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    25 September 2000, Volume 15 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Prospect of mineral resources economics in the 21st century
    ZHAO Pengda, CHEN Jianping
    2000, 15 (3):  197-200.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (99KB) ( )   Save
    The concepts of mineral resources economics,mineral economics and mining economics are introduced at first,then their relationship is explained. Based on analyzing characteristics and demands of mineral resources at home and abroad,the authors discuss the essential questions of mineral resources economics of the 21st century,and put up scientific issues concerning exploration and prospecting of mineral resources in China.
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    A policy study on sustainable management for China's nature reserves
    HAN Nian yong
    2000, 15 (3):  201-207.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (178KB) ( )   Save
    Rapid development of protected areas has raised a very important question on how to manage them in an effective and sustainable manner.This is a common issue confronting policies of various governments around the world.The biosphere reserve concept provides a trajectory to the solution of this issue.Chinas nature reserves were established under conditions of huge population pressure and resources demand,and guidence by policies of rescue and protection.With this background,the problems that the responsibility in administration system is not well clarified and the nature reserve management conflicts with economic development have occurred and hindered the further development of the nature reserves.To solve the problem, a comprehensive policy reform is needed.
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    Natural resources and development—Study on China's two-way natural resources utilization strategy
    LIU Yanpeng, LI Lixian
    2000, 15 (3):  208-212.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (152KB) ( )   Save
    This paper,along with the way of interface between natural resources and economy,which is a supply demand system,systematically analyses the characteristics of basic relationship between resources and economic development.The core issue in Chinas sustainable development is how to deal with the relationship between resources and economy.It is held that the key is to set up a new resources supply demand system which must be suitable for market economy.This paper identifies four challenges and five problems which China is facing at the turn of the century,analyzes the rules of Chinas resources and development,and for the first time raises the point that there is an international trade deficit of resources in China.The study concludes that Chinas international trade surplus was achieved by depending on the international trade deficit of resources and exportation of shortage resources.So,China must implement the two way resources utilization strategy.The core strategic thought and some suggestions on public policies.
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    Human adaptation to climate change:a case study of changes in paddy planting area in Heilongjiang Province
    FANG Xiuqi, SHENG Jingfen
    2000, 15 (3):  213-217.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (124KB) ( )   Save
    Heilongjiang Province has experienced a warming trend since 1951,especially since the 1980s,where the warming trend is the most obvious in China.Analysis of the relationship between the changes in paddy planting area and temperature change in Heilongjiang revealed that the stages of change in paddy planting area are corresponding to the stages of temperature change,but the former lags behind the latter by about 4~6 to 2~3years.The rapid increase in paddy planting area and the northward expansion of the paddy fields since the mid 1980s are response to the distinct rising trend of temperature since the 1980s.
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    Quantitative analysis and classified appraisal of agro-ecoclimatic resources in Northwest China
    Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, BAI Yongping
    2000, 15 (3):  218-224.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (357KB) ( )   Save
    In order to analyze quantitatively and evaluate classifiably agro ecoclimatic resources,based on average data of multiple years from 165 meteorological stations of Northwest China(Gansu,Ningxia and Qinghai),resource indices Cr,efficiency indices Ce and utility coefficient K were calculated by applying the dynamic models of agro ecoclimatic suitability degree.Then,based on month to month average data of multiple years of efficiency indices Ce,twelve types of agro ecoclimatic resources were identified through the analysis of fuzzy cluster.The results indicated that latent potentialities,matching condition and utility degree of agro ecoclimatic resources have obvious characteristics of spatial differentiation.On the basis of the calculation results,the suggestions about exploitation and utilization of the agro ecoclimatic resources in Northwest China(Gansu,Ningxia and Qinghai)are put forward.
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    Quantity structure and distribution feature of rice ridge and terrace slope in the hilly areas of central sichuan basin
    LIAO Xiaoyong, ZHANG Xianwan
    2000, 15 (3):  225-228.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (171KB) ( )   Save
    Taking the hilly areas of central Sichuan basin as the scope of investigation, this study discusses and studies the quantity structure and the distribution features of the rice ridge and terrace slope resources in light with the landforms, the slope gradients and the rock properties.
