNIT AREAIN CHINA DURING THE YEARS OF 1949~1992
    Xie Yun, Liu Jidong
    1997, 12 (4):  317-322.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (298KB) ( )   Save
    he grain yield per unit area sown in China has been increasing from 1949 to 1992, with an annual fluctuation which, besides some policy influences, was mainly resulted from the annually climatic variations, because of the monsoon climate characterized by annually considerable variation mainly in the temperature and rainfall and various na tural disasters such as floods and draughtThe law of temporal and spatial variation of climatic yield which is determined by the three natural factors including light,temperature and precipitation, was analyzed in this paper. It showed that the years with lower grain output per unit area are identified with the years of severe natural disasters. The per unit area yield of grain in the eastern China is higher and more fluctuating than that in the western region. Stabilizing the grain yield in the east and increasing the grain output in the west are of the major options in terms of strategy. The result of EOF analysis indicated that regional unanimity of climatic yield variation is a main spatial pattern besides the other spatial patterns of north south difference and east west variation in some years. From the temporal point of view, the climates in 1950's and 1980's are good for the grain production.
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    THE ESTIMATION OF TEMPERATURESUNLIGHT POTENTIALIN RELATION TO THE RICE QUALITY AND ITS REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION IN CHINA
    Zhang Songwu, Cheng Fangmin, Wu Yongchang
    1997, 12 (4):  323-329.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (307KB) ( )   Save
    n the basis of the research of the relationship between temperature solar radiation and rice quality in the paste filling stage,the temperature function in relation to the rice quality is established first.Then through calculating the rice quality's descending rate caused by solar radiation change under different temperature conditions, the solar radiation revisionary function in relation to the rice quality is set up. The temperature sunlight potential calculation formula which is used to estimate the climatic resource latent force in relation to the rice quality of a certain place is obtained by combining the 2 functions mentioned above. According to this formula,the temperature sunlight potential values in relation to the rice quality are estimated in all chinese rice regions.The regional distribution of the potential reveals the following :the climate resource in relation to the rice quality has universal adaptability to the production of good quality rice;the potential varies with the space and the time, so in different regions and seasons it is different;the potential also has vertical zonality structure in the regions with complex terrain.
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    AN AGROCLIMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE NIGHT RAINRESOURCE IN XISHUANGBANNA OF CHINA
    Liu Wenjie, Li Hongmei, Duan Wenping
    1997, 12 (4):  330-335.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (189KB) ( )   Save
    n this paper, the weather climate features and the laws of spatial and temporal distribution of night rain and fog rain in the Xishuangbanna area are studied. The formation mechanism of night rain and fog rain and their agroclimatic significance are analysed. The results show that the precipitation in Xishuangbanna presents a proportional state between the night rainfall and the daytime rainfall, in which the rate of night rain reaches 54.5%~57.7%. Especially during the foggy season and the hot dry season the night rain may reach 71.4% and 70.6% respectively. The formation of the night rain is mostly due to the orographic rain caused by mountainous wind circulation. Its rainfall intensity is weak and its rainfall hours is long. So it is highly efficient for the tropical crops. The night fog rain plays a very important role in the eco environment of crops, for it can partly relax the insufficiency of crops water requirement during the drought season. For this reason, the night rain and fog rain resources will become the important basis in making the drought prevention countermeasures in Xishuangbanna.
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    A STUDY ON THE FIREPREVENTION CHARACTERISTICS ANDTHE DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF THE MAIN FIREPREVENTION TREE SPECIES IN SOUTH CHINA
    Li Zhenwen, Ruan Chuancheng
    1997, 12 (4):  336-342.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (298KB) ( )   Save
    n this paper, using the method of multi purpose policy making, the main fire prevention tree species are screened preliminary. According to it, the fire prevention characteristics of the representative species Schima superba, Michelia macclurei and Altinggia gracilipes are compared with the inflammable species Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana. The results show that the fire prevention tree species have better fire prevention characteristics. Their ignition temperature is higher, their moisture content is greater, the rate of their moisture separation is faster, their activation energy is higher, and the thermal unit of their volatiles is lower. The results of principal components analysis show that ignition temperature, moisture content, the rate of moisture separation, activation energy, and the thermal unit of volatiles can be used as the main indices of judging the property of fire prevention of trees, and that the extraction matters and the crude ashes of phenethyl alcohol can be used as the supplementary indices of judgment. This paper sets forth the ways and countermeasures for the development and utilization of the main fire prevention tree species.
