NOTES ON THE RESOURCES OF MATSUTAKE GROUP AND THEIR REASONABLE UTILIZATION AS WELL AS EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION IN CHINA
1999, 14 (3):
Up to now 5 species and 1 variety of matsutake group which occupy more than 1/3 of the total number of the 15 species available on the globe have been reported in China.They are Tricholoma matsutake,T.matsutake var.formosa,T.bakama tsutake,T.fulvocastaneum,T.robustum and T.quericola.These species,except T.robustum, are all the East Asian endemic elements.The triangular area consisting of southeast Qinghai Xizang(Tibet)Plateau,west of Sichuan and northwest of Yunnan abounds with rich species and has high occurrence frequency,hence can be considered as an abundance as well as distribution center.T.matsutake and its varie ty can be always found in the pine (Pinus yunnanensis,P.densiflora,P.densata etc.)forest.The great majority of the other three species usually occurs in the oak (Quercus aquifolioides,Q.pannosa,Q.variabilis,Q.serrata,Q.rehderiana etc.)forest besides T.robustum which can be usually found in the above mentioned two kinds of forests or pine oak mixed forest.They are important ectomycorrhizal fungi of pine and oak.The paper mainly discusses the community natural succession of pine and oak and impacts of human activities upon matsutake group.It is demonstrated that although the former experiences species substitution based on natural successive law of pine and oak forests,no obvious effect occurs.However,the latter constitute a leading influential factor,summarized as follows:(a)The uncontrolled extensive tree felling resulted in a sudden deterioration of the eco environment.As a consequence,the subterranean mycelia dropped obviously,even disappeared completely in some districts.(b)A preda tory collection (namely the mycelia in ground are taken out together with fruit bodies and deserted over the ground or the remained mushrooms pits are open without soil cover after collecting.In the case subterranean mycelia are exposed in the air for long time,they would be endangered even died) is another factor which causes a decrease of the natural bio resources.These are the main reasons account for the endangerment of matsutake group and even disappearance in some regions.In order to preserve endangered matsutake group,establish special nature reserves,isolate their genes,cells and tissue culture and keep them for future research and utilization in case they disappeared,and their tissue culture as well as artificial inoculation of the mycelia into the pine and oak forests in order to increase subterranean mycelia and sustain utilization,it is suggested that the proposals should be added to the 《Red Book on the Wild Plants of China》.
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