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    25 September 1997, Volume 12 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE CLIMATIC CHANGE, NATURAL DISASTERS OF AGRICULTURE AND GRAIN YIELD IN CHINADURING THE PAST 15 YEARS
    Shi Peijun, Wang Jingai Xie Yun, Wang Ping, Zhou Wuguang
    1997, 12 (3):  197-203.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (304KB) ( )   Save
    his paper analyses the main features of the climatic change, natural disasters of agriculture and grain yield in China during the past 15 years in comparison with the situation of the last 50 years. The conclusions are as follows: (a) During the last 15 years, the average temperature increased by 0.1~0.9℃ in China. The temperature increase was higher in the north than in the south. The average increase in the north was 0.5~o.9℃ .The precipitation increased or decreased by 3%~10%. The regions with precipitation increase were the northern part of Northeast China, Xinjiang, East China, the northern part of Central China and Sichuan and Guangxi Provinces. In general, the increase was between 1% and 5%. (b) During the last 15 years, flood, water  logging and drought were the main natural hazards of agriculture in China. The drought stricken areas and flooded areas covered 17.6% and 8.1% of the sowing area in the corresponding periods respectively. The proportion of the drought stricken areas of each province was about 5%~19%. The proportion of flooded areas of each province was about 2%~10%. (c) The grain yield change due to the climatic change has obvious regional laws. The law shows that in the whole country the rich harvest year and the poor harvest year occur alternately and that the east and the west or the south and the north supplement each other in grain yield. In the past, we pointed out the law that “the south will have flood when the north has drought ”or “the south will have drought when the north has flood”. Actually it is not very exact. (d) During the last 15 years, the range of the grain yield decrease due to natural hazards occupied about 15% of the grain yield in the same period.The loss induced by meteorological disasters occupied about 40%. That was 6% of the grain yield in the same period. The continuous uptrend of the grain yield decrease proportion in the main grain production regions is one of the major reasons for the slow increase in grain yield in China since 1984.
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    MINERAL EXPLOITATION AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA
    Zhang Lei
    1997, 12 (3):  204-210.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (231KB) ( )   Save
    his study represents an exploratory undertaking to analyse the positive aspects of mineral activity in regional development based on China's industrialization during the past 40 years. The results of addressing at a framework of factor analysis and cluster analysis can be generalized below.(a)The Socio Economic Development Factor dominates the regional pattern of China's industrialization and it implies that the present formation of regional disparities in socio economic development in China is a part of its historical process. The coastal zone is still the most favoured area assemblage of regions in China's modern economy while the interior zone continues to lag behind it.(b)Moreover, the remaining three factors—the Mineral Processing Led Growth Factor, the Coal Mining Led Growth Factor and the Oil Exploitation Led Growth Facto—change nothing regarding the original centre periphery structure. On the contrary, they reinforce the structure through improving the leading position of core regions as a result of the developments in raw material manufacturing.(c)The spatial distributions of social development attaching to both the factor analysis and the cluster analysis indicate that mineral industry can act as a key instrument to stimulate and sustain regional development in most developing areas only in terms of their resource perspective: plentiful resources equals good growth prospects; scanty resources equates with much poorer prospects.(d)Another great contribution of mineral activity to regional development is afforded by the fact that through effecting great improvement in transport infrastructure, the development of mineral industry is critical to the formation of an integrated national transport network: in itself far more effective in promoting regional and interregional development than mineral production alone.(e)Finally, there are only four variables in the whole factor pattern, namely energy consumption, fixed assets of raw material manufacturing, freight traffic volume and number of hospital beds, which have positive loading across all factors. These variables provide an insight into the characteristics of early industrialization in China. First, the structural transformation from an agrarian society to one rooted in industry in a country can cause a great increase in mineral consumption. Second, under this pressure, the social production becomes heavil yengaged in the development of mineral processing. Third, mineral development can further regional development through the inception of a national integrated transport system. Finally, all the developments can provide the region with great opportunities for achievement of social well being conductive with the “take off” point.
