Table of Content

    25 March 2000, Volume 15 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    On comprehensive study and application of resources information science
    SUN Jiulin
    2000, 15 (1):  11-16.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (227KB) ( )   Save
    The development and application of information technology has greatly promoted progress in society,economy,and science.Today,as mankind is approaching to the 21st century,the research and application of information technology has become more and more important in various fields.It has long been commonly recognized that this technology should be applied to the resources science,and great achievements have been made already.This article gives a brief introduction to the resources information science and technology including its emergence,theoretical base,and application in resources research; and points out resources information science of the 21st century should make comprehensive studies which are closely related with its application.Not only the available resources information technology should be developed,but also the international concerned hot issues be emphasized in advance.Only in this way,can the resources science research be modernized at high speed.
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    Material flow analysis of Chinese economic-environmental system
    CHEN Xiaoqiu, QIAO lijia
    2000, 15 (1):  17-23.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (257KB) ( )   Save
    The material flow theory and methodology have been applied to analyze quantitative characteristics of the total material requirement(TMR),the material intensity and the material productivity in the Chinese economic system during 1989 and 1996.The aim of the study is to estimate resource and environmental costs of the eco nomic development and to evaluate the sustainability of the economic environmental system.The conclusions are shown as follows:(a)The TMR of China is 1.6 times as much as that of the USA in 1994,which indicates that the resource and environmental costs of the economic development in China are enormous.(b)Even though the material requirement per capita in China is much smaller than those in the developed countries,the domestic material requirement per capita in China in 1994 is yet 1.1 and 1.5 times as much as those in the Netherlands and Japan,respectively.This result implies that the Chinese national economy is mainly depended on the consumption of domestic natural resources.(c)The ratio of GNP to TMR in China in 1994 accounted for only 2%~6% of the ratios in the developed countries,which shows that the efficiency of the resource utilization in China is very low.In terms of the composition of the TMR,the largest contributor is the excavation for infrastructure,secondly is the input and its ecological rucksack of fossil fuels,thirdly is the input and its ecological rucksack of construction materials and fourthly is the soil erosion.If the exploitation volume of water resources would be brought into the material input of the economic system,the tap water supply would account for more than 50% of the TMR.In the present stage of Chinese economic development,coal,construction materials,iron,crops and fresh water are the most important material requirements; the excavation of water conservancy projects is the strongest disturbing force to the environmental system and the soil erosion is the most significant indicator of the ecological degradation.Taking the present material productivity of China as the start point,we propose a mid and long term strategic goal in connection with the four fold and the ten fold increase in resource efficiency for 2025 and 2050,respectively.This kind of national goal will meet the overall target of the resource consumption towards the global sustainable development.
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    Analysis of trend of out-stream water use in China
    HE Weicheng, ZHANG Xiangming, LU Qiong
    2000, 15 (1):  24-30.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (169KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of nation wide statistical data of out stream water use surveyed for 1980,1993 and 1997,by considering relevant social and economic conditions,comprehensive and systematic analyses of trends of water use,composition of water use and indexes of water use in the whole country and various river basin(s) are made.In the period from 1980 to 1997,the total water use of the country increased to 556 6 billion cubic meters from 443 7 billion cubic meters,with a yearly increment of 6.64 billion cubic meters and an annual increase rate of 1 34% on the average.The composition of water use significantly changed.In the period,the proportion of agricultural water use decreased from 83.4% to 70.4%,that of industrial water use increased from 10.3% to 20.2%,and that of domestic water use increased from 6.3% to 9.4%.Per capita water use remained stable,around 450 cubic meters.Overall water use efficiency increasingly rose,with a drop of water use per 10,000 yuan GDP(constant price of 1980) from 9,820 cubic meters to 2,410 cubic meters.
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    Tendency,causes and control measures on Yellow River dry-up
    CHEN Jiwei, MU Xingmin
    2000, 15 (1):  31-35.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (172KB) ( )   Save
    Since constant dry up of the Yellow River in the 1970s,the situation has become more and more serious up to now.The dry up has happened not only in the lower reaches but also in its headwaters.The major reason accountable for this the sharp increase in the amount of water diverted from the Yellow River for consumption in the basin abrupt decrease in the amount of water arriving to the lower reaches,especially the rise of water consumption in the lower reaches since the 1970s. Second ly,soil loss in the middle reaches is absolutely serious,so the amount of water used to carrying sediment is great as well as the adjustable abilities of the projects in the middle reaches are insufficient.Fundamentally,human activities are the very cause for the dry up,a result of abuse of both water and land resources of the Yellow River basin.The normal fluctuation of precipitation has no great and direct impact on the dry up.And soil and water conservation in the upper and the middle reaches can alleviate it.In order to hold back it,we must control development of irrigated area,adjust the crop distribution,reduce water wasted,add amount of water for ecological consumption,so as to improve eco environment,and prevent sediment entering Yellow River.Although interbasin water transfer is one of the important measures to solve water shortage issue in cities of northern China,yet it should be carefully planned to give the matter further thought and discussion.
