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    25 September 1999, Volume 14 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    A STUDY ON GLOBAL LAND USE CHANGE UNDER THE PRESSURE OF POPULATION GROWTH
    XIE Gao di, CHENG Sheng kui, DING Xian zhong
    1999, 14 (3):  193-199.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (173KB) ( )   Save
    Theoretically,the 4 factors of population,cultivated land,grassland and forest form the global man land interaction system centering around man.In this system changes of population undoubtedly cause the increase or decrease as well as mutual transformation of cultivated land,grassland and forest.A man land equilibrium model was built in the study.Based on the model,the authors have analyzed the global land use changes in 1970~1995 and in the future 50 years.Results indicated: (a)Du ring 1970~1995,population increased by 54 6%,but no sharp decrease in cultivated land and grassland have been found.Reasons for this relative stable equilibrium is that the improved agricultural technology,which is marked by irrigated area expansion and a large amount of chemical fertilizer application,leads to the rise of cultivated land productivity to 63 9%,and offsets the cultivated land increase,grassland and forest decrease under the pressure of population growth. (b)In the future 50 years,population will reach 100×108,an increase of 74%,and per capita available cultivated land,grassland and forest will decrease to below 0 13ha,0 34ha,and 0.37ha respectively.However,it is impossible to expand cultivated land by 74%,as the key to sustain current global stable land cover is to raise cultivated land productivity to over 74%,by relying on improved agricultural technology.(c)Amongst the former mechanisms to sustaining land use change relative stable,it will be difficult to improve land productivity through cultivated land expansion and a large amount of chemical ferti lizer application.Assuming both the current cultivated land area and productivity maintain the same level,the current cultivated land can still feed the projected global population in 2050 which is 55×108 more than the present level.Even if the natural disasters cause cultivated land productivity a drop of 0 99t/ha or cultivated land area 4 77×108ha, the cultivated land can still provide enough food to feed the global po pulation of 100×108.That means the man land system will not get collapsed in the next 50 years.The reduction of grassland and forest may be unavertible.
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    THE COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION ON SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT:A CASE STUDY OF WUZHOU CITY,GUANGXI
    WANG Liang jian, CHEN Fu, BAO Hao sheng
    1999, 14 (3):  200-205.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (229KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the five aims of the“FESLM”(An international framework for evaluating sustainable land management)by FAO,i. e. productivity,security, protection,viability,and acceptability.The author puts forward the basic framework for evaluating in dexes system including 54 evaluating factors of sustainable land mana gement in Wuzhou city and makes comprehensive evaluation on sustainable land management in 1978,1985,1995,respectively.The comprehensive evaluation value is 37 14%,40 04%,55 58%, respectively.The result shows that the policy mechanism plays an evident role in land management in this period, but the land management at present in Wuzhou city is still at an initial stage of sustainable land management.The chief reasons accountable for this are the following predominant problems exist in land use in Wuzhou city at present.(a)Though the agricultural output value and product have been growing, the level of land productivity is still low.(b)The big population base results in increasingly acute man land conflicts.(c)The extensive soil and water erosion induces frequent flood disasters.(d)The serious pollution of SO2,dust and acid rain in atmosphere.(e)The proportion of industrial and agricultural development is serious out of balance and the extensive farming under natural conditions cause low yield, slow income growth of peasants and the deficient input to agriculture.(f)It is difficult to form scale economy and scale gain benefit because of small scale land management.According to the above problems, the author puts forward the technique and tactics of land sustainable management.(a)The alternative pattern for sustainable land management in mountainous and hilly areas is ecological agriculture.(b)Reasonably dispose the structure of forests and construct high productive and high effective forest resources system so that it can bring the economic, ecological and social benefits of forests into full play.(c)Harness water and soil erosion, reduce losses of flood disasters, and make the land eco environment in benign circulation.(d)Strictly control population growth and enhance the quality of population and optimize population structure.(e)Gradually improve transportation conditions and promote rural urban economic relations.(f)Prefect mechanism of land management and establish the perfect rules and regulations on sustainable land mana gement.The evaluating method has practical and applicable value.