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    A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE MANMADE INFLUENCE INMODERN DESERTIFICATION PROCESS
    Liu Aimin, Ci Longjun
    1997, 12 (3):  211-218.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (327KB) ( )   Save
    here is a complex multiple feedback mechanism between the man production system and the resource environment. The modern desertification process is caused by improper human activities . In this paper, we take Wushenqi of the Maowusu sand region as the research object and use the relevant theory of systematology to analyze the correlation mechanism between farming,animal husbandry, forestry, industry and population on one side and modern desertification on the other side. We also use the system dynamic method to simulate the development trend of the modern desertification in Wushenqi. The results indicate that in the modern desertification process the change rates of various indices do not remain unchanged, they have clear steps. It may be concluded that combining the control of the population increase speed with the increase of material and technology inputs in agricultural and animal husbandry production, increasing intensive level, and practicing comprehensive management are the main measures to prevent desertification.
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    A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE THREE GORGES PROJECTON THE WATER LEVEL OF POYANG LAKE
    Jiang Jiahu, Huang Qun
    1997, 12 (3):  219-224.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (282KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of the prediction of the impact of the Three Gorges Project on the water level at the Hukou hydrologic station of the Changjiang river, this paper studies the impact of the Three Gorges Project on the water level of Poyang lake through setting up the water level correlation between the Hukou hydrologic station and the Poyang lake hydrologic stations which represent different parts of the lake.
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    THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATERRESOURCE AND THE POTENTIAL OF ITS CARRYINGCAPACITY FOR AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT INTHE HEXI CORRIDOR
    Du Hulin, Gao Qianzhao, Li Fuxin, Xiao Honglang
    1997, 12 (3):  225-232.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (259KB) ( )   Save
    he Hexi corridor is one of the main economic regions in Gansu Province. The scale of economic development of the Hexi corridor in the future depends considerably on the carrying capacity of the water resource in the region. On the basis of the balance principle of water quantity this paper analyses and calculates the balance between supply and demand of water resource, the balance between the water resource and the land resource, and the potential of the carrying capacity of water resource for agriculture development in the Hexi corridor. Meanwhile the corresponding mathematical models are set up. The potential of water resource in the Hexi corridor is great. This potential can brought into play step by step only under the following conditions, namely, develo ping the agriculture of the saving water type and using the water resource rationally and efficiently.
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    THE ESTIMATION OF THE CROWN INTERCEPTION OF THEEVERGREEN BROADLEAVED FOREST IN THE JIULIANMOUNTAINOUS DISTRICT, JIANGXI PROVINCE
    Li Changhua, Masakazu Suzuki, Liu Shuguang, Tang Maocong
    1997, 12 (3):  233-242.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (311KB) ( )   Save
    n order to research into the moisture balance of a small watershed covered by evergreen broad leaved forests, we have made the observation of the precipitation outside and inside the forest area and the stem flow in the Jiu lian mountainous district, Jiangxi Province, for three years. On this basis we made the estimation of the crown interception. The results of observation show that the rate of the crown interception is 78.1% of the precipitation when the precipitation is 0.4~1 mm at a time, and it declines to 3.4%~3.6% when the precipitation is 60 mm at a time. But when the precipitation is over 60mm at a time the rate of crown interception is basically stable, being 3.4%~ 3.6%. The total annual precipitation in 1988,1989 and 1990 is 1 718.5~2 116.5mm. The results of estimation show that the total annual crown interception of the three years is 300~340 mm, which makes up about 16%~17.5% of the total annual precipitation.
