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Table of Content

    25 March 1999, Volume 14 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    FLOOD OF YANTZE RIVER AND ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
    Li Wenhua
    1999, 14 (1):  1-8.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (243KB) ( )   Save
    Extremely heavy flood of Yantze River in 1998 has caused great damage and concern of the whole country. This paper intents to give a general analysis about the causes of the flood and the strategy for restoration of degraded ecosystems. It was discovered that the flood of 1998 was caused both by natural factors as well as by unreasonable human activities including deforestation, overgrazing, slope cultivation,reclamation of lake for agricultural cultivation etc. A series of measures for ecological restoration were suggested. These include to: carry out integrated survey and assessment of land cover and land use in the watershed of the Yantze River; establish plan for ecological restoration under the general framework of sustainable development of the watershed; restoration of ecosystems by preservation of natural forest in the upper reaches of the river; closing hills for natural regeneration; conduct establish sheltbelt systems, development of non wood production, develop animal husbandry in high altitude, dry habitat, and difficult for afforestation areas etc.
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    AN EXAMINATION OF THE CATASTROPHIC FLOOD IN SONGNEN DRAINAGE BASIN: RECOGNITION OF WETLAND FUNCTIONS
    Meng Xianmin, Cui Baoshan, Deng Wei, Lü Xianguo
    1999, 14 (1):  14-21.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (330KB) ( )   Save
    This paper analyses the relationship between the catastrophic flood occurred in 1998 and loss of wetlands and degeneration of wetland function in Songnen (Songhuajiang Nenjiang) drainage basin. It also raises relevant strategic policies concerning water resources management and flood control system construction according to the multi functions and benefit of wetlands in the basin. During the past 50 years, about 70% of the wetlands have been lost in this area, and wetland quality has been dropped obviously duo to population growth and competition for land between people and water. This has led to decrease of wetland functions on flood control, runoff pollution control and biodiversity conservation, as well as to eco environmental deterioration. It is necessary to conduct a comprehensive analysis, from the point of view of entire drainage basin and macro system, the natural, social and economic conditions and role of wetlands in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the rivers, and to achieve regional social and economic development on the basis of sustainable environment by taking the following measures such as overall planning, implementation step by step, closing hillsides to facilitate afforestation, soil and water conservation, land enclose to divert flood, wetland protection, re enforcement of dikes, channel dredging, environmental ma nagement, and rational exploitation.
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    WATER RESOURCE AND ITS FUNCTIONAL ALLOCATION IN YANGPU ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONE, HAINAN ISLAND
    Zhu Xiaodong, Xia Mingwen, Chen Wensheng, Ma Li, Wu Guowen
    1999, 14 (1):  22-27.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (158KB) ( )   Save
    This paper analyzed and summarized water resources characteristics in Yangpu Economic Developmenat Zone(YEDZ). YEDZ is located on the Yangpu peninsula in northwest of Hainan Island where fresh water resources are deficient because it is climatically dominated by tropical monsoon with intense sunshine, substantial evaporation and limited precipitation in spite of being a coastal zone. YEDZ, as a new developing industrial city, however, needs a great amount of water supply for production processes and domestic use. Potential water sources of YEDZ include local ground water, transferred water from Chunjiang Reservoir(16km away)and Songtao Reservoir(65km away)and local sea water. The reservoirs are the most im portant water suppliers. Although the coastal water is not important for direct use, yet it serves as an important receiver for pollutants, carrier for environment, and stabilizer for ecology in YEDZ. Based on the surveys of the present environmental status and future development of YEDZ, the optimum spatial distribution and functional allocation of coastal water environment are suggested in the present paper. Five coastal water functional areas are identifeid as: port area; Xinying Bay reserve area; industrial coast; natural reserves; and wastewater discharge area. In order to protect the coastal water resources for the realization of sustainable development, it is necessary to control water pollution according to the following suggestions: (a)Both industrial and domestic wastewater must be treated to comply with the National Standards before being discharged into the sea. (b)The discharge pipe will be laid and submerged offshore seafloor (deepwater discharge). A common outfall at water depth greater than 15m allows both industrial and domestic wastewater to discharge together. The area of sea water mixed with discharged water exceeding Grade II in quality must be confined within a scope of 3 km2. (c)Municipal wastewater treatment plant should be set up. Domestic wastewater must be gone through secondary treatment. Industrial wastewater that complied with the standard entering into municipal sewerage net are encouraged to do so and then be treated in the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Industrial wastewater from large sized enterprises is permitted to enter into the sea going sewerage system and finally into the sea after it complies with the Comprehensive Standards of Wastewater Discharge(GB8978-1996) (d)Save water and increase recycle use.(e)In the processes of introducing new development proposals and examining their feasibility, strict requirement on water pollution control should be imposed. Advanced technology and wastewater control approaches should be adopted in order to decrease wastewater discharge.