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    STUDY OF CARBON POOL MANAGEMENT INDEX IN SOILS UNDER DIFFERENT AGROECOSYSTEMS
    SHEN Hong, CAO Zhi hong, WANG Zhi ming
    1999, 14 (3):  206-211.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (272KB) ( )   Save
    The active C pool and CPMI(C pool management index) of soils under different agricultural ecosystem were discussed using potassium permanganate oxidation in this paper.Results indicated CPMIs were significantly affected by fertilization,climate,soil utilization style and cultivated age et al.The active C varied from 0 49 to 4 99mg/g, and CPMI from 51 6 to 165 in the experimental soils. The order of CPMI in red soil of tropical zone influenced by different fertilization treatments was GM(green manure)>FYM (farmyard manure)>FYM+NPK>REF(reference)>NPK>CK.In subtropical zone,the corresponding order was RSC(rice straw compost)>FYM>FYM + NPK>REF>CK in paddy soil,while in yellow brown soil,compared with reference,CPMI of GM,FYM,FYM+NPK incremented by 50%,45 9% and 21 9% respectively.That of NPK and CK decreased by 6% and 38 1%.In meadow soil of temperate zone,compared with CPMI influenced by 5 year fertilization,CPMI for 10 year FYM application incremented by 28 4%,for FYM+NPK by 19 7%,while for NPK and CK decreased by 8 7% and 17 8%.Correlation analysis indicated CPMI was not only related or extremely related to total N,total P,hydrolyzable N,readily available P,K and pH,but also sensitive to agricultural practices.This showed it is practical using CPMI to reflect the impacts of agricultural measures on soil fertility and the dynamics of C pool variation.
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    DECLINE OF PRE HISTORICAL AGRICULTURE AND FORMATION OF FARMING GRAZING TRANSITIONAL ZONE IN NORTH CHINA:A VIEW FROM CLIMATIC CHANGES
    FANG Xiu qi
    1999, 14 (3):  212-218.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (172KB) ( )   Save
    The farming grazing transitional zone of northern China had once been a region where the primitive agricultural culture was developed and flourished.The agricultural culture declined and changed to the pastoral culture during cal.4300~3500aBP.After than,the so called farming grazing transitional zone formed,and the relative strength of the agricultural culture and pastoral culture has changed in the course of history in the region.The process of culture changes mentioned above was strongly impacted by the climatic changes.The primitive agriculture developed in the Holocene Megathermal Period when temperature was 2~3℃ higher in a maximum,and annual precipitation was about 100mm more than the present.The decline of agricultural culture and the rise of pastoral culture happened at the termination of the Holocene Megathermal Period when both temperature and precipitation dropped,which induced inadequate thermal and water resources for agricultural production. The formation of farming grazing zone during the last 3500 years convinced with the modern climate system.The time and the possible cause of the decline of primitive culture in farming grazing transitional zone of northern China is comparable with the decline of the ancient cultures in India,Babylon,and Egypt,which implies some inner interrelationship in climatic changes in the above regions.
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    ECONOMICALLY PREFERRED KEY TECHNIQUES ON SHELTER BELT CONSTRUCTION ON COASTAL FARMLAND
    ZHANG Ji lin, JI Yong hua, WANG Jian, CHEN Zhu jun, SHEN Bang qing, GAO Guo xing
    1999, 14 (3):  219-225.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (234KB) ( )   Save
    Technical economy analysis and multi purpose preferred grey state strate gies concerning plantation tree species, shelterbelt composition and their management types on coastal farmland in Jiangsu Province have been reported. The results showed that the optimal selection of management types of windbreak network is the compound management of wood forest and fruit. And the main plantation tree species should select fast growth timber and economically high efficiency species, such as poplar, peach etc. The foundation shelterbelts, as the biggest lined network, was planted on the coastal banks; the main and assistant shelterbelts serving as moderate network can be planted by road sides and on ditch banks. The subsidiary shelterbelt as the smallest network, can be planted on ditches for desalinization and drainage purposes. Therefore, the compound structural model of multiplicity species, lined networks and shelterbelts, and more efficiency and high output products can be composed.
