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    25 August 2001, Volume 16 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Emergy analysis for evaluating sustainability of Chinese economy
    LI Shuang cheng, FU Xiao feng, ZHENG Du
    2001, 16 (4):  297-304.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (284KB) ( )   Save
    In recent years,many fruitful semi quantitative and quantitative approaches have been used to assess sustainability of economic system,but most of them fail to evaluate the effects of environment and resources on economic processes due to imperfect market and externality.Emergy analysis (EMA),which was developed by H.T.Odum,is a broad reaching attempt to quantify the environment and resources in supporting economic activity.In this paper,indices and ratios based on emergy flows are calculated and employed to evaluate the behavior of economic system.The trends of these indices provide useful information about the dynamics of economic systems within the carrying capacity of the environment in which they develop.A new index,emergy based sustainability index (ESI),of measuring regional sustainability is defined and applied to assess Chinese economy.The result of declining ESI values through the investigation period(1978~1998) indicates that the sustainability of economic system in China has been lowered.
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    A study on sustainable land use in the Yangtze River Delta
    PENG Bu zhuo, AN Xu dong, CHEN Fu, PU Li jie
    2001, 16 (4):  305-312.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (293KB) ( )   Save
    The comprehension of qualitative and quantitative analysis is the key point of present research on sustainable land use.This paper is intended to do the comprehension work in the Yangtze River Delta.First,qualitative research is done by analyzing present land use characteristics of the Yangtze River Delta.The result shows that fine land use condition,insufficient land resource amount,high exploiting intensity and quick land structure reform are the main characteristics in this area.And based on this analysis,the systematic objectives of sustainable land use in the Yangtze River Delta,which come from three administrative levels,are put forward.Second,a new quantitative pathway,social statistical method is established to evaluate the present level of sustainable land use in the Yangtze River Delta.Indicators consisting of 36 factors are selected as the evaluating index system,and weights and target values for indicators are established by using the AHP method and by referring to others' research.The method of membership function is selected to quantify the single indicator and the linear weighted function is chosen to compute the comprehensive evaluation index.And a new method is put forward to diagnose the obstacles in sustainable land use,in which the concept of obstacle amount is induced,and the corresponding formulae are used to compute it.Based on ranking obstacle amount of all indicators,what the main obstacles are and what the minors are can be found out.Then the sustainable land use evaluation practices are made in Suzhou,an important city in the Yangtze River Delta area,with the resultant comprehensive evaluating index of 63.10%.The result shows that the sustainable land use in 1998 in this area is still at a preliminary stage.And there are 12 main obstacles in sustainable land use in Suzhou.In view of the above obstacles,some practical countermeasures are identified.Through the above analysis,some conclusions are gained:(a) Qualitative method and quantitative method should be combined in sustainable land use research.Quantitative evaluation is the key point of this regional scale research .It is an effective way to survey the rationality and sustainability of current land use.(b) The practices of sustainable land use evaluation should be directed against the specific mode and objectives of land use.So the evaluating pathway must reflect the present features of regional land use.(c) The aims of evaluation lie not only on the determination of present stage of sustainable land use in specific areas,but also on the diagnosis of obstacles of sustainable land use,through which countermeasures could be raised to improve the sustainable level.
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    Research on the relationship of cultivated land change and food security in China
    FU Ze qiang, CAI Yun long, YANG You xiao, DAI Er fu
    2001, 16 (4):  313-319.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (308KB) ( )   Save
    National food security is based upon grain self sufficiency in general.Cultivated land resource is an important base influencing the available grain self sufficient capability.In China,the pressure of grain demand becomes greater and greater in the 21st century owing to the continuous population growth and income increase.Conflict between population and land will become more acute because scarce cultivated land will be partly transformed irreversibly into non agricultural uses in the process of the speedy industrialization and urbanization and economic development.Through analyzing the impacts of quantity change and quality status of cultivated land on grain production,the authors identify the relationship between cultivated land change and food security in China.This research tends to offer a basis for China to set down food security strategy in the 21st century.