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    HUMAN DISTURBANCE AND ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT ON FOREST STEPPE ECOTONE IN EASTERN HUN SHANDAKE SANDY LAND
    Wang Qingsuo, Zhang Yufa, Luo Juchun, Feng Zongwei
    1999, 14 (1):  28-34.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (309KB) ( )   Save
    Human activities such as reclamation, overgrazing, vehicle damaging land and tourism result in a series of ecological problems,e g.range deterioration,desertification and exhaustion of wild animals and plants, in the forest steppe ecotone of eastern Hunshandake sandy land. It is urgent to take measures to protect the land resources and rehabilitate degraded and desertified land in the ecotone.
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    ON ECOLOGICAL REHABILITATION OF MINING AREAS
    Bai Zhongke, Zhao Jingkui, Zhu Yinmei
    1999, 14 (1):  35-41.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (314KB) ( )   Save
    Land reclamation in mining areas involves a wide range of disciplines and technologies. Studies on basic theories and methods of ecological rehabilitation in mining areas of China are very poor,and as a result, many primary concepts and problems have not been uniformly recognized but rather fragmental and unsystematic. Therefore, the study examines changes in research concepts from land reclamation to ecological rehabilitation and discusses the theortical basis of ecological rehabiltation in mining areas in the light of the actual scientific research practices carried out in the past ten years by the author. The concept, features, scale of range and time of ecological rehabilitation are defined and the espistemology and methodology concerning research on ecological rehabilitation in mining areas are discussed as well by taking Antaibao Opencut Coal Mine in Pingshuo as a case.
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    A STUDY ON THE HARNESSING TECHNIQUES OF SLOPING FIELD IN THE EASTERN YANSHAN MOUNTAIN AREA
    Wang Hongqing, Xie Yongsheng
    1999, 14 (1):  42-46.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (175KB) ( )   Save
    According to the measured results of several years,the Eastern Yanshan Mountain Area holds a yearly average runoff modulus of 1 000~1 500m3/ha and ayearly average erosive modulus of 25~50t/ha in sloping field.Based on the local conditions, this study designs and implements a harnessing technical system composed of soil and water conservating techniques, crop production incresing techniques and eco economic gully constructing techniques for small watershed and conducts some successive experiments of major techniques in the system.
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    BIODIVERSITY SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GAP ANALYSIS IN QINGHAI LAKE REGION
    Li Diqiang, Jiang Zhigang, Wang Zuwang
    1999, 14 (1):  47-54.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (344KB) ( )   Save
    First,the Qinghai Lake region eco environment information system was established based on field surveys and historical documentation. Then, proposed an ecosystem classification system composing of Qinghai Lake and wetland ecosystem, grassland ecosystem, desert shrubland system, alpine shrubland ecosystem, alpine meadow ecosystem, alpine desert ecosystem, and artificial ecosystem was proposed. The spatial characteristics of biodiversity in Qinghai Lake region was studied and the gap was identified based on principles of representativeness, peculiarity, endangerment and sensitivity. Overlaying the hotspots of biodiversity with the status of legal protection by means of GIS technique, the GAP analysis showed although the Qinghai Lake National Reserve was established, yet the typical ecosystem types and the most suitable habitat of the national protection species Przewakskis gazelle were excluded in the reserve. Therefore, a new reserve zoning scheme and conservative strategies for maintaining biodiversity of Qinghai Lake region were put forward.
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    THE APPLICATION OF THE NEW METHODS ON LAND DEGRADATION STUDY A CASE STUDY ON DONGXI RIVER BASIN, WESTERN FUJIAN, CHINA
    Pu Lijie, Bao Haosheng, D L Higgitt
    1999, 14 (1):  55-61.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (227KB) ( )   Save
    The attempts which apply the alternative methods for estimating rapidl soil erosion rates to elusidate the relationship between the land use types and land degradation has been made. The 137Cs measurement, magnetic susceptibility, aggregate stability, and the soil properties have been employed in Dongxi River Basin, a mountainous area of western Fujian. The results reveal that: (a)A plot of 137Cs inventory(Y) against slope angle(X) showing a strong inverse log log relationship(r=-0 83) indicates that much stronger soil erosion occurs on steeper slopes;(b)average soil loss(in thichness of top soil per year) in the past 30 years for arable slope crest, arable slopes and tea plantation slopes are 1.6, 10.4 and 8.0 mm/year respectively; (c)the surface layer enrichment factor of magnetic susceptibility(Y) in soil also shows an inverse log log relationship(r=-0 63) which indicates a similar tendency with the relationship between the 137Cs inventory(Y) against slope angle(X); and (d)the physical and chemical properties of soil among different land use types show different degraded characteristics at different significance levels.
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    ESTIMATION OF SOIL EROSION SUPPORTED BY GIS A CASE STUDY IN GUANJI TOWNSHIP, TAIHE, JIANGXI
    You Songcai, Li Wenqing
    1999, 14 (1):  62-68.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (117KB) ( )   Save
    Supported by GIS, Universal Soil Loss Equation(USLE) was used to estimate soil erosion in different geopedologic units interpreted from air photos at approximate scale of 1∶20 000. Based on field surveys,a land use map was interpreted from TM image(1991-11-17)by supervised classification for estimating p factor. Likewise, TM image was also applied to calculate land cover rate for estimating C factor. According to the analysis of cropping system and intra annual precipitation distribution, three periods of October to March (Ⅰ), April to June (Ⅱ), and July to September (Ⅲ) with distinguished land cover differences were identified.Land cover rate for period Ⅰ was calculated from TM image through a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land cover rate for the other two periods were modi fied from that of period Ⅰ by considering the land use types. A weighted average of land cover rate was calculated from that of three periodsby considering the distribution of precipitation.The result shows that the relation between the estimated value and observed value is high when land cover rate is over 15%.
