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    25 December 1999, Volume 14 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Land use /cover change and environmental security in Shenzhen region
    SHI Pei jun, PAN Yao zhong, CHEN Jin, WANG Ping, ZHOU Wu guang
    1999, 14 (4):  293-299.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (304KB) ( )   Save
    With the use of MSS and TM data of Shenzhen in 1980,1988 and 1994,land use/cover map was compiled.The paper analyzes the temporal spatial regulation of land use/cover change during the last 20 years followed by the analysis of the correspondence relationship between the land use change and the urban environmental security. The results show that the land use/cover change is the key factor accountable for the rapid urbanization process;urbanization aggravated the urban flooding and the soil erosion;the spatial difference of the environmental pollution of the research area presents the obvious positive correlation with the proportion of the corresponding urban land,whose significant coefficient can reach 0 001.Hence,rehabilitation of the vegetation has the unsubstituted function on reducing the citys eco environmental problem in the urbanization process.
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    Study on phenomena and mechanism of land use/cover change in Beijing
    GU Chao lin
    1999, 14 (4):  307-312.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (316KB) ( )   Save
    This paper focuses on the description of phenomena and analysis of mecha nism of land use/cover change in Beijing based on three typical stages:1970s,1980s and 1990s.There are some main spatial patterns about expansion of the urban built up area in Beijing:(a)urban spread;(b)extending along growth axle;and (c)urbanization in urban fringe.In recent years,Beijings land cover changes very fast because urban land has become a kind of productive factor and the market system is used gradually.Three main phenomena are found,i.e.,decline of downtown area,urban renewal of inner city and peasant enclaves of urban fringe.Moreover,suburbanization is becoming a new urban spatial growth process.
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    Progrssion of RS ecometrics
    GONG Peng
    1999, 14 (4):  313-317.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (230KB) ( )   Save
    This paper summarized the up to date progress of RS ecometrics recently,and emphatically discussed the application of Digital Photo in ecometrics.Thereinto the measure result of cover degree of canopy and tree height gained the evidently progress.Ulteriorly it discussed the future direction of development.
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    The feedback of land use/cover change on climate
    ZHOU Guang sheng, WANG Yu hui
    1999, 14 (4):  318-322.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (248KB) ( )   Save
    Land Use /Cover Change (LUCC) directly reflects the dominant factor leading to global change—human activities.The study on LUCC will enhance the understanding of the interaction between global change and terrestrial ecosystems,and improve the accuracy of evaluating and predicting the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change.In this paper,based on the two well known balance equations—heat and water balance equations on the earth's surface,the authors discuss the feedback of LUCC on climate.The study shows:(a)Vegetation has the function of reducing runoff,storing water and mitigating the effects of global climate change.The effect of vegetation on precipitation may not be considered.(b)The effect of vegetation on climate depends on specific regions.(c)In the middle latitude areas,if changes of the surface albedo and runoff meet the following relationship,Δf=5Δα×10-4g/cm2·min vegetation will not have an effect on earths surface temperature.This result indicates that strategies concerning global change should be suitable to local conditions.
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    A comparative study of the impact of agriculture on July cli mate in China between the present and the Little Ice Age
    YAN Zhong wei, WEI He lin
    1999, 14 (4):  323-328.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (255KB) ( )   Save
    Agriculture changes natural vegetation and therefore water and energy exchanges between land and atmosphere.This may cause different impacts on regional climates,depending on the different climates themselves.We compare the impacts of agriculture on July climate between the Little Ice Age(LIA)and the present warm period through numerical modeling with global and regional climate models.The cooling in northern China in the LIA is about -1 3℃ lower than the present.Agriculture tends to ameliorate the large scale cooling(from -1.3℃ to -0.8℃).Agriculture causes widespread decreases in precipitation in eastern China in the LIA,but not under modern conditions.The different land surface energy balances induced by agriculture in different periods are discussed to explain the different climate effects of agriculture.