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    The appraisal system of beach tourism resources
    LI Zhanhai, KE Xiankun, ZHOU Lüfu, WANG Aijun
    2000, 15 (3):  229-235.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (253KB) ( )   Save
    Based upon the review and syntheses of the existing appraisal systems of beach tourism resources at home and abroad,a new appraisal system has been established,which can fit the specific situations of China.The proposed system selects 80 parameters which can be grouped into 2 types:tourism resources and infrastructure conditions.The former includes 5 subtypes of geomorphology,hydrology,climatology/meteorology,biology and humanities,and the latter includes 3 subtypes of security,sanitation,infrastructures and their management.A new framework for comprehensive comparison and display of beach qualities has also been proposed for 12 famous beaches in China,which can be used in both beach quality comparison and providing objective,detailed and scientific information about beaches to tourists and public.
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    A theoretical exploration of price water in dynamic total cost
    HE Jinfeng, CHEN Guojie
    2000, 15 (3):  236-240.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (170KB) ( )   Save
    Based on definition of the value of water,this paper explicates the water price model of dynamic total cost;and analyses the reasons why the sustainable utilization of water resources at all levels can be realized;finally,some questions about the applications of the model are discussed.
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    Study on the equitable and suitable allocation model of water resources in the Lancang-Mekong River Basin
    FENG Yan, HE Daming, BAO Haosheng
    2000, 15 (3):  241-245.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (102KB) ( )   Save
    According to the basic rules on the equitable and suitable utilization of water resources of international rivers,the basic approaches to the problem solution of the competing uses among the riparian states,and the three basic models of water resources allocation,along with the analyses of the trend and the contradictions of the water resources competing uses in Lancang Mekong River Basin,as well as the extent of existing cooperation among the riparian states,the present management mechanisms of the river basin,lack of overall river basin development planning,etc.,it is considered that the overall allocation of the water resources throughout the basin is a suitable and practical model of the Lancang Mekong River.
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    Studies on the soil-water dynamics of winter-wheat field and water-saving mechanisms under sub-irrigation condition in Beijing areas
    ZHEN Wenchao, WANG Dianwu, DAI Li, FENG Liping
    2000, 15 (3):  246-251.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (189KB) ( )   Save
    Based on observations on field soil water,the growth and yields of winter wheat under sub irrigation condition,this paper studies the soil water dynamics of winter wheat field and water saving mechanisms.The analytical results showed that the field soil water dynamics of winter wheat field under sub irrigation condition had close correlations with irrigation,the growth of winter wheat and weather conditions.The results also showed that the consumption of irrigation water under sub irrigation condition was obviously reduced,and the sub irrigation was propitious to winter wheat growth and yield formation.During the whole growth period of winter wheat,the water consumed by sub irrigation was reduced by 44.4mm,a decrease of 1200 m3/ha of irrigation water than that by spray irrigation.The final yield increased by 714 kg/ha under sub irrigation condition.The WUE was 21.11kg/(ha·mm),which was 4.49 kg/(ha·mm) more than that under spray irrigation condition.The water saving mechanisms of sub irrigation for winter wheat are:(a)The humidity of soil surface (0~20cm) under sub irrigation is much less than that under spray irrigation during the whole growth period.So the non effective physical evaporation of soil water is greatly decreased under sub irrigation condition.(b)Under sub irrigation condition,because the soil surface (0~20cm) is drier,the wheat root systems are forced to extend to deep level to sop up water from medium soil levels (20~120cm),which have abundant soil water supplied by sub irrigation.As a result,the water utilization efficiency from the medium soil levels is increased.
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    Balance between land use and water resources in the North China Plain
    LIN Yaoming, REN Hongzun, YU Jingjie, YAO Zhijun
    2000, 15 (3):  252-258.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (273KB) ( )   Save
    Researches on the balance between land use and water resources in the North China Plain have been done recently with an accurate soil water balance model,which take the land use and the precipitation on it into account along with comparisons of the water demand and deficits of different crops.Results show that water demand for all crops on the farmland(8848 thousand ha)is 74 436 billion m3,the corresponding water deficits is 30 937 billion m3;in the irrigated area(6532 thousand ha),the water deficits is 22.873 billion m3.However,the water supply system provided 26.178 billion m3 of water for agriculture in 1995,because of the lower effective utilization,the irrigated area still had 11.616 billion m3 of water deficits.The effective precipitation and irrigation on the plain are evaluated.Observed data show that although there is 82% of water supply for the growth period of winter wheat,key phase water supply(64%)restricts the grain production.To keep the supply water meeting the demand measures of raising water efficiency and optimizing irrigation are recom mended.
