Table of Content

    25 December 2001, Volume 16 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Resources characteristics of the major rivers in the source areas of the Changjiang,Huanghe and Lancangjiang
    ZHOU Chang-jin, DONG Suo-cheng, WANG Guo
    2001, 16 (6):  493-498.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1287KB) ( )   Save
    The source areas of the Changjiang,Huanghe and Lancangjiang are referred to the Sa-njiang Source in this study.For the purpose of protecting water resources,we need not only to know anthropogenic water quality degeneration,but also to study water chemistry and its corre-sponding variations,in geographical domain and time,which are formed by the related river water bodies circulation through the natural environments.This paper,based on investigations of the hydrologic characteristics in the source areas of the Sanjiang,focuses on studies of the chemical properties of the water there.Most of the rivers are dominated with HCO 3 ˉin anion and Ca 2+ in cation,with orders in milligram equivalent per-centage of HCO 3 ˉ>Clˉ>SO 42+ in anion and Ca 2+ >Na + +K + >Mg 2+ in cation.However,different orders occur in the Togtun River,Qumar River and Zanag Qu,namely,Clˉ>HCO 3 ˉ>SO 42+ in anion and Na + +K + >Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ in cation.According to conventional hydro-geological methods,three types of river water can be classified by taking the major aqueous anions and cations milligram equiva-lents as criteria,i.e.,bicarbonate,sulfate and chloride.Tests show that most samples belong to bicarbonate and chloride types.According to the sampling test,the total mineralization of river water varies between178.45and1838.29mg /L,total hardness varies between3.01and11.76me /L,and total alkality,between1.17and9.25me /L.This paper also analyses the trace elements of river water in the source areas of the San-jiang and makes an assessment of the water quality of the region.
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    The distribution characteristics and patterns of rational exploitation/utilization of water resources in Guanzhong Region
    WANG Wen-ke, WANG Zhao, KONG Jin-ling, YANG Ze-yuan, ZHAO Cheng
    2001, 16 (6):  499-504.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (321KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of analyzing the distribution characteristics and the problems about expl-oitation/utilization of water resources in Guanzhong region,from a point of view of harmonious development among society,economy and environment,four modes on rational exploitation/uti-lization of the region's water resources are raised in an overall and systematic way,according to water resources conditions,exploitation/utilization potentials and environmental state.Moreover,in terms of geological,geomorphological,hydro-geological conditions and water resources distribu-tion characteristics,the four modes are further divided into eight sub modes.Also the paper ana-lyzes and studies water resources storage rules,current utilization situation,exploitation potential and reasonable utilization direction of all the sub modes,thereby,points out the direction for de-veloping and utilizing macroscopically water resources and offers scientific proof for allocation,planning and management of water resources.
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    Effective utilization of rain water resources in Karstic Mountain Region Taking Maguan underground reservoir in Puding of Guizhou as a case
    CHEN Hong-yuan, YANG yong, HU Xing-hua, CHEN Bao-yu
    2001, 16 (6):  505-510.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (461KB) ( )   Save
    This paper studies underground reservoir in terms of regional karstic geological,reser-voir formation condition,capacity analysis,calculation of the amount of precipitation and reple-nishment as well as engineering effects by taking Maguan underground reservoir in Puding coun-ty of Guizhou Province as an example.It proves Maguan underground reservoir is a typical case in effective utilization of rain water resources in karstic mountain region and is of significance in popularization.
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    Water:the fundamentality for reconstruction of ecosystem in Northwest China
    YUAN Jia-zu, MIN Qing-wen
    2001, 16 (6):  511-515.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (185KB) ( )   Save
    Up to now,great progresses in the construction of eco-environment have been made,especially afforestation in the"Three Norths"of North,Northeast and Northwest China.Accord-ing to statistics,up to1997,afforested area of the whole country had reached46.27million ha,among of them30.24million ha were located in the"Three Norths".However,in the process,some problems still exist which need to be solved as soon as possible,in particular,the relative low survival rate and preservation rate which are only25%and13%respectively.The analyses show that scarce rainfall,drought and the shortage of soil moisture are the main reasons for this phenomenon.Therefore,water resources are the cores of the reconstruction of ecosystem in Northwest China.The effective approaches to overcome the shortage of water resources there in-clude interbasin water transfer,effective water management ,resourcelization of rain water,de-veloping water-saving agricultural techniques,popularizing water-saving awareness,etc.