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    A COMPARISON OF HYDROLOGICAL BEHAVIORS OF FOREST AND GRASSLAND WATERSHEDS IN GULLY REGION OF THE LOESS PLATEAU
    HUANG Ming bin, KANG Shao zhong, LI Yu shan
    1999, 14 (3):  226-231.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (284KB) ( )   Save
    In order to investigate the hydrological behaviors of forest and grassland watersheds,a comparative analysis of water balance elements on two experimental watersheds in the gully region of the Loess Plateau was made.The quantitative results of the model applied and observed data confirm that the depth of annual runoff in the forest watershed is less than that of the adjacent grassland on condition that cover degree of both is the same,the amount of evaportanspiration in forest watershed is higher than that of the grassland,and soil water storage in the three meter horizon is less than that of grassland.So we consider that forest cover strengthens the processes of water vertical circulation,and weakens that of the hydrological cycle,and reduces soil water content.A practical suggestion about forest development in this region is also given in this paper.
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    CHARACTERISTICS AND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES FORTHE MEDICINAL PLANT RESOURCES IN THE THREEGORGES RESERVOIR AREA
    XIE Zong qiang, CHEN Wei lie
    1999, 14 (3):  232-237.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (279KB) ( )   Save
    Some 1 129 species of medicinal plants belonging to 603 genera and 174 families were found in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.Of which 19 families such as Compositae,Liliaceae,Papilionaceae made up 49.4% of the total species,26 generaincluding Polygonum,Clematis,etc.occupied 18.5%,and 37.2% of them were endemic to China,reflecting the fichness of Chinese medical materials in this region.The plants using rhizomes as medicinal materials accounted for 42.1% of the total species,warning us that moderate collection is necessary for the purpose of sustainable utilization.The ratio of the species living in forests to the total was 48.9%,suggesting that forests were the resources pools of medicinal plants in the studied area.The indirect impacts of the Three Gorges Project on the medicinal plants were serious though the resources loss due to the submerge was not very high.Conservation of natural forests was the main way to preserve the medicinal plant resources in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.
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    THE CONSERVATION OF WETLANDS BIODIVERSITIES AND THEIR SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION IN ROIGE PLATEAU
    HE Chi quan, ZHAO Kui yi
    1999, 14 (3):  238-244.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (174KB) ( )   Save
    The natural conditions and contributing factors of alpine wetland in northwest Sichuan are discussed in this paper.The main biodiversity value of wetlands in this region,such as having peculiar species of the world i.e.Grus nigricollis and some rare endangered species,and having many species of important economic and scientific research significance,is analyzed.Recently,human activities,such as peatland exploitation and overgrazing,which have done great damage to vegetation and caused changes in soil physical chemical quality,and the speciality of the climate that have caused sandification in some parts of the region,all resulting in decrease in biodiversities.Finally,some countermeasures for the protection and sustainable utilization of biodiversities are put forward such as(a)to coordinate the relation between human activities and protection of wetland biodiversities;(b)to strictly control carrying capacity of livestock and expand man made grassland;(c)to establish nature reserves of mire wetland in the plateau; and (d)to utilize the peatland which is the dominant resource in this region to control sandification and work out legislations on biodiversity conservation in mire wetlands.