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    A QUANTITATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF CONTROLLEDBURNING ON THE NUTRIENT LOSS OF THE YOUNG CHINESE FIR PLANTATION
    Xie Yinghe, Hong Jianping, Jin Zhinan, Lin Dayi, Zhao Jingkui
    1997, 12 (3):  243-249.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (218KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of the results of a long term fixed location observation of 5 years, this paper uses the two model parameter t test, the elasticity analysis and the marginal analysis for exploring the effects of the annual time series on the nutrient losses of controlled burning and the the constractive young Chinese fir plantation.The t test shows that the B and A parameters of the loss models of amoniacal nitrogen, nitrous nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen,phosphate, potassium and arganic matter on the annual time series are quite different under different treatments. The elasticity analysis and marginal analysis show that the effects of annual time on the above mentioned nutrients under different treatments are negative. Under the controlled burning conditions, the elasticity coefficients of the above mentioned nutrient losses are-1.215%, -1.214%, -1.215%, -1.215%,-1.214% and-1.214%respectively,and their marginal amounts are-0.394 kg,-0.033 kg-0.365 kg, -0.023kg, -30.010 kg and -59.421 kg respectively. Under the treatments without controlled burning, the elasticity coefficients of the above mentioned nutrient losses are -0.842%,-0.851%, -0.844%, -0.854%, -0.845% and -0.841% respectively, and their marginal amounts are -0.159 kg, -0.010 kg, -0.085 kg, -0.006 kg, -12.024 kg and -17.767 kg respectively.
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    A STUDY OF THE CAUSES AND PROPERTIES OF THE MIDSUMMER AND AUTUMN DROUGHTS AND THE COMBATINGDROUGHT SYSTEM IN THE LOWHILL RED SOIL REGION
    Wang Mingzhu, Yao Xianliang, Zhang Jiabao, Xie Meizhen, Xie Weimin, He Xiangyi, Ju Zhonghe
    1997, 12 (3):  250-256.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (305KB) ( )   Save
    his paper has analysed the causes and properties of the mid summer and autumn droughts and the countermeasures of drought hazard in the low hill red soil region. The results are as follows.The main causes are that most precipitation occurs earlier than the latent high evaporation in the region, the space in red soil for water storage is limited, and less water is available for crop use. The properties are that drought and high heat occur at the same time, surface soil becomes dry rapidly, and the contradiction between supplying water from soil and requiring water for crops is obvious. The countermeasure is building a technical system for combating the drought. Of which, developing water resource and saving using water are the main body and reducing the unproductive water consumption and increasing the utilization ratio of the water resource by organisms are two wings.
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    THE PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF SPRING WHEAT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT——A CASE STUDY ON THE MOUNTAINOUS AREA OFSOUTHERN NINGXIA
    Peng Naizhi, Fu Baopu, Bao Haosheng, Li Jun, Zhao Xinping
    1997, 12 (3):  257-262.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (365KB) ( )   Save
    aking as the case study of the mountainous area of southern Ningxia,we have amended several parameters of AZE , Doorenbos,Chikugo, Miami, Thornthwaite Memorial models according to the crop and the natural environmental factors of the mountainous area of southern Ningxia and reckoned the photo temperature productive potential y(Q,T), the climatic productive potential y(Q,T,W), the amount of needed water Em and the amount of the insufficient water El of spring wheat. The main results are listed below: y(Q,T) is about 6.85~8.06 t /ha, y(Q,T,W) is about 2.22~5.32 t/ha, Em is about 340~450mm, El is about 70~300 mm. The amount of the insufficient water El in jointing stage and ear pregnant stage is specially serious. The above reckoned results all are conformed with its actual situation. In this region, the sustainable development strategies such as cumulating the rain water for irrigation i.e. using natural precipitation into available resource, increasing the basic cultivated area and improving water use efficiency etc. should have to be adopted.