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    A discussion on several fundamental issues of the development of eco-agriculture in China
    NG Sai leung, CHAU Kwai cheong, LAM Kin chi
    2001, 16 (4):  320-324.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (105KB) ( )   Save
    Eco agricultural systems have been developed widespreadly in the last decade and now they are integral parts of the rural development in China. Eco agricultural systems apply principles of eco economics and methods of systematic engineering to plan,design and manage the agriculture,aiming towards sustainable,stable and balanced development. In this paper,five fundamental issues of eco agricultural system in China are commented from the perspective of resource management.
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    Land use zoning scheme of China based on detailed land surveys
    FENG Zhi ming
    2001, 16 (4):  325-333.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (322KB) ( )   Save
    In the paper, combining historical review and status quo, the author summarizes the zoning work of land resource use in China, then sets up index system and establishes the zoning system and grading method for land resource utilization. On the above basis, a new zoning scheme for land resource utilization including 12 land utilization regions and 67 land utilization sub regions is put forward by clustering analysis in the light of land use structure at the county level. The 12 land use regions are the following:ⅠNortheast mountains/plains, woodland/dry farmland farming/forestry region;ⅡNorthern China plain, irrigated/dry farmland and residential/industrial land farming and construction region;ⅢLoess Plateau, dry farmland/grassland/woodland farming/husbandry/forestry region;ⅣMiddle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Plain paddy field/waters/and residential/indu strial land farming/fishery and construction region;ⅤSichuan Shannan basins, woodland/dry farmland/paddy field farming/forestry region; ⅥHilly and mountainous area south of the Yangtze River, woodland/paddy field forestry/farm ing region;ⅦYunnan Guizhou Plateau, woodland/shrubby/dry farmland forestry/farming region;ⅧSoutheast coastal areas, woodland/paddy field/garden and residential/industrial land farming/forestry/fishery and construction region;ⅨInner Mongolian Plateau, grassland/dry farmland husbandry region;ⅩNorthwestern arid lands, unused land/grassland/irrigated farmland husbandry and oasis farming region;ⅪQinghai Tibet Plateau, grassland/unused land husbandry region;ⅫSoutheast Tibet Hengduan Mountains, woodland/grassland forestry/husbandry regionIn the scheme, the Southeast Coastal Areas and the Southeast Tibet Hengduan Mountains were firstly zoned as two land use regions, and not only the important territorial development areas but also the eco environment fragile zones were emphasized on the division of land use sub region. It also provides scientific basis for effective protecting cultivated land, using land in a high efficient way, coordinating land use between industry and agriculture and avoiding blindness in land exploitation and land use.
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    A study on regional forced land use convertion and optimal allocation——Taking the Three Gorges Reservoir Area as an example
    LIU Yan sui, FANG Chuang lin
    2001, 16 (4):  334-340.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (142KB) ( )   Save
    The structure and layout of land use have been greatly changed because of the low lying land submergence,resettlement,movement of new towns and industrial and mining enterprises resulting from the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area(TGRA).Therefore,how to construct the new macro patterns of land use types according to the principle of landscape ecology and sustainable developmental norm are not only the keystone of resettling a million of migrants and allocation of production in TGRA in the next ten years,but also are related to harmonious and sustainable development of economy,society,resources and environment in the future.In this paper,the ways and process of conversion of land use types under the forced conditions including land submergence and use allocation are analyzed.Then,with a view to different hierarchies from factor controlling,zone design to optimal system models,the models and measures of land eco design are put forward.Based upon which,considering the harmonious development of industries,the optimal allocation schemes of land use are formulated.
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    A study on sustainable development and water resources optimization of Qaidam Basin in China
    FANG Chuang lin
    2001, 16 (4):  341-347.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (266KB) ( )   Save
    In order to realize sustainable development of arid area of Northwest China,rational water resources exploitation and optimization are primal prerequisites.Based on the essential principle of sustainable development,this paper puts forward the general trajectory of water resources optimization and eco environmental protection in Qaidam Basin,and identifies the competitive multiple targets of water resources optimization.By some qualitative methods such as Input output Model , AHP Model and some quantitative methods such as System Dynamics Model and Produce Function Model,some standard plans of water resources optimization come into being.According to Multiple Targets Decision by the Closest Value Model,the best plan of water resources optimization,eco environment protectional and sustainable development in Qaidam Basin is finally decided.