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    NOTES ON THE RESOURCES OF MATSUTAKE GROUP AND THEIR REASONABLE UTILIZATION AS WELL AS EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION IN CHINA
    LIU Pei gui, YUAN Ming sheng, WANG Xiang hua, SUN Pei qiong, YANG Xue
    1999, 14 (3):  245-252.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (418KB) ( )   Save
    Up to now 5 species and 1 variety of matsutake group which occupy more than 1/3 of the total number of the 15 species available on the globe have been reported in China.They are Tricholoma matsutake,T.matsutake var.formosa,T.bakama tsutake,T.fulvocastaneum,T.robustum and T.quericola.These species,except T.robustum, are all the East Asian endemic elements.The triangular area consisting of southeast Qinghai Xizang(Tibet)Plateau,west of Sichuan and northwest of Yunnan abounds with rich species and has high occurrence frequency,hence can be considered as an abundance as well as distribution center.T.matsutake and its varie ty can be always found in the pine (Pinus yunnanensis,P.densiflora,P.densata etc.)forest.The great majority of the other three species usually occurs in the oak (Quercus aquifolioides,Q.pannosa,Q.variabilis,Q.serrata,Q.rehderiana etc.)forest besides T.robustum which can be usually found in the above mentioned two kinds of forests or pine oak mixed forest.They are important ectomycorrhizal fungi of pine and oak.The paper mainly discusses the community natural succession of pine and oak and impacts of human activities upon matsutake group.It is demonstrated that although the former experiences species substitution based on natural successive law of pine and oak forests,no obvious effect occurs.However,the latter constitute a leading influential factor,summarized as follows:(a)The uncontrolled extensive tree felling resulted in a sudden deterioration of the eco environment.As a consequence,the subterranean mycelia dropped obviously,even disappeared completely in some districts.(b)A preda tory collection (namely the mycelia in ground are taken out together with fruit bodies and deserted over the ground or the remained mushrooms pits are open without soil cover after collecting.In the case subterranean mycelia are exposed in the air for long time,they would be endangered even died) is another factor which causes a decrease of the natural bio resources.These are the main reasons account for the endangerment of matsutake group and even disappearance in some regions.In order to preserve endangered matsutake group,establish special nature reserves,isolate their genes,cells and tissue culture and keep them for future research and utilization in case they disappeared,and their tissue culture as well as artificial inoculation of the mycelia into the pine and oak forests in order to increase subterranean mycelia and sustain utilization,it is suggested that the proposals should be added to the 《Red Book on the Wild Plants of China》.
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    A STUDY ON RAINWATER COLLECTION AND REGULATION AND YIELD INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT PLANTED ON RIDGES AND CORN IN FURROWS WITH PLASTIC CANOPY ON STRIPED RAINFED FARMLAND
    DENG Zhen yong, QIU Hua min
    1999, 14 (3):  253-257.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (176KB) ( )   Save
    The growth pattern of wheat planted on ridges and corn in furrows with plastic canopy on striped rainfed farmland is superior to the presently extended growth pattern of wheat planted in furrows and corn on ridges,both mulched.In the symbiotic stage,crops have the equitable effect upon mutual water regulation,coordination and balance of water requirements by wheat and corn in the different deve lopment stages.Therefore,the crop living condition would be more suitable,and the structure of colony more coordinative.The former can raise crop yield by 9 0%~12 5% in contrast to the latter.
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    STUDY ON COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION MODEL OF CROP STALK RESOURCES IN DRY LAND AREA OF EASTERN SHANXI PROVINCE
    GAO De ming, MEI Xu rong, LU Jian fei, CAI Dian xiong, DU Jian zhong
    1999, 14 (3):  258-264.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (236KB) ( )   Save
    Crop stalk resources and their current utilization conditions in dry land hilly area of Shouyang County are analyzed.Correlative parameters were taken from the studies on material cycling of animal feed stalk to crop land,site experiment of fertilizing with assorted stalk and manure,covering field with stalk as mulch in different seasons,stalk back to field directly,and crop land water utilization efficiency with different treatments of stalk.An optimization utilization structure of crop stalk was suggested by Linear Programming method for gaining the maximum stalk net profit to provide significant benefits for comprehensive utilization of crop stalk resources in dry land area.
