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Table of Content

    25 March 1998, Volume 13 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF GRASSLAND RESOURCES IN SOUTHERN CHINA
    ZHANG Xinshi, LI Bo, SHI Peijun
    1998, 13 (1):  1-7.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (225KB) ( )   Save
    Based on data obtained from field investigations and observations concer ning “development and utilization of grassland resources in southern China”organized by Biological Division of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),and referred to relevant data provided by local organizations,the paper puts forward a high efficiency animal husbandry development strategy related to “evergreen grassland belt”in China according to present conditions on ecological rehabilitation and environmental protection of grassland and grass covers in hilly areas of southern China as well as their development and utilization. The conclusion is that the development of 134 000km2 grassland in next twenty years is feasible,the grassland animal husbandry in southern China will became one of the important bases of China's animal husbandry,and the construction of some development and experimental bases is very indispensable.
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    THE EFFECTIVENESS OF APPROACHES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL AND DEVELOPMEN PLANNING
    YU Kongjian
    1998, 13 (1):  8-15.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (180KB) ( )   Save
    The methodologies of environmental and development planning have been severely challenged when classic concepts and models such as economic optimum,ecological fitness,safe minimum standard,carrying capacity,and even sustainability have been questioned. It is observed that:(a) it is extremely difficult to have the planning aimed at being either ecological or economic optimum,i e. planning is not a process determined absolutely in terms of environmental and economic criteria,but rather a defensible one (b) there are some“ultimate ”or “absolute”constraints,which the planning has to come to terms with,but these constraints are hardly definable or acceptable. Therefore,they play a quite limited role in the practice of environmental and development planning. What is urgent is to find some new and effective make the planning process both defensible and operational. As to how to find and design such a defensible strategy serves as an essential field concerning methodologies for sustainable development planning The security pattern approach in planning is an attempt in this direction.
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    THE LAND USE ARRANGEMENT OF CHINA IN THE HOLOCENE MEGATHERMAL PERIOD AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE
    FANG Xiuqi, ZHANG Wenbo, ZHANG Lansheng
    1998, 13 (1):  16-22.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (177KB) ( )   Save
    Based on a great deal of archaeological data of the Neolithic age,the land use regions in China of the Holocene megathermal period are divided. The basic characteristic of the land use in that period is that dry farming dominated in the north,while rice planting dominated in the south. The northern boundary of rice planting reached 35°N,and it lay 2~3 degrees farther north of the present boundary. The northern boundary of dry farming extended to the region along the Great Wall in Inner Mongolia and the Gansu Qinghai region in the northwest, where the animal husbandry or semi agricul tural and semi pastoral industry dominated now and the primary cultivated crop is millet.According to the land use arrangement mentioned above,it is inferred that the precipitation in the Holocene megathermal period was 100 mm more than now in the region along the northern boundary of dry farming and was 100~300mm more than now in the region along the northern boundary of rice planting. The northern boundaries of the summer drought zone and the subtropical high pressure zone also extended northward 2~3 degrees in latitude.The warm period is beneficial to the development of agriculture in China.
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    DYNAMIC INTERRELATIONS OF CROP PRODUCTION,WATER CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY
    LIU Wenzhao
    1998, 13 (1):  23-27.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (170KB) ( )   Save
    This paper introduces the concepts of marginal water use efficiency (MWUE) and elasticity of water production (EWP),and reveals dynamic interrelations of crop production and water consumption and water use efficiency (WUE) based on the functional relation between water consumption and crop yield ( or photosynthate). Providing the relation of seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) and crop yield (Y) is as Y=f(ET),then WUE=Y/ET,MWUE=dY/dET,and EWP=MWUE/WUE.WUE increases with the rise of ET if EWP>1 and decreases with the rise of ET if EWP<1. Proper construction of the function of crop water production,Y=f(ET),serves as a basis for correct analysis of WUE. If the Y=f(ET) function is linear,the changing trend of WUE with ET is directly affected by the constant term. If the Y=f(ET) function is quadratic parabolic,the maximum WUE comes earlier than the maximum yield with the rise of ET. The ET that makes WUE reach to its maximum value equals the arithmetic square root of a ratio of the constant term to the coefficient of quadratic term(). WUE increases with the rise of ET when ,conversely WUE decreases with the rise of ET when . Field experiment on spring corn yield response to water and fertilizer in the loess tableland of China showed that the form of Y=f(ET) appeared parabolic relationships at both high and low fertility levels,and high fertility plots had higher WUE and ET than low fertility ones under the same level of water supply. At high fertility plots in 1987,WUE increased with the rise of ET when ET< 472mm,reached to the maximum value of 16 3kg/ha.mm when ET =472mm,and decreased with the rise of ET when ET<472mm. The yield reached the maximum of 8 111kg/ha when ET = 524mm. MWUE always decreased with the rise of ET within the experimental range and dropped to zero when ET = 524mm. At low fertility plots,WUE reached the maximum value of 11 6kg/ha.mm when ET =436mm,and the maximum yield of 5 298kg/ha was gained when ET = 485mm; the WUE and the MWUE were similar to the ones of high fertility plots in the aspect of the changing trend.