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    A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CLEAR CUTTING AND PRESCRIBED BURNING ON THE MIGRATION OF THE NUTRIENT ELEMENTRESOURCES OF THE FOREST LAND
    Zhang Dinghua
    1997, 12 (4):  343-348.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (189KB) ( )   Save
    his paper studies the migration of nutrient element resources of the forest land after clear cutting and prescribed burning. The results are as follows: the biomass that migrates out of the forest land after clear cutting is above 80% of the total biomass of the forest land, the migration of Ca and Mg is above 60%, and the migration of N,P and K is below 50%. The nitrogen loss rate of clearing residue during burning is above 95%, and the loss rates of P,K,Ca and Mg are relatively lower. N and P reserves decrease and Ca,K and Mg increase slightly in the surface soil layer after prescribed burning. Almost all the biomass and nutrient elements of the forest land which accumulate during the whole growth stage of the forest stand are migrated out of the forest land after clear cutting and prescribed burning.
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    A RESEARCH ON THE COORDINATION OF THE EXPLOITATIONOF ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE DEVELOPMENTOF REGIONAL ECONOMY——TAKING NORTHWEST CHINA AS AN EXAMPLE
    Fan Jie
    1997, 12 (4):  349-356.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (329KB) ( )   Save
    In China, many regions where energy resources exploitation brings about regional economical development are relatively backward areas. Taking Northwest China as an examples, the problem of coordinating energy resources exploitation and regional economical construction is discussed in this paper. We emphatically analyse the position of energy industry in regional industrialization, the adjustment of industrial structure and the spatial organization of economical system on the basis of the utilization of energy resources, such as petroleum, natural gas, electricity and coal. Beside, the key points of the regional policy for promoting regional development and protecting ecological environment are put forward.The effects of China's major energy development policies on the regional development are summarized systematically in the paper. This include: (a) the reversion of the northward transportation of the coal produced in the south and the development of the Shanxi energy base; (b) the outward transfer of the natural gas produced in Sichuan Province and the eastward shift of the priority areas of oil survey; (c) the position change of hydropower and nuclear power in the regional energy structure; (d) the exploitation of marine energy and the energy import policies. Accordingly,an analysis of the national role and sort structure of the energy resources of Northwest China is made Moreover, combining with the evaluation of the socio economic development of the region, we indicate that the rich energy resources and the backward economy constitute the main contradiction of the regional development Afterwards the future industria lization path and the prospect of industrial restructuring of Northwest China are studied both theoretically and empirically. The major results include the clarification of the role and position of energy industry, the quantitative analysis of the demand and supply structure of energy of Northwest China, the regional pattern of energy distribution, and the constructive suggestions to the construction of energy bases and highly energy consumed industrial system.Finally, the regional policies for promoting the socio economic development and the energy development of Northwest China are discussed. They include: (a) the policy of investment and economic earnings; (b) the policy of the protection of water and soil resources and the construction of ecological environment ; and (c) the policy of the development of a comprehensive traffic and transportation system.
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    LAND DEGRADATION MECHANISM AND MANAGEMENTCOUNTERMEASURES IN THE BLOWNSAND AREA OFNORTHERN SHAANXI PROVINCE
    Liu Yansui, Ni Shaoxiang, Zha Yong
    1997, 12 (4):  357-362.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (280KB) ( )   Save
    n this paper, on the basis of analyzing the environmental background of the study area, the mechanism, time space law and expansion trend of land degradation are studied systematically by means of combining qualitative analysis with quantitative one and combining remote sensing with GIS technique. The conclusions are as follows: (a) In the study area, population is the basic contributing factor of land degradation and the land degradation is a result of uncoordinated development of ecologically vulnerable environment and social economy. In especial, the potential vulnerability of the natural environment is transformed into practical destruction because of unreasonable land use and management way. (b) The main type of land degradation in the study area is land desertification. On the whole, during the past 30 years the degree of land degradation has been intensifying, and the land degradation type has showed a diversified tendency. (c) Land degradation is a dynamic process, which possesses four characteristics, namely, long term, gradual change, continuity and locality. Therefore, higher precision and efficiency in monitoring, appraising and forecasting the land degradation can be obtained if remote sensing and GIS technique are used. (d) To manage the land degradation should take the landscape ecology theory and sustainable development ideas as the guide, consider both the ecological benefits and the economic benefits, and adopt varied technical ways . Besides, it is necessary to do the easy first and then the difficult and to take measures according to local conditions.