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    Analysis of ore dissipation and dilution in mining mineral resources in China
    LI Changning, REN Fengyu, XU Xiaohe
    2000, 15 (1):  36-39.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (173KB) ( )   Save
    The ore dissipation and dilution affects the comprehensive utilization of mineral resources and issues concerning sustainable development. Serious ore dissipation and dilution in mining in China causes several problems such as speeding up depletion of mineral resources, shortening life of mines, aggravating contradiction between supply and demand, and so on. The paper analyzes several main factors for ore dissipation and dilution caused in mining in China, puts forth the solutions, and points out the application of low dissipation and dilution mode is a feasible and effective way to make mining enterprises competitive and profitable.
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    A study on exploitation and utilization of plant resources for killing Oncomelania hupensis
    MA Anning, WANG Wanxian, YANGYi, KE Wenshan, FU Yunsheng
    2000, 15 (1):  40-45.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (183KB) ( )   Save
    Oncomelania hupensis killing experiments with 32 medicinal plants were carried out by taking superiorities of Chinas Oncomelania hupensis killing plant resources.Five of them selected from the 32 plants are proved to be most effective,rich in resources and less pollutive to environment.Plant granules and powder are developed for killing O.hupensis.Results show that the granules can gain powerful O.hupensis killing effect.The mortality of O.hupensis 24h after taking the plant granules is 84.8%~100%.The effect is evidently much better than those of the other methods.The discussed plant granules can kill the O.hupensis 12~24h earlier than Niclosamidum(1×10-3g/l).In comparison with other methods,the granular method can be used more widely and conveniently,and it may be a new one for killing O.hupensis in terms of plant resources utilization.
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    Evaluation of tourist resources in coastal areas of Liaoning Province
    LI Yuezheng
    2000, 15 (1):  46-50.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (204KB) ( )   Save
    Beach landscape and historical remains are the leading tourist resources in coastal areas of Liaoning Province.This paper evaluates comprehensively tourist resources in coastal areas of Liaoning Province by AHP and presents a frame work for tourist resources development in coastal zone of the Province.
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    Analysis of agricultural regional resources superiority utili zation and industrialization on the Loess Plateau
    LIAO Yuncheng, WANG Lixiang, WEN Xiaoxia
    2000, 15 (1):  51-55.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (105KB) ( )   Save
    This paper analyses the agricultural regional resources superiorities from the practice of agricultural production on the Loess Plateau, and probes into regional resources superiority exploitation and utilization and industrialization.The conclusions are drawn as follows:(a)There is little pollution of the environment on the hilly land and gully of Loess Plateau, so making full use of the regional resources superiority and building agriculture source of “green food" should be chosen so as to realize well off; (b)Medicago sativa has widespread ecological adaptability and steady pro ductive forces in the arid areas of Loess Plateau, and is also a high quality forage grass containing plentiful of protein.So the enlargement of Medicago sativa sown area and establishment of alfalfa pratacultural basis serve as the foundation for developing beneficial agriculture on the Loess Plateau.
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    Functions, patterns and countermeasures combining farming with stockbreeding on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau
    WEN Jun
    2000, 15 (1):  56-60.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (202KB) ( )   Save
    There are multi nationalities on the Qinghai Xizang Plateau.The way of their existence and the stockbreeding oriented resources utilization mode constitute a major feature of plateau agricultural development.This article makes perspective analyses of the functional features of the Qinghai Xizang Plateau, and finds that four kinds of alternative production patterns of Combining Farming with Stockbreeding, namely, central farming areas, peripheral farming areas, central stockbreeding areas, and peripheral stockbreeding areas have been formed on the Plateau.It is believed that only measures are taken to promote the organic combination of farming with stockbreeding, can the modenazational process in sustainable agricultural development of the Qinghai Xizang Plateau be quickened,so as to ensure food security of all nationalities on the plateau.
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    Study on nutrient cycle of rubber-tea-chicken agro forestry system in tropical area of China
    MENG Qingyan, WANG Zhaoqian, JIANG Shuqian
    2000, 15 (1):  61-65.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (196KB) ( )   Save
    Nutrient cycle of rubber tea chicken eco agricultural model—a typical tro pical agro forestry system in Wenchang municipality of Hainan Province was studied with quantitative experiment and qualitative analysis compared with rubber and rubber tea systems.Results showed that the cycling and outputting nutrient of chicken gardens were the highest and the nutrient cycle was most active.Its ratio of external N and P input decreased than the other two systems and the internal cycling nutrient increased,so,the rubber tea chicken agro forestry system has rational nutrient cycle structure.
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    The composition and important value of plant species in subalpine spruce fir forest on the northern slope of Changbai Mts.