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    A STUDY OF THE ENERGY ANALYSIS AND NUTRIENT BALANCE OF THE COURTYARD ECOSYSTEM IN NORTHERN CHINA
    LIANG Wenju, GUO Xiuyin, YANG Yulan, LU Mingyuan, WEN Dazhong
    1998, 13 (1):  28-33.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (202KB) ( )   Save
    This paper takes northern China's courtyard ecosystem based on the production of edible mushroom as the research abject. The energy analysis and nutrient balance of a typical peasant household courtyard in the suburb of Shenyang have been studied. The results show that the total exported energy of the products of this courtyard ecosystem is 41 872.14MJ/a. Of them the exported energy of the products of oyste mushroom occupies 65 4%,and the N,P2O5 and K2O of the import export system basically maintain the nutrient balance. It is regarded that this courtyard ecosystem is a highly productive and considerably beneficial system and thus has important realistic significance in directing the construction of the rural courtyard ecosystem in this region.
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    VIEW ON THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CHINESE FIR PLANTATION
    YANG Yusheng, QIU Renhui, YU Xintuo
    1998, 13 (1):  34-39.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (275KB) ( )   Save
    The gradual drop of soil fertility and stand productivity of Chinese fir plantation with the increase of continuous plantation would directly hamper its sustainable management. The major factors which hinder the sustainable management of Chinese fir plantation include not only the vulnerable subtropical red soil ecosystem which Chinese fir grow in, but also the unitary community structure and the biological characteristic of this artificial forest community. Additionally, the traditional culture system of Chinese fir including controlled burning lead to the degradation of soil ferti lity. According to the current situation of the Chinese fir plantation management, it is necessary to lower the disturbance intensity of culture system to the forest land, especially to avoid the controlled burning repeatedly. Meanwhile, experimental sustainable management models of Chinese fir plantation should be developed and evaluation indication system should be studied so as to identify sustainable management models suitable to artificial fir forests in different regions. This is of great significance to the sustainable management practice of forestland in southern China.
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    AN ANALYSIS OF THE DEW RESOURCE IN THE XISHUANGBANNA AREA
    LIU Wenjie, LI Hongmei, DUAN Wenping
    1998, 13 (1):  40-45.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (193KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper,the characteristics of the spatial and temporal distribution of dew the formation mechanism of dew and the relation of dew to fog and inversion in the Xishuangbanna area are studied. In the meantime the agroclimatic significance of dew is analyzed. The results indicate that the annual dew day in the Xishuangbanna area may reach about 300 d and the maximum number of dew day in some year exceeds 340 d. The number of dew day assumes such a characteristic,namely,it is greater in dry season fromNov. to May than in rainy season from Jun. to Oct. The formation of dew in the area is mostly in the nightfall. At this time the radiation of the ground surface is strong and the temperature of the ground vegetation is lower than the dew point temperature of the air which it contacts. Thus the water vapour condenses into dew. The formation of dew not only weakens the inversion intensity near the ground but also partly reduces the formation possibility of the radiation fog. The occurrence of dew in the dry season is of great ecological importance to the growth of tropical plants in the area. It may partly miligate the rainfall insufficiency in the dry season,thus avoiding or weakening the occurrence of frostbite.