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    Regional difference research of supply and demand of water resources in West China
    CHENG Wei ming, ZHOU Cheng hu, TANG Qi cheng
    2001, 16 (4):  348-353.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (209KB) ( )   Save
    In the process of implementing the strategy developing West China,water resource is very important to achieve a coordinated development between the population,resources,and environment.Based on Geographical Information System,12 provinces and autonomous regions in western China are divided into seven drainage areas and 177 small catchment units in this paper.According to hydrological data in 1980 and 1990,water supply,demand,shortage and shortage ratio in each drainage area are calculated.It can be demonstrated that total water resource capacity is very big,but spatial and temporal distribution of water resource is quite uneven.By comparing water shortage ratios in 1980 and 1990,it can be seen that the Songhuajiang and Liaohe Rivers,the Yellow River,the Yangtze River and the inland rivers regions become better slightly,the Haihe River becomes worse,and the Pearl River and the rivers in Southwest China equal in 1980 and 1990.Severe shortage regions of water resources can be predicted in the future,they are the west Liaohe drainage basin,Sichuan basin,the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains,Hexi Corridor and Weihe valley.
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    Water resources' distribution characteristics,development potential and its utilizing countermeasures in the 21st century in Songnen Basin
    SUN Cai zhi, LIN Xue yu
    2001, 16 (4):  354-359.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (282KB) ( )   Save
    Water resources sustainable development is an important part of sustainable development.As an important region of land programming and comprehensive exploiting,many serious eco environmental problems have occurred in Songnen Basin because of uneven distribution and long period unreasonable development of water resources.Now problems of water resources have become the bottleneck factor of economy and construction in Songnen Basin.In order to achieve sustainable development of water resources in Songnen Basin,this paper takes groundwater system theory as principle,and water resources sustainable utilization as goal,the distribution characteristics of water resources were demonstrated first,and then the developing potential of water resources was analyzed on the basis of water resources statistic information and prediction of water resources demand,and finally some countermeasures for water resources sustainable development in the 21st century was presented.
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    Crop yield and water supply in North China
    YU Jing jie, REN Hong zun
    2001, 16 (4):  360-365.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (230KB) ( )   Save
    North China is one of the most important grain production bases of the country and plays an important role in the national food security.The present population,cultivated land and crop production all have exceeded 1/4 of the national total.The crop yield accounts for 22% of the national total crop yield in 1949 and 29.6% of that in 1998.Irrigation serves as an essential guarantee to obtain high stable crop yield in the region because the distribution of water resources is inconsistent with the regional arable land,light and heat. The water resources in North China are characterized by water shortage per capita and per unit arable land as well,uneven distribution in space and in time,and stable ground water resources.The status of water use in North China is quite serious,per capita water use amount is 315 m3 in 1997.Agriculture is the main water consumer,and the water consumption in agriculture is 5 times as much as that in industry.The conflict between water supply and demand in agriculture is becoming more and more severe.While the future water supply for agriculture will be quite unpleasant both in quantity and quality.First,there is no much water supply potential left since the water resources exploitation rate is 98.5%. Second,the agriculture water supply quota is going to decrease in the process of industrialization and urbanization in North China.Third,the water supply guarantee will be lowered resulted from frequent drought and flood,severe water pollution and extensive groundwater level decline.The water supply for agriculture can not meet the water demand to maintain and raise the crop yield in North China if there is no successive high flow years or no new water sources.Therefore,it is urgent to make a set of feasible measures in order to solve the conflict between crop production and water shortage.