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    THE DEGRADED ECOSYSTEM RECONSTRUCTION AND AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES EXPLOITATION OF SMALL WATERSHEDS IN SEMIARID MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS——A CAES STUDY ON THE SUIJIAWOPU SMALL WATERSHED INWENGNIUTE COUNTY OF INNER MONGOLIA
    Lai Shideng, Ding Xianzhong, Niu Xiye
    1997, 12 (3):  263-268.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.010
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    Taking the Suijiawopu small watershed as an example, this paper briefly analyses the status, characteristics, and causes of the degraded ecosystem,and then, according to the principles of eco economics, puts forward the principles,orientation,ways and measures of the degraded ecosystem reconstruction and agricultural resources exploitation.Obvious ecological benefits and economic benefits have been achieved in eco economic valleys, protective forest system,artificial grassland, drought resistant farmland and culture demonstration area for high yield through 5 years' practice.
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    A STUDY OF TOBACCO DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST TIBET
    Wang Jianlin, Cai Xiaobu, Dong Guozheng
    1997, 12 (3):  269-275.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.011
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    In Southeast Tibet the planting industry plays an important part in rural economic development. This article fully expounds and proves the important aspects of tobacco planting in Southeast Tibet, such as its feasibility, necessity, importance, development scale and strategic policies. This study is aiming at arousing the attention of policy making departments and academic circles, thus promoting the rural economic development in this region.
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    A STUDE OF THE ANT RESOURCE OF JILIN PROVINCEAND ITS PRACTICAL VALUE
    Liu Hong, Yuan Xingzhong, Chen Peng
    1997, 12 (3):  276-281.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.012
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    his paper studies the species composition and ecological distribution of the ant resourse in Jilin Province.We found that there are 18 species of ants belonging to 10 genera and 2 subfamilies and that the species composition and distribution of ants have close relation to environmental conditions.It also deals with the edible and medical values of ants.In the end,the paper offers some proposals concerning the development and protection of the ant resource.
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    A STUDY OF THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE CLIMATICPRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN THE HUANGHUAIHAIREGION BY USING THE ARID CROP MODEL
    Liu Jiandong, Fu Baopu, Jin Zhiqing, Lu Qiyao, Lin Zhenshan
    1997, 12 (3):  282-287.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (321KB) ( )   Save
    he ARID CROP model is used to study the numerical simulation of the climatic productivity of winter wheat in the Huanghuaihai region .The distribution map of the climatic productivity (Yq) is given first. Then the distribution condition of the productivity of photo temperature (Yw) is studied at the time when the moisture condition is most suitable.On the basis of these studies, the distribution map of the increasing production force of moisture Q(Q=(Yw-Yq)/Yq) is given. The results show that the climatic productivity of winter wheat in the Huanghuaihai region changes from 3 750~9 750 kg/ha , the general tendency is that the value is lower in the north but higher in the south, and there is a low value of about 3 750 kg/ha in the Heilonggang Area. Mois ture is a main factor which limits the climatic productivity of winter wheat in the northern part of the Huanghuaihai region.When moisture is suitable for winter wheat growth, the climatic productivity can only increase about 5%~10% in the southern part of the Huaihe River basin, whereas in the northern part of the Huanghuaihai region it can increase about 75%~100%. The high production records of winter wheat in the Huanghuaihai region are used to compare with the simulate value of productivity . The results show that it is feasible to simulate the climatic productivity of winter wheat by using the ARID CROP model in the Huanghuaihai region. This study will provide a theoretical basis for conducting water from the Huanghe River for irrigation to a certain extent.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE RECLAMATION WAYS OF THEDETERIORATED LAND IN THE MINING AREA OF SHANXI
    Xie Yinghe, Hong Jianping, Jin Zhinan, Lin Dayi, Zhao Jingkui
    1997, 12 (3):  288-292.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (100KB) ( )   Save
    n the study of reestablishing the ecological system of the mining area, we selected the plant strains fit for growing, compared different growing methods, and cultivated the deteriorated land with manure. According to the experimental results and the na tural ecological environment conditions, we think that planting the green manure crop legume is an effective way for quickly restoring the soil fertility, protecting the land resource of the mining area, and reestablishing the ecological environment of the mining area.
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