    SHAO Bin, DENG Kunmei
    2000, 15 (1):  66-73.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (294KB) ( )   Save
    Using typical sampling method,the paper studies the composition and important value of plant species in subalpine spruce fir forest on northern slope of Changbai Mts.The results are as follows:(a)The edificator in spruce fir forests on four different altitude zones are Abies nephrolepis and Picea jezoensis.The main companion species are Pinus koraiensis,Pinus sylvestris var.sylvestriformis,Picea koraiensis,Larix olgensis and Betula ermanii.(b)Based on important value of the main companion species,the spruce fir forests on the northern slope of Changbai Mts.are classified into three categories,the Korean pine Spruce fir Forest(Alt.1290m),the Typical Spruce fir Forest(Alt.1500m)and Ermans birch Spruce fir Forest(Alt.1680~1820m).(c)In four different spruce fir forests,there are 109 species of seed plants and pte ridophytes,which belong to 88 genus and 43 families.In which 15 species are trees,20 species are shrubs,73 species are herbs and 1 species is liana which grows in shrub stratum.(d)In all the species of shrub stratum and herb layer, 7 species of shrubs and 16 species of herbs are widely distributed in all of the spruce fir forests.The others only grow in one or two types of spruce fir forest. (e)The dominant herb species in Taiga Forest are also the main composition in subalpine spruce fir forest on the northern slope of Changbai Mts.
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    The consolidating function and economic benefit analysis of the terrace hedgerows in the hilly loess region of northwest Hebei Province
    WANG Xilong,CAI Qiangguo,WANG Zhongke,SUN Guoliang
    2000, 15 (1):  74-79.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (207KB) ( )   Save
    Studies of the terrace hedgerows in Zhangjiakou District revealed that hedgerows can not only make the terrace ridge consolidated,ameliorate the physical, chemical and moisture properties of soils,but can also intercept runoff and sediments,boost the yield of crops.The economic benefit is so significant that it is worthy of being spread.
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    Development of decision-support system for water resources planning and management in the Qaidam Basin,Qinghai,China
    LIANG Jiyang, JIANG Yefang, CHENG Li, ZHANG Xingyou
    2000, 15 (1):  80-85.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (112KB) ( )   Save
    The Qaidam Basin,which is situated in Northwest China,is a closed arid inland basin with plentiful of natural resources.Water resources play a key role both in local economic development and eco environmental protection.The decision makers must determine what water resources development policies should be pursued when large scale development is launched.A decision support system was designed to address water resources planning and management.The system consists of three components:database,model base and graphical user interface.The model base integrates models of population,macroeconomics,water resources system,ecology and multi objective programming,thereby permitting interactive evaluation of different future scenarios through graphical user interface.The models are coupled by means of data transfers via the database and allow the consequences of water resources development policies on society,economics and environment to be estimated in terms of food production,gross domestic production(GDP)and waste water discharge.The database,besides transferr ing data for model operation,provides background information,such as river system,transportation system,arable land distribution and other spatial information etc.in forms of maps or/and tables.Simulation and modeling results show that the system can successfully assist government officials in determining water resources development policies for the basin.
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    An optimized method of afforestation planning and design under restricted conditions using the simulated annealing algorithm
    WU Chengzhen, HONG wei
    2000, 15 (1):  86-90.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (176KB) ( )   Save
    Simulated annealing algorithm is a new optimization algorithm,the paper sets forward simulated annealing algorithm to determine the most effectual scheme under the restricted conditions of funds,varieties and quantities of seedlings.The mathematical models and concrete methods are offered and discussed.The authors have applied the program design mentioned above to 97 subcompartments and have got the satisfactory results.
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    Simulated experiment on normal integral model of different control degrees for small watershed
    YUAN Jianping, JIANG Dingsheng, GAN Shu
    2000, 15 (1):  91-96.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (203KB) ( )   Save
    Results of simulating Experiment on Normal Integral Model of different forest and grass coverage degrees,show that forest and grass measures of small watershed are effective in reducing runoff and sediments.They can attain initially the lowest value of 60 percent and the best value of 78 percent in conserving soil and water by taking forest and grass measures for small watershed management, giving the critical value of 65 percent of runoff and infiltration ratio for small watershed.
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    Study on comprehensive control model of small watershed eco environment in water and wind crisscrossed erosion zone
    CHA Xuan, TANG Keli
    2000, 15 (1):  97-100.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2000.01.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (178KB) ( )   Save
    The water and wind crisscrossed erosion zone on the Loess Plateau is the most serious soil eroded area and the majorsource place of the coarse sediments in the lower reaches of the Yellow River.Meanwhile,the large scale coal resources exploitation in Shanxi Shaanxi Inner Mongolia energy base has resulted in some new environmental problems.In view of the urgent requirements for coal reserve exploitation and comprehensive management of the eco environment,the present paper,taking Liudaogou small watershed in water and wind crisscrossed erosion zone as an example, analyses the temporal and spatial distribution law and the characteristics of soil erosion.Raises that in order to gain excellent social and economic benefits,it is necessary to develop a comprehensive control model of agricultural complex ecosystem capable of control erosion,dune fixation as well as possessing high efficient eco economic benefits by taking water and wind erosion control as the focus,improvement of eco economic benefits and sustainable development as the objective,and optimization of farmland structure,effective use of farmland as well as vegetation rehabilitation as the key.
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