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    THE POPULATION STRUCTURE AND PRESENT RESOURCE STATUS OF ARGALI IN XINJIANG
    LUO Ning, GU Jinghe, Areti, CHU Hongjun, CHANG Weili, Caidai
    1998, 13 (1):  46-51.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (211KB) ( )   Save
    From 1990 to 1994,special surveys of Argali Ovis ammon population were conducted in six representative areas of Xinjiang in combination with the planning of international hunting fields. Three subspecies—O. a. seiresis,O. a.karelini and O. a. dalai lamoe —had been surveyed. The total investigation area is 8 346km2,which occupies about 11 1% of all the Argali distribution area in Xinjiang. 866 individuals are recorded. The number of the female juvenile group occupies 31 9% of the total groups ,the male group 46 4%,and the mixed group 21 7%. According to the statistical results of 75 groups,the average group size of all areas is 8.89(3 95~11 6)head. Of them,the group size of 1~10 head occupies 73.3%,of 11~20 head 17.3%,of 21~30 head 2 7%,of 31~40 head 4%,and of 41~50 head 2 7%. The group size positively relates to population density. The difference of sex ratio (male∶female) is obvious in different areas,ranging from 1∶0 54~1∶3 54. The average is 1∶1.78. The highest Argali density is found in the Altun Mt.,reaching 1 67±0 33 head/ km2. The second is in the Mayil Mt The sum total of Argali in all the survey regions is estimated at 3 832~6 354 head.
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    STUDY ON THE OPTIMIZATION OF COAL MINING CITIES OF DATONG FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
    SHEN Lei, CHENG Jing
    1998, 13 (1):  52-57.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (279KB) ( )   Save
    Datong is the most important coal mining city of China. The deformative structure of the industry of this city has been established for more than 40 years as a result of the exploitation and export of the coal resource . When the high quality coal resource is exhausted gradually the ecological environment is destroyed and polluted seriously. This paper analyzes in detail the national position,resource situation and its utilization of the coal resource of Datong and expounds the main limiting conditions for sustainable development of the city. Finally,the authors put forward the ways and counter measures for the optimization of resource allocation,economy structure adjustment,and coal industrial structure and also for the management and improvement of the ecological environment.
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    THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF MUNICIPAL WATER ENVIRONMENT AND ITS CASE STUDY
    CUI Fengjun
    1998, 13 (1):  58-62.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (157KB) ( )   Save
    This paper had made analyse of the concept,nature,function and quantitative description method of the carrying capacity of municipal water environment by means of the systematic study method. It also has made the case study with the systemic dynamic simulation method and the forecast and optimization of the adjustment policy variables with the variation of the carrying capacity indices of water environment. Eventually satisfactory conclusions are obtained.
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    RESOURCES ABUNDANCE AND RESOURCES EFFICIENT SPACE——DISCUSSING THE METHOD OF INTEGRATED ESTIMATIONOF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES ABUNDANCE IN CHINA
    CHENG Hong
    1998, 13 (1):  63-68.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (207KB) ( )   Save
    The key to the study of the resources abundance lies in finding out the comparable calculation units and calculation methods for estimating various resources.This paper discusses the method of estimating the amounts of resources in farming, animal husbandry, forestry and fishery on the basis of the net production value, and estimates the average abundance of agricultural resources on the basis of the average value of 1993~1995 in different regions of ChinaIn this paper,the author assumes that the average abundance of China is one, and estimates the average abundance ratios of different regions. On the basis of the above estimation, the efficient areas of agricultural resources in different regions of China are estimated.
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    A STUDY ON THE MODEL OF FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASED ON THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
    HONG Wei, WU Chengzhen, HE Dongjin
    1998, 13 (1):  69-72.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (149KB) ( )   Save
    This paper introduces the method of artificial neural network and builds a model of three level feedtoward back propagation neural network for forest resources management. Then the model is compared with the Logistic function. The result of simulaing shows that the artificial neural network model is superior to the Logistic model and can be used to simulate forest resources dynamics.