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    Change of arable land area in China during the past 20 years and its policy implications
    LI Xiu bin
    1999, 14 (4):  329-333.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (183KB) ( )   Save
    Dynamics of arable land and its driving forces in China during the past 20 years are discussed in this paper based on statistical and survey data at national,provincial and county levels.It was found that (a)the general trend of net arable land loss started in the late 1950s which got continued and accelerated in the study period;(b)peaks of arable land loss were usually correspondent to the booming up periods of the economy;(c)the lost arable land was mostly those high quality land in the eastern part while the acclaimed land was mostly marginal land in the western part of the country;(d)area of arable land occupied by non agricultural sectors was sensitive to investment in fixed assets,indicating a low efficiency of land utilization in non agricultural sectors;and (e)urbanization rate had a positive influence on the efficiency of land utilization.The author claims that the following points should be emphasized in land management in order to protect the valuable arable land resources in the country:(a)importance should be placed on both the quantity and quality of arable land.In this connection,the present policy of “keeping quantity balance" within an administration territory is no good to the very land required protection,namely,the high quality arable land;(b)policies on rural urban migration and the development of rural industry should be reviewed,since land utilization of the non agricultural sectors in rural areas is far more inefficient than those in urban areas; and (c)land market construction in both urban and rural areas should be strengthened,since the poor circulation of land resources is a major factor of the low land utilization efficiency in China.
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    Land cover change and conservation of Przewalskis gazelle and Père Davids deer
    JIANG Zhi gang, LI Di qiang
    1999, 14 (4):  334-339.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (185KB) ( )   Save
    We take two large mammal species of China,the Przewalskis gazelle and Père David’s deer as examples to analyze (a)the impact of land cover change on the wildlife fauna in China;and (b)how to preserve endangered wildlife species with the background of environmental changes.Przewalskis gazelle and Père David’s deer are endemic to China.Due to human population increase,land use,and land cover change,the distribution of Przewalskis gazelle declined,whereas the distribution of Père David’s deer gradually reduced in field,finally the species went to extinction in field.Przewalskis gazelle and Père David’s deer are two typical examples of the threatened wildlife in China.The 20th century witnessed human population growth.The human population in Inner Mongolia increased more than 20 times during the last 100 years,in other provinces in Northwest China human population also increased at least 7 times in the same period.Therefore,more and more land has been turned into farmlands and rangelands in order to feed the people.Land cover change modifies wildlife habitats in China.In the process of land cover change,there are two ways to preserve endangered wildlife species:(a)to establish reserves to secure important habitats and breeding grounds of endangered species; and (b)to breed those endangered wildlife species in captivity,and to release the captive bred individuals into nature when the population of endangered species recovers.At present,the establishment of a natural reserve for the Przewalskis gazelle is underway and ex situ conservation strategy for the Père Davids deer has been adopted.Based on the current status of the Père Davids deer in China,the reintroduction and conservation of the endangered species is successful.
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    The status quo and expectation of global and local land cover and land use RS research
    YANG Li ming, ZHU Zhi liang
    1999, 14 (4):  340-344.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (200KB) ( )   Save
    Since the 1990s,a series of important achievements have been gained by utilizing Remote Sensing to research macro land cover and land use.The founded global and local land cover and land use database are being used widely,and have gained great social and economic benefits.The research results of land cover,land use,and their changes have been used to supervise the execution of international pact about global environmental changes.The method that utilizes RS technique to perform extensive detailed land investigations has gradually cast off the traditional concept that this work can only be used for mapping.It is now progressing along the direction of building an application oriented,synthetic database easy for user to perform.Moreover as to how to evaluate the precision of a land cover database of such a large scale has aroused widespread concern.As a follow up,a number of new theories and methodologies came into being accordingly.Upon entering the 21st century,it is expected that the RS research about global and local land cover and land use will gain even greater progress.