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    PRECISION AGRICULTURE AND ITS PROSPECTIVE IN CHINA
    Yu Genong, Zhou Yong
    1999, 14 (1):  69-74.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (232KB) ( )   Save
    Precision agriculture is one of the most advanced technologies in agriculture. Its marginal efficiency in economy and environment is significant, since it makes full use of temporal and spatial variabilities of crops, soils, insect pest and disease to farming practices and field management. According to China's conditions, it is not only necessary but also feasible to study and develop appropriate technical and applied systems of precision agriculture. The development of precision agriculture will facilitate solutions to major issues in population, resources and environment and benefit China in high efficiency utilization of agricultural resources and environmental protection. To meet the specific requirements of precision agriculture, some adaptations, like those in interface, statistical and modeling functions, easy manipulation, information resources, real time GPS connection, and processing speed, should be made on GIS, which is the key technical system in integrated precision farming practices.
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    PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON TOURIST ACTIVITY INFLUENCE UPON THE SOIL AND COVER PLANT OF SCENIC SPOT
    Feng Xuegang, Bao Haosheng
    1999, 14 (1):  75-78.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (229KB) ( )   Save
    The author chooses Caishi Scenic Spot of Anhui Province as the object of the research, and sets up a model on ecological influence of tourist activities upon the scenic spots soil and cover plant, then analyzes their influence upon the altitude, abundancy and density of the cover plant species and the physicochemical properties of soil. At the same time the author introduces the concept of scenic spots tourism eco environmental carrying capacity, based on which,countermeasures for eco envi ronmental management of the spot are identified.
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    RESEARCH ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING IN ECOTOURISM DESTINATIONS
    Liu Jiaming, Yang Xinjun
    1999, 14 (1):  79-83.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (248KB) ( )   Save
    The paper briefly sums up two kinds of ecotourism ideas on which theoperational definition of ecotourism is built up. Based on the four definitive aspects of tourism destinations, the authors hold that ecotourism destination planning is the community tourism planning of micro scale. Such micro scale planning stresses the design and development patterns of tourism attractions rather than the macro deve lopment strategies and the moderate scale cluster effects. The development and protection of tourism attractions is the absolute core of ecotourism destinations. In the thesis, the authors also put forwards the operational flowing framework of ecotourism destination planning from its planning goals. At last, the paper discusses the implementing strategies that can make ecotourism sustainable. Landscape design, function zoning and corporate identity design is especially important to the successful ma nagement of the ecotourism destinations.
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    STUDY ON THE BIO ACCUMULATIONS OF NUTRIENT ELEMENT FOR ARTIFICIAL FOREST ON THE EXPERIMENTAL PLOT IN QIANYANZHOU
    Chen Yongrui
    1999, 14 (1):  84-88.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (172KB) ( )   Save
    Characteristics of concentration, distribution and bio accumulation of 15 nutrient elements in plants and soils of artificial forests in experimental plots of Qianyanzhou were studied. Results indicated that three elements of N, P,and Ca are deficient in soils of two artificial forest plots, but no inadequancies of trace nutrient elements are found. Nutrient content of grass layers is higher than that of tree layers. Biological absorption coefficients of P, Ca, and N are the highest for both plots of the artificial forests. Whereas bioabsorption coefficient of Ti is the lowest and the remaining nutrient elements belong to weak accumulation or moderate uplake type.
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    THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS TO THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MIDDLE AND WEST CHINA
    Zhang Luocheng, Dong Yawen, Zhu Zhenguo
    1999, 14 (1):  89-92.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (143KB) ( )   Save
    This paper deals with the serious environmental problems and relationship between environment and economic development in Middle and West China. In order to solve these problems and build up coordination relationship between environment and economy, legal system should be adopted to control pollution,adjust economic structure,use natural resources intensively and fasten the development of tourism industry.
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    AN ANALYSIS OF ECO ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CONDITIONS OF CHINA'S LAND RESOURCES
    Gao Zhiqiang, Liu Jiyuan, Zhuang Dafang
    1999, 14 (1):  93-96.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (222KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the evaluation the eco environmental quality of Chinas land resources with Digital Environmental Model(DEM), the comprehensive evaluation map of the eco environmental quality of Chinas land resources was generated, and the degree area constitution and distribution conditions of the eco environmental quality of Chinas land resources were analyzed . The conclusions are that the land resources with best eco environmental quality are distributed in southeast coastal area of China and Sichuan Basin, and the land resources with eco environment most suitable for human survival only account for less than one third of the total land area in China, or more than 80% population of Chinas population was supported by only one third of her land resources.
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