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    The water-saving technologies and potentials for regional suitable agriculture in North China Plain
    YAO Zhijun, LIN Yaoming, GAO Yingchun, TANG Qingwei
    2000, 15 (3):  259-264.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (222KB) ( )   Save
    Water use efficiency for farmland irrigation in North China Plain is presently only 43.1%,therefore,there exits high water saving potentiality.Through regional diagnosis and technical assessment of the suitability of water saving agriculture,the paper presents an integrated regional development order of suitable water saving technology for the years of 2010 and 2030 respectively.On the basis of the status,different agricultural irrigation technologies concerning development scale and corresponding water saving amount for these two years are calculated and analyzed.
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    The improvement of industrial structure of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region based on the water utilization
    JIN Fengjun
    2000, 15 (3):  265-269.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (198KB) ( )   Save
    Beijing Tianjin Hebei(BTH)region is one of the industrial bases in China.The developments of most industrial sectors,characterized by heavy industry,are dependent on local natural resources,including water resources.However,with the expansion of industrial scale,the foundation of resources for industrial development is not desired,especially the contradiction between industrial growth and water supply is becoming serious.In order to mitigate this contradiction ,it is necessary to readjust the industrial structure and allocation in BTH.Some heavy industrial sectors,such as metallurgical industry,chemical industry,and so on ,should be limited in development scales and allocation sites.The industrial structure of metropolitan areas should be updated based on the effective water utilization.Moreover,some enterprises or sectors should be moved or allocated in coastal zone.It is also important to develop saving water techniques.
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    Prediction model of maize yield estimation based on the com-bination of genetic algorithm and artificial neural network
    LI Zhe, ZHANG Juntao
    2000, 15 (3):  270-274.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (103KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of the combination of Genetic Algorithm and BP Neural Network,the estimation of maize yield in Lishu County,Jilin Province was predicted in this paper.The new method was compared with BP Neural Network and Gray Model Theory as well.The results indicate that the prediction values approximate to the real maize yield and are more accurate than BP network and gray model theory.
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    On independence and oneness of environment law and natural resources law
    CHANG Ji wen
    2000, 15 (3):  275-279.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (196KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the contrasting analysis of environment and natural resources' value,the author distinguishes two sets of concepts,i.e.environment and natural resources,and environment rights and natural resources rights.Then the author demonstrates that regulating object,basic content and central issues of environment law and natural resources law are not the same.So the system of environment law and that of natural resources law are independent.Because environment and natural resources are nearly interrelated,environment rights and natural resources rights are relatively independent,so the system of environment law and that of natural resources law are not absolutely independent.The author makes a further study on theory and realistic basis of oneness of environment law and natural resources law,the name,conception and system's readjustment of combined department law.
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    Development and orientation of research work on soil degradation
    ZHANG Tao lin,WANG Xing xiang
    2000, 15 (3):  280-284.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (102KB) ( )   Save
    This paper defines soil degradation ,examines the situation of soil degradation in the world and China,overviews the advances in soil degradation research,and indicates the general direction of research on soil degradation science.
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    Marketisation mechanism and international institutions for conservation and use of plant-genetic resources
    LU Wencong, NI Qi
    2000, 15 (3):  285-290.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (231KB) ( )   Save
    Plant genetic resources are being changed from a formerly public ware to a scarce ware,because developments in biotechnology are increasing the demand for plant genetic resources and the decline in diversity of species and varieties is reducing their supply.Efficient market forming processes based on the concept of “genetically coded information” and with the compensation and participation models will have a positive effect on sustainable use of global plant genetic resources.On the basis of improving the current international multilateral systems,“clearing house” and “biodiversity cooperatives” should be the political choices of institutional innovation for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.
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    New progress in the study of the resources-dependent cities and towns in the Western countries
    JIAO Hua fu, LU Lin
    2000, 15 (3):  291-296.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.03.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (302KB) ( )   Save
    The development of resources dependent cities and towns depend strongly on the natural resources,so its characteristics and laws of development are different from that of the others.The scholars in the Western countries have studied thoroughly these characteristics and laws.Referring to the papers published in the international authentic geographical periodicals in English,the authors summarize and induce the main research content and progress on the resources dependent cities and towns in the West.The general research condition was also appraised.
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