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    RESEARTH INTO TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOR DYNAMIC MONITORING COUNTY LEVEL LANDUSE:TAKING JIAOQU COUNTY OF BAOTOU AS AN EXAMPLE
    WANG Xiao dong, CUI Wei hong
    1999, 14 (3):  265-270.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (278KB) ( )   Save
    It is of vital importance to accurately mastering county level landuse status and its changes.In the light of “Technological System for Dynamic Monitoring Landuse in Jiqoqu County of Baotou”,a key project of the Ninth Five Year Plan period,the integration theory and implementation methods of Remote Sensing,Global Positioning System and Geographical Information System that are used in dynamic monitoring county level landuse are introduced.Results indicated that 96 2%of the changed target areas were found by RS.The data acquiring methods,“pseudo 54” algorithm and “2D abnormal data” processing method can effectively prompt the efficiency of both field and laboratory work,and improve data precision.Contrasted with traditional investigation method of landuse changes,the entire system brings a qualitative economic benefit by over 20 times.Finally,questions concerning the establishment of RS interpretation model and TGIS are discussed.
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    ESTABLISHMENT AND APPLICATION OF COMPATIBLE TREE AVOVE GROUND BIOMASS MODELS
    LUO Qi bang, ZENG Wei sheng, HE Dong bei, BAO Tuo hua, LIN Wen rui
    1999, 14 (3):  271-277.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (306KB) ( )   Save
    An effective method for developing a set of tree biomass models and their application in regional forest biomass inventory is presented by using the sample data of Chinese fir, Masson pine, and broad leaved tree species. This has not only provided solutions to the two major problems of incompatibility of the total biomass estimator with biomass estimators of stem, branch, leaf, etc. and that of biomass estimator with volume estimator in forest inventory, but also made the model precision much higher and applicability much better than the currently used two way tree biomass models.
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    STUDIES ON THE INTEGRETED EXPLOITATIVE UTILIZATION OF THE FOREST RESOURCES IN CHANGDU PREFECTURE OF TIBET:TAKING SIX COUNTIES IN THE THREE RIVER VALLEYS AS AN EXAMPLE
    DENG Kun mei, HAN Yu feng
    1999, 14 (3):  278-283.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (166KB) ( )   Save
    The paper gives a general survey of the forest resources and their distribution patterns of six counties in three river valleys (Nujiang ,Lancangjiang and Jinshajiang) of Changdu Prefecture of Tibet by means of comprehensive analysis of the problems existed in the exploitation and utilization of forest resources in this area,the authors focus their attention on forest protection practices and integrated exploitation and put forward tentative ideas on how to rationally exploit and manage forest resources as well.
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    IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CHANGES UPON UTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF TRANSBOUNDARY FRESH WATER RESOURCES
    HE Da ming, GOU Jun hua
    1999, 14 (3):  284-287.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (142KB) ( )   Save
    The reasonable utilization and coordinated management of transboundary water resources has become a major theme in regional economic development,international resources and markets sharing and ecological conservation in the world,and will be a key factor to the sustainable regional development and offer solutions to the disputes between regions and countries.So it has been widely concerned by the international communities.This paper examines the impacts of such aspects as changes along national boundaries,international regional cooperation and economic integration,climate change,population growth and sustainable development,etc.,upon the utilization and management of transregional fresh water resources.
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    ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION OF EUROPEAN UNION:LEGISLATION,POLICY AND ACTIONS
    CHEN Guang wei, LI Lai lai
    1999, 14 (3):  288-292.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (379KB) ( )   Save
    The member countries of European Union(EU) have reached an agreement to the common standard in environmental protection,having gone through a series of discussions and negotiations.The agreement was meant to remove the trade barriers,centered on environmental protection and extended to cover the issues of resources conservation.Now the EU has become the regional political authority extending beyond the national borders.And EU Environmental Protection Agency functions as an umbrella,playing a comprehensive role in handling the issues of environmental protection,resources conservation,and biodiversity as well as issues of industry and agriculture.In the last 40 years,EU has gone through a process from individual responsibility to the common laws and actions observed by all its member countries,from focusing on the industrial pollution control to the all round efforts at reservation of the earths ecological system,and from emphasizing on pollution control to preventing pollution at the beginning.These experience has great value for China's sustainable development strategy.
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