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    KEY TECHNICAL LINKS AND SOLUTION WAYS OF SETTING UP AWORKING SYSTEM FOR YIELD ESTIMATIONS OF THE MAINCROPS OF CHINA BY SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING
    Chen Shenbin, Sun Jiulin
    1997, 12 (4):  363-369.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (302KB) ( )   Save
    his paper points out the main technical links of setting up, in China, a working system for yield estimations of the main crops (wheat, maize, rice, cotton, soybean ) by means of the remote sensing techniques according to the basic features of the farmland and the cropping system as well as the practice of yield estimations by means of remote sensing in the major crop growing regions from 1991 to 1996. The key links include the overall design of the engineering of the working system, the regionalization of estimating the yield by satellite remote sensing, the background database establishment, the assimilative techniques of remote sensing information, the extraction of the planting area of crops, the monitoring of crop growth and the model of the per unit area yield, and the establishment of a working system. This paper also describes the envi sagement of the technical programme and steps for realizing the system; that is, to unify organization and implementation and to avoid repeat. First of all, grasking the yield estimations by satellite remote sensing for the main production area of crops and choosing Henan, Anhei and Jiangsu provinces to develop the experiment of integrated yield estimations of the five crops. Then setting up a method system of the extraction of planting area of crops and of monitoring the crop growth and yield for different regions or crops. According to the practical conditions an authentic or fictitious working system for the yield estimations by satellite remote sensing may be set up.
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    A SYSTEMIC ANALYSIS METHOD OF EVALUATINGTHE REGIONAL TERRITORY RESOURCES
    Jing Xueqing
    1997, 12 (4):  370-376.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (248KB) ( )   Save
    he regional territory resources evaluation is a very important basic work in the decision making of many important economic strategies. But in our country, now there are many quite serious problems in the resource evaluation method. The purpose of this paper is to study a better evaluational method for raising the level of the regional territory resources evaluation.The systemic analysis method expounded in this paper has mainly solved two problems: one is the evaluation of the superiority and inferiority of the resources as a whole and the other is evaluation of the compositional and coordinational situations of the resources. The concrete contents are as follows: (a) Setting up systemic thought and sense, understanding the territory resources system and its gradation and structure and understanding the regional system and its gradation and structure; (b) Choosing the representative quantitative basic indexes; (c) Establishing the mathematical mo dels, synthesizing the quantitative basic indexes grade by grade into the quantitative indexes which reflect the higher grade resources items and reflecting the whole superiority and inferiority of (1)the resources items of every grade of the regions and (2) the three big resource items (nature, economics and society) by means of the comparison of the synthetical quantitative indexes;(d) Calculating the compositional indexes of the resources items of every grade with the formula“standard disparity”, and reflecting the compositional and coordinational situations of the resources items of every grade of the regions of the same grade by means of the comparison of the campositional indexes.
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    A STUDY OF THE METICULOUS ESTIMATION OF THE SOLARRADIATION ENERGY RESOURCE IN TIANJIN
    Wan Gongzhan, Zhou Hui, Liu Xilan
    1997, 12 (4):  377-382.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (202KB) ( )   Save
    n this paper, on the basis of the daily observational data of total solar radiation of 36 years ( from 1959 to 1994 ) in Tianjin city, we set up a series of empirical formulas,by which the total solar radiaiton of different time scales ( year, season, month, dekad, pentad and day ) can be estimated through using other meteorological elements ( percentage of sunshine, and air humidity ). The mean fitting degree may reach the accuracy of 90 to 97 percent.
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    A STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF THE FARMLAND PROTECTION IN CHINA
    Wang Wei
    1997, 12 (4):  383-387.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.04.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (160KB) ( )   Save
    aking the practicality of the farmland shortage in China as the background and using the economic principles this paper analyses the importance of farmland protection to raising the efficiency of agricultural investment and assuring the rapid growth of the national economy.Then a national economic appraisal method which adapts to the farmland shortage is worked out. Finally, a countermeasure system for the farmland protection in China is advanced.
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