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    Soil erodibility and its use in soil erosion prediction model
    LIU Bao yuan, ZHANG Ke li, JIAO Ju ying
    1999, 14 (4):  345-350.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (180KB) ( )   Save
    Soil erodibility serves as a major parameter for soil erosion prediction and land use planning.Olson and Wischmeier gave it a very clear definition which has been used in many soil erosion models.However,it is not suitable for China.Based on the review of the 70 years research achievements on soil erodibility,and in light with China's actual conditions on land use as well as the available erosion data,the definition on soil erodibility index and its measurement in China was developed The soil erodibility for China might be defined as the average soil loss per unit of the erosion index from the clear tilled fallow on a plot 20 meters long on a slope of 15° This defi nition may help us for field measurement and Chinese soil erosion prediction model deve lopment.
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    A theoretical analysis of statistical relationship between urbanization and economic development
    LIANG Jin she
    1999, 14 (4):  351-354.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (170KB) ( )   Save
    Usually,forecasting urban population is a prior work to predicting urban land use change.A nice statistical relationship between urbanization level and per capita GNP was set up in the 1980s,so that it is possible to forecast urbanization level and urban population from economic development.It is necessary to analyze the relationship theoretically in order to deepen our understanding.Firstly,the author outlines an urbanization mechanism based upon production factor substitute and demand elasticity of income.Then a function is created,which connects urbanization level with whole GNP,per capita urban gross product and rural gross product.Finally the statistical relationship is derived from two assumptions.One is that the growth share of whole GNP per capita resulted from the increase in per capita gross product in city and countryside is always constant at any point in time respectively.Another is that the difference between per capita product of them is in direct ratio to the whole GNP per capita.The second implies an uneven urban rural development history of inverse “U”.
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    Landuse and sandy desertification in Northern China
    WANG Tao, WU Wei
    1999, 14 (4):  355-358.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (173KB) ( )   Save
    Land sandy desertification is one of the most serious environmental and so cial economic problems in Northern China.The processes of desertification mainly have being controlled by the interaction of human activities and fragile eco environment,which means the pattern and intension of landuse are major factors for development or reverse of desertification.Since the increase of human impact on landuse which had been forced by the increasing pressure of population,the farming pastoral transitional zone in Northern China has been moving towards north,resulting in changes in landuse structure from grazing to cropping to a large extent and destruction of natural vegetation cover.Consequently,wind erosion induced desertification process got accelerated.According to statistics of desertified land areas with different landuse purposes,human activities related sandy desertification were grouped as over cultivation(25%),over grassing(28%),excess firewood gathering(32%) and mis used water resources(8%).During the last 5 decades,sandy desertified land has expanded continually in Northern China,where total area has exceeded 350,000km2 by the mid 1990s.Based on remote sensing monitoring,we found that the growth rate of desertified land has being increased decade by decade,such as the annual average spread area had increased from 1,560km2 between the 1950s to the mid 1970s,to 2,100km2 between the mid 1970s to the late 1980s,to 2,460km2 in the last decade.But some successful models in combating desertification have proved that where the reasonable landuse practice has been adopted over certain years,the sandy desertified land has would get reversed and can be used again for more effective farming or graszing.
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    Flora features under urban land use
    JIANG Yuan, LIU Shuo
    1999, 14 (4):  359-362.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (147KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the data of spontaneous urban vegetation,the human impacts on urban flora have been discussed in this paper. The conclusions are: (a)As a result of human activity,the urban flora with regard to its spectrum of dominant families is different from that of natural vegetation,but shows rather similar characters among different cities.(b)The ecological characters of the urban flora are strongly influenced by the urban climate and soil. (c)The expand of urban land use and its influence on urban habitats as well as some measures for greenery patches management are threatening the existence of some species in the urban area.
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    Land use structure optimization for Guanzhong Region,Shaanxi Province
    KANG Mu yi, YAO Hua rong, LIU Shuo
    1999, 14 (4):  363-367.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (177KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis of the present land use structure and existing problem related to such land use patterns in Guanzhong Region,Shaanxi Province,this paper applies gray linear programming model (GLP) to the optimization of land use structure in the Region.Several typical solutions for the future land use structure have been simulated out by the model,through the selection of a set of factors deciding land use structure,and through the calculation of parameters of land supply,land use requirements and limitations,and various land use demands.The optimized scheme of future land use structure for the Region has been decided at the end with the analytic hierarchical programming method (AHP) in which both comprehensive benefits and feasibility are considered.