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    A study on regional difference of fresh water resources shortage in China
    WANG Xiao-qing
    2001, 16 (6):  516-520.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (257KB) ( )   Save
    The classification of water shortage degree and shortage types of various provinces,re-gions and municipalities(excluding Taiwan)throughout China was carried out in the study by using comprehensive evaluation method and taking per capita available amount of water re-sources,per unit area available amount of water resources,per capita amount of water supplied and per unit GDP available water resources as indicators.According to the water shortage com-posite index number,water sufficient district,fragile district,water deficit district and serious deficit district are identified.In light with differential value of per capita available amount of wa-ter resources,per unit area available amount of water resources,per capita amount of water sup-plied with national mean value,resources type,engineering type and overloading type are catego-rized.
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    Spatial and temporal relationships between land use and soil mois ture in hilly area of the Loess Plateau
    WANG Jun, FU Bo-jie, QIU Yang, CHEN Li-ding
    2001, 16 (6):  521-524.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (249KB) ( )   Save
    Based on fixed and consecutive measurements of soil moisture in hilly area of loess during wet and dry years,spatio-temporal relationships between land use types and their struc-tures were analyzed.The results are as follows:(a)the effects of land use on soil moisture are sta-tistically different in dry year,but not in wet year;(b)the annual changes of soil moisture during wet year are consuming type for shrub land,and balance type and increasing type for intercrop-ping land,orchard,woodland,grassland,fallow land and cropland.However,these changes of soil moisture during dry year are consuming type for all land uses;(c)from wet year to dry year,profile types of soil moisture change from decreasing type to fluctuation type,and from fluctua-tion type to increasing type;and(d)soil moisture of single land use structure has increasing trend from hill top to bottom,but complicated distribution patterns are found for multiple land use structure along slopes.
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    The evolution and disposition of benefit of land reclamation and ecological rehabilitation in mining area
    BAI Zhong-ke, GUO Qing-xia, WANG Gai-ling, ZHANG Qian-jin, WEI Zhong-yi
    2001, 16 (6):  525-530.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (346KB) ( )   Save
    Compound ecosystem restoration in mining area is regarded as pre-arrangement for the future ecosystem spatial structure and functions.The benefit evolution of the ecosystem is greatly affected by the nature,society and economy.From the two aspects of resources economy and the eco-economy,this paper discusses the concept and meaning of the three benefits in land reclamation and ecosystem rehabilitation and analyzes the effect of ecosystem evolution,the goal of ecosystem restoration,the types of ecosystem restoration,the ecosystem restoration technique,and mineral resources' comprehensive utilization in mining area on the economic,ecological and social benefits.In the case of the dynamic evolution of the structure of land resource utilization in the process of land reclamation and ecological restoration in Antaibao opencast coal mine in Shanxi Province of China covering the period of1985-2015,the effective allocation and integra-tion of the economic,environmental and social benefits is set forth.This provides the theoretical basis for the structural optimization of land resource utilization and setting up an index system for benefits evaluation of compound ecosystem restoration in mining area.
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    Forecast of deposit formation and structural environment for the deposit formation of salt resources in Qaidam Basin
    HU Dong-sheng, ZHANG Hua-jing
    2001, 16 (6):  531-536.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (569KB) ( )   Save
    The spatial position of sedimentary formation and the basic form of structure in Qaid-am Basin related to Cenozoic stratum are studied using analytical results of regional geolog ical and the earth gravity survey data.The structural boundary and structural system of the Cenozoic basin are set up with the aid of experimental contrast and geological generalization method.The law of coupling deposit formation and dynamic deposit formation of the earth evidence the exis-tence of conjugate deposit formation action in the interior of the Cenozoic basin.The work can be used to predict salt and deposit formation region and screen and select target section of recon-naissance so as to provide basis for the developing and researching mineral resources of salts in the continental basin of China.The analysis of basement structure of the Qaidam Basin as well as Quaternary action of deposit formation indicates there are great prospect for prospecting new salt deposits at the depth of the Cenozoic stratum.By the condition of deposit formation environment,structural belts of deposit formation of five types of salts are defined which can serve as region for future prospecting and promising deposit formation section.