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    On potential grain yield increase in the soil loss region of Loess Plateau
    HUANG Ming bin, DONG Cui yun, LI Yu shan
    2001, 16 (4):  366-372.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (220KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the data of grain yield in ten experimental areas,the situation and potential increase of grain yield in the soil loss region of Loess Plateau were studied from three different levels of yield,which are dryland yield potential,experimental yields in ten areas and yields of ten counties.The results indicated that the potential yield increase was greater in the soil loss region of Loess Plateau,and the present yield only reached 74.7% of the experimental level in ten areas,and 54.2% of the sunlight temperature water yield potential.Comparison of dryland potential yield increase in gully and hilly regions of Loess Plateau shows that potential yield increase in hilly region is 117.6%,and only 56.6%in gully region.Owing to population increase and decrease of cultivated land in the soil loss region,the produced grain yield will not meet the need in the future thirty years.
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    Systemic evaluation method of renewable energy resources and its practical application
    LI Jing jing, REN Dong ming, ZHUANG Xing1
    2001, 16 (4):  373-380.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (410KB) ( )   Save
    The resources availability assessment is the prerequisite and necessary procedure of renewable energy (RE) utilization.As a result of the mutual relations between all the sections of comprehensive energy programming,the assessment of RE resources should not be carried through separately regardless of other analytial processes.Especially the contents of the comprehensive evaluation of renewable energy should include not only those factors,such as reserves,exploitation,productivity etc,but also technology and market.Till now,there isnt any systemic assessment method on the straw & stalk resources aspect,by reviewing the characteristics and the internal relations between technology and markets of straw & stalk resources.This paper carries out a detailed research on the systemic assessment methods of straw & stalk resources,and set an indicator system on the basis of viewing general systems analysis.Finally,it makes a practical application of the above mentioned methods by taking straw & stalk resources as an example.
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    A study on interception processes of artificial Chinese pine forest litter on the Loess Plateau
    ZHAO Hong yan, WU Qin xiao, CONG Huai jun
    2001, 16 (4):  381-385.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (98KB) ( )   Save
    Interception amount and intercepting processes of artificial Chinese pine litter were studied by local measure methods.The results showed the interception amount of litter and its interception rate were 49.3mm and 12.5% respectively.The interception processes of litter were affected by rainfall and environmental factors and also related with litter dry conditions.Interception processes of litter increased quickly when rainfall began,the increasing of amount interception varied slightly when rainfall went on to a certain period of time,after rainfall reached the peak value,the interception amount fluctuated at this point.The interception processes can be described using combination of line and sin function and the sin function can deal with the effects of biology and environment on litter absorption processes.The model has extensive utilization in forest hydrology and soil and water conservation evaluation.
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    GIS & RS integration:land parcel change recognition method in land use dynamic monitoring
    CHENG Chang xiu, YAN Tai lai, ZHU De hai, ZHANG Wei
    2001, 16 (4):  386-389.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (142KB) ( )   Save
    According to the particularity of land use dynamic monitoring,this paper puts forward a kind of method for land parcel change recognition by GIS & RS Integration.The research unit of this method is polygon.The feature source was from geographical information in GIS and remote sensing images.In addition,according to the particularity of the type and the target of discriminance,this paper identifies two changes.One is to change distribution question into non distribution question,another is related to the grimness the condition of discriminance in order to reduce omission error.Finally,the test presented can improve distance discriminance method based on GIS & RS integration that can replace artificial recognition in land use dynamic monitoring.
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    Overseas urban nature conservation,ecological rehabilitation and enlightenments to China
    ZHAO Zhen bin, BAO Hao sheng
    2001, 16 (4):  390-396.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.04.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (265KB) ( )   Save
    The urban nature conservation and ecological rehabilitation activities in western countries initiated since the 1970s are introduced in this paper.The urban nature conservation includes mainly the following aspects:urban wildlife protection,natural landscape protection and wetland protection.The ecological rehabilitation practices consist of a number of phases such as eco park construction,greenway design,dispersal corridor network planning and stormwater management.Three features of the urban nature conservation and ecological rehabilitation are distinguished:ecology based practices and interdisciplinary collaboration;stressing the restoration of ecological process;and multi functional and hierarchical planning.Some enlightenments are given as follows:re valuation of the importance of urban nature conservation;enhancement of fundamental data inventory;re building city open space planning theories;and ecology based urban planning.
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