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    Mutual influence between the exploitation of desert oases and the environmental change
    DU Ming yuan, Maki T.
    1999, 14 (4):  368-371.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (156KB) ( )   Save
    Agricultural activities in arid zones,especially the exploitation of desert oases,have changed the energy exchange of the earth atmospheric system.Recent researches about climate of desert oases and breakwind,analysis of the climate data and the fieldwork indicated that the exploitation of desert oases in arid zones of western China in the recent 43 years have changed the local climatic environment,and made it developing in favor of human and agriculture.There are two kinds of feedback effects that are poles apart between the exploitation of desert oases and the change of local environment:environment getting well→development of oases→environment getting better→redevelopment of oases;environmental deterioration→degradation of oases→environment getting even worse→re degradation of oases,even disappearing.The change of macro environment and whether resources are rationally utilized or the laws of nature followed determine the function of the two kinds of feedback effects.
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    How should the Xiao Hinggan Mt.Forests change with potential climate change:A simulation study
    YAN Xiao dong, ZHAO Shi dong, FU Cong bin, Shugart H. H., YU Zhen liang
    1999, 14 (4):  372-376.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (236KB) ( )   Save
    The Proposed Model,forest gap model NEWCOP(Northeast China Woods Competition Occupation Processor),has been proved to be able to simulate distribution,growth and succession of forests in Xiao Hinggan Mountains.It also can be app lied to simulate the dynamics of standing forest in Xiao Hinggan Mountains.Simulating forest with GISS 2xCO2 and GFDL 2xCO2 climate change scenarios indicated that forests in Xiao Hinggan Mountains are sensitive to climate change.There are very different responses of standing forest to different climate change scenarios,but the basic trend is similar:more and more deciduous trees may replace standing Korean pine.
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    Studies on models for Biodiversity
    YUE Tian xiang
    1999, 14 (4):  377-380.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (146KB) ( )   Save
    By analyzing 27 models for biological diversity that have been published since 1949,it is found out that most of the models are not theoretically complete.For instance,the widely used Shannon model has at least 4 drawbacks:(a)it does not give a consideration of the differences of biomass among various species;(b)individuals of every species or the number of ecotopes of every ecotope type must be more than 100 if the Shannon model is used;(c)the parameter of area is not implied in the Shannon model; and (d)Shannon model can not express the ‘richness' property of diversity.Therefor,we introduced the theoretically complete models for biodiversity,in which some parameters are modified in order to satisfy the requirement of operating these models in different situations and of studying the similarity of the biodiversity.
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    Statistical analysis to regional land use structure and its driving forces
    ZHANG Ming
    1999, 14 (4):  381-384.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (185KB) ( )   Save
    This paper applies Canonical Correlation Analysis to identify the driving forces of land use structure in 1992 in Yulin Prefecture.Through operations of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and specific analysis of the results,the contribution of each driving force to land use structure can be identified quantitatively.At the same time,tests were carried out through the canonical correlation coefficient and redundancy analysis.
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    A study on modeling the terminal lake of Shiyang River Drainage Basin under the natural conditions
    GUO Xiao yin, CHEN Fa hu, XIE Yao wen, SHI Qi
    1999, 14 (4):  385-388.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (181KB) ( )   Save
    A large terminal lake Zhuyeze once existed in Shiyang River Drainage Basin in prehistoric period.Since Western Han Dynasty (about 2010 years ago),the landcover of this area has changed greatly because of human activities.The irrigated farmlands replaced the natural oases and increased gradually,while the water was increasingly used for agricultural purpose.Zhuyeze shrank into many small lakes that dried up gradually.In this article the area of the “close lake”under modern natural conditions is calculated following water budget principle by deciding water income and outcome,supposed that the water resource in the drainage basin was not utilized by human being.The area of the modern terminal lake under natural conditions should be about 580km2.
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