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    A study on ecological forest's value accounting
    ZHONG Quan-lin, CAO Jian-hua, WANG Hong-ying
    2001, 16 (6):  537-542.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (241KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper,cost method,contingent value method,forest resource environmental ef-fect evaluation method and timber demand curve amend method were applied to calculate value of ecological forest in Jinggang Mountain region,Jiangxi of China.The results showed that the e-cological forest's value ratio using cost method(discount rate is10%),contingent value method,forest resource environmental effect evaluation method and timber demand curve amend method is0.4592:0.2185:1.7106:1.Analysis revealed that the timber demand curve amend method,whose annual accounting value is1302yuan/hm2 and can be applied to ecological forest's value compensation,is more reasonable than others;the cost method with an annual accounting value of597.9yuan/hm2 can be considered as the minimum of the value compensation;and contingent value method with an annual value of284.5yuan/hm2 can be only used as the amount of the value compensation for those people benefited from the ecological forest.
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    Dynamic change of land-use structure in Haikou by remote sensing and GIS
    TIAN Guang-jin, ZHANG Zeng-xiang, WANG Chang-you, LIU Bin, WEI Cheng-jie
    2001, 16 (6):  543-546.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (166KB) ( )   Save
    The TM imageries of1986,1996and2000are interpretated to study the land use change in Haikou.The land use conversion matrix uncovers the law that the cultivated land,forestland,foreshore and unused land was converted into land for urban,rural housing and construction purposes.The fractal dimension of the forestland and water bodies lowers because of the human induced disturbance.That of the cultivated land decreases with the conversion into the construction land.The urban land concentrates with the decrement of the patches and the incre ment of the acreage.But the rural land disperses because of the increment of the rural patches.The main driv ing forces of the land use structural change are the urban sprawl and the rural extension with rapid urbanization and rural settlement extension.The land use extent in Haikou tends to be deepened.
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    Analysis on the water supply capacity of the Yellow River Drainage Basin
    JIA Shao-feng, ZHANG Shi-feng
    2001, 16 (6):  547-551.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (94KB) ( )   Save
    Yellow River is one of the rivers with scarce water resources.There are a few impor-tant research results about the water supply capacity in2010,but the estimated amount of water supply differs greatly.The highest is69.2billion m3 while the lowest,58billion m3 .Furthermore,the substantial drop of the natural runoff occurred in the1990s.As a result,the runoff amount in a mean hydrological year is11billion m3 less than that of the his toric mean year level.Therefore it is very urgent to make it clear that how much the water supply would be in the2010in the Yellow River since it concerns the sustainable utilization strategy of water resource in the Yellow River drainage basin.The research result of this paper shows that the water supply in2010is only55~56billion m3 in a mean hydrological year,among which surface runoff accounts for39~40billion m3 and groundwater takes another16billion m3 .This result is2~3billion m3 less than the58billion m3 ,which is the least figure of the aforementioned results,and is20%,or14bil-lion m3 less than the largest69.2billion m3 .This poses an even more serious question to the wa-ter demand-supply balance strategy.
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    Discussion on the sustainable utilization of water resources in Panxi Area
    LUO Huai-liang, RAN Mao-yu
    2001, 16 (6):  552-556.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (90KB) ( )   Save
    Panxi Area of Sichuan Province is rich in natural resources and also one of the nine-teen major territorial development areas.Hydropower,minerals and agricultural natural resources are the main resources in the area.After the establishment of modern iron and steel base and the man-made satellites launching base,it is very important to exploit water resources,construct hy-dropower energy base and improve facilities of conservancy for the sustainable development of e-conomy in Panxi Area.Based on the analysis of characteristics of water resources in Panxi,the urgency of exploit-ing water resources in the area is expounded from the angles of the adjustment of resources uti-lization and sustainable development of local economy.In light with the main problems of ex-ploiting water resources in Panxi Area,the corresponding countermeasures are put forwards:(a)the water resources should be comprehensively utilized through making overall plans and taking all factors into consideration;(b)the construction of national energy base should be combined with the realization of local electrification,and hydropower resources should be exploited in the light of local conditions;(c)taking the Anning Valley as a focal point,the speed of constructing key conservancy projects should be accelerated;and(d)taking advantage of west development,water re-sources should be exploited through various channels.