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    A STUDY ON THE TECHNIC METHODS OF THE MACRO MONITOR ING OF THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESOURCES IN SICHUAN PROVINCE BY USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING
    ZHOU Huamao, ZENG Liangxiu, YU Genong, LIU Dingchang, ZHANG Chi
    1998, 13 (1):  73-76.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (227KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of the stratification of the regions of land use type,by using the satellite remote sensing data and sampling technique,the technic method of the macro monitoring of the agricultural land resources in Sichuan Province has been established and the survey of the present situation of the utilization of the agricultural land on the scale of 1∶100 000 has been completed. This study also has made the special theme researches on the method of the sample square survey,the establishment of data base,the gathering together and extrapolation of data,and the statistical analysis and accuracy assessment method of data. The regions of the land use type of the studied area are divided into 7 strata and 25 substrata. The number of the sample square sampled is 118. The size of the sample square is 10×10km2. The actual sampling rate is 2.0%. The application results show that on the basis of rational stratification,adopting the method of combining the satellite remote sensing sampling and GIS can meet the accuracy requirements of the macro survey and macro monitoring of the present situation of land use. This paper emphatically introduces the technic methods which have relation to this study.
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    NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR FULL UTILIZATION OF COAL REFUSE RESOURCE
    LIU Xiaobo, FU Yongjian, XIAO Qiuguo, DENG Wen
    1998, 13 (1):  77-80.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (147KB) ( )   Save
    Extracting alumina from coal refuse, sintering cement clinker directly from residues and circulating waste gas and liquid is a unusual technology for utilization of coal refuse. Based on studies of technical theorem, the coal refuse limestone soda ash sintering reaction process and the influencing factors of alumina extraction ratio are disclosed, and the mechanisms of direct sintering cement clinker and possibility of waste and liquid circulation are analyzed for the purpose of rational utilization of resources.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING ECO TOURISM
    Lv Yonglong
    1998, 13 (1):  81-86.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (224KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis of the background of eco tourism development,eco tourism is thought to be an appropriate way for the sustainable utilization of the tourism landscape resources in this paper.The general policies of economy,society,technology and environment for the eco tourism development are expounded. On the basis of the policies,the general principles of eco tourism planning,the eco tourism development potentials and constraints,and the structure and spatial suitability of eco tourism industry are presented.
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    THE FUNDAMENTAL THEORY OF THE CRUSHING COMPACTION METHOD FOR THE PERCOLATION CONTROL IN PADDY FIELD RECLAMATION AND ITS APPLICATION——A BRIEF INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE PADDY FIELD RECLAMATION ON JAPANESE VOLCANIC ASH SOIL AND THE RESULTS OF THE LABORATORY
    HOU Yanlin, Hidekazu BABA
    1998, 13 (1):  87-91.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (175KB) ( )   Save
    This paper mainly introduces the fundamental theory of the Crushing Compaction Method and its application. This method was created by the researchers of Iwate University,Japan,in the paddy field reclamation(PFR) on the volcanic ash soil in early 1960s. Meanwhile,the main results of the researches on Chinese sand soils are introduced. The purpose is to provide on example for the PFR and the adoption of the percolation control engineering in the Chinese regions where the soils percolate water.
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    THE DYNAMIC CHANGES OF THE GRAVITY CENTER OF THE FARMLAND AREA AND THE QUALITY OF THE FARMLAND ECOLOGICAL BACKGROUND IN CHINA
    GAO Zhiqiang, LIU Jiyuan, ZHUANG Dafang
    1998, 13 (1):  92-96.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.01.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (100KB) ( )   Save
    According to the data base of Chinese environment resources,on the basis of the reearches on the changes of the Chinese farmland area in 10 years,the gravity centers of the farmland areas of two periods are calculated by using the method of the gravity center model. From this it is found that the gravity center of the Chinese farmland has moved 28 337 7km toward the northwest in 10 years. Then,on the basis of the fuzzy evaluation of the farmland ecological background,the quality index of the farmland ecological background is designed. By using this index the quantitative value of the decline of the Chinese farmland quality is calculated. The value is 2.52%,which is induced by the movement of the gravity center of the farmland.
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