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    A preliminary study on sustainable development of ecotourism in Western Sichuan
    YAN He-lin, BAO Wei-kai
    2001, 16 (6):  557-561.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (294KB) ( )   Save
    Ecotourism has been considered as an effective way in mountain sustainable develop-ment.The present study firstly examines the experience and implication of ecotourism develop-ment in Switzerland and Nepal,two typical mountain countries.It then discusses the landscape resources and their particular features for ecotourism in western Sichuan.Based on the success-ful experiences and local situation of ecotourism development in western Sichuan,the eco-tourism design models are put forward and consequently some management measures were pro-vided for the purpose of promoting the sustainable ecotourism development in the mountain re-gion.
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    Exploitation and utilization of Miscanthus & Triarrhena
    LIU Liang, ZHU Ming, ZHU Tai-ping
    2001, 16 (6):  562-563.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (95KB) ( )   Save
    In taxonomy there is a new species of Miscanthus&Triarrhena denominated in1989,which is an endmic and native grass in China:Triarrhena lutarioriparia L.Liu,sp.nov.The growth rate is5~7meter per year which can produce22.5~30tons of dried-stem per ha per year,being a high biomass plant.As a radical resource,it has been used as a crucial material for paper-making industry.The stems contain50%(43%~65%)of the fibrous cells,with average length each being3mm(2~6.8mm),the maximum,6.8mm.This grass have been proven by scientific approaches as potential crops of C4 -Plants.In Eu-ro pean countries like Germany and England,Miscanthus&Triarrhena is regarded as fuel crops in the future to generate electricity for power stations,i.e.,an important renewable plant re-sources.The research reveals that Miscanthus&Triarrhena is a valuable plant in environmental protection which can balance CO2 /O2 ,reduce soil N2 O and mitigate greenhouse effects in atmo-sphere.
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    Advances in research of yak resources in China
    JI Qiu-mei
    2001, 16 (6):  564-570.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (255KB) ( )   Save
    This paper expatiated on advances in research of yak production system based on analysis and summarization of lots of relative papers and data for the last10-odd years.The re-search contents include yak resources situation,physiology and biochemistry,inheritance,cross-breeding,inbreeding,wild yak resources and their utilization,productivity,nutrition and feeding management,product quality,yak diseases and so on.According to advances in the research,the paper identifies the main issues in both research and production of yak which will provide valu-able reference to the understanding of the yak science development and future yak research and production system.
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    On the relationship between forests and occult precipitation(dew and fog p recipitation)
    LIU Wen-jie, ZENG Jue-min, WANG Chang-ming, LI Hong-mei, DUAN Wen-ping
    2001, 16 (6):  571-575.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.06.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (226KB) ( )   Save
    Researches on the relationships between forests and″occult precip itation″(dew and fog precipitation)in foreign countries,focused on the forma tion mechanisms of dew and fog,forest canopy interception from dew and fog,in fluence of dew and fog on the distribution of species and the dynamics of vegeta tion,and its ecological effects were briefly introduced with the aim of promoti ng the studies in this field in China.According to the re ports,the dew and fo g water is one of the most important environmental factors determining the plan ts growth and dis tribution,and an important input for water balance and nutr ients cycling of the forest in cloud or fog-dominated montane regions,and its ecological effects take on many aspects.So it is essential to make further rese arch in this field and the future of ecological requires regarding occult precip i-tation should be directed towards quantify ing its hydrologic as well as its chemical significance to fog and cloud dominated ecosystems.Among the study met hods,the Dawson's work that ap-plied stable tools,using hydrogen and oxygen i sotopic 'signatures' and an iso topic mixing model that made it possible to dist inguish the plants' proportional use of deep-ground versus above-ground(i.e .precipitation and fog)water,is the best way and can be used in further resea rch.
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