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    25 February 2001, Volume 16 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Discussion on system method of studying global environmental change
    CHEN Shu peng, YUE Tian xiang
    2001, 16 (1):  3-8.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (110KB) ( )   Save
    By summarizing and analyzing the progress in studies on modern technical means of information capture,geographical information system,mathematical models and Geo informatic Tupu,a system method for studying global environmental change is probed from the angle of geo information science.
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    Impacts of climate change on water resource vulnerability in Laizhou Bay region
    DENG Hui ping, ZHAO Ming hua
    2001, 16 (1):  9-15.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (305KB) ( )   Save
    Laizhou Bay region is located in the north coastal zone of Shandong Province, China In this region, water is scarcy and has already bocome the most important constraint for the regions economic development In this paper, impacts of climate change(1960~2042) on water vulnerability are investigated The results are as followes:(1)According to the capacity of water supply system in 1993, in 1960~1976 wet climate(mean precipitation is 112% of the normal climate), effective water supply is 120% of the normal While in 1977~1993 dry climate(mean precipitation is 88% of the normal climate), effective water supply is 78% of the normal At water demand level in 1993(about half of the irrigation water demand is met), in wet climate, water supply and demand balance is surplus, but it changes to be deficit when in dry climate Water resource vulnerability increases from marginally vulnerable level to vulnerable level (2)Based on future climate senarios in North China, 2000~2019 mean precipitation will be 110% of the normal precipitation According to the capacity of water supply system and at the water demand level in 2000, water supply approximately meets water demand if about half of the irrigation water demand is met Water resource vulnerability is marginally vulnerable 2020~2042 mean precipitation will drop to the normal level.In the light of the planned capacity of water supply system and at the predicted water demand level in 2020, water suppy and demand balance is deficit when onlg half of the irrigation water demand is met Water resource vulnerability will rise to vulnerable level (3)After 2042, precipitation may drop to less than the normal level with temperature 1℃ higher than normal climate, water resource deficit will be more serious even if water demand is still at 2020 level So it is necessary to import more amount of stable water than present planned from outside region in order to guarantee sustainable socioeconomic development
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    Problems and optimum control strategy of lake water resources in China
    ZHANG Zhen ke, WANG Su min, WU Rui jin, JIANG Jia hu
    2001, 16 (1):  16-21.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (114KB) ( )   Save
    Water resources of lakes in China play an important role in economic and social sustainable development The implementation of optimum control strategy is an essential way for the sustainable utilization of water resources in the catchment of lakes Water resources shortage,pollution and related problems such as flood hazards,changes of lake eco systems during the utilization process in China have been generally summarized in this paper It points out that the thought on optimum control of lake resources is a comprehensive control on the aspect of eco systems in lake catchment Measures of optimum control strategy for water resources of lakes in China include the following aspects: implementing catchment management of lake water resources,establishing economical type of national economy,increasing investment on science and technology for the implementation of environmental renovation suitable to local lake conditions, controlling pollution in lake catchment through whole processes and at all aspects,and implementing environmental education in lake catchment
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    Relations retween exploitation-utilization of water resources and oasis evolution and ecological balance in tarim Basin
    FAN Zi li, MA Ying jie, JI Fang, WANG Rang hui
    2001, 16 (1):  22-27.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (200KB) ( )   Save
    The relations between the history,present situation and future development of exploitation and utilization of water resources and the oasis evolution and ecological balance in Tarim River are as following:In the original stage,the ecology was in a natrual balance,and the oases were distributed at the lower reaches of the rivers; in the primary stage,the ecology was in a unbalanced state,and the oases were moved towards the piedmont plains; in the inefficient stage,the eco environment is degenerated,and most of the new oases are distributed in the peripheries of the old oases; in the rational stage,the ecology will be recovered and improved,and the extension of the oases will be changed to tap the potentialities in the oases; and in the efficient stage, a virtuous circle of the eco logy will be achieved,the area of the oases will be stabilized,and the productive forces will be obviously raised.At present,the utilization of water resources in Tarim Basin is only in an inefficient level,and the pace of constructing irrigation works must be quickened so as to achieve the rational and efficient utilization of water resources as early as possible,thus the eco environment can be improved.
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    The mangrove wetland resources and their conservation in China
    ZHANG Qiao min, SUI Shu zhen
    2001, 16 (1):  28-36.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (193KB) ( )   Save
    Mangrove wetlands are evergreen tree and shrub communities mainly consisting of mangrove plants, usually growing on the upper part of tidal flat of tropical and subtropical coasts, and periodically inundated by tidal water. Mangroves are naturally distributed in Hainan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Taiwan and Fujian provinces, with an area of about 15,000 ha.There are 26 exclusive mangrove species and 11 semi exclusive mangrove species in China. The mangrove wetland in China has low direct economic values, but plays an important role in protecting coastline, keeping coastal biodiversity and fishery resources, clarifying sea water, beautifying environment, and so on. It is a coastal ecologically critical area that is specially easy to be undervalued.The mangrove areas have been sharply reduced because of humans unreasonable exploiting activities,such as des troying mangroves for agricultural and salt fields, for aquaculture ponds and for urban construction, and the mangrove wetland resources are in danger and need urgent efficient management and protection. Eighteen mangrove natural reserves have been established. It is essential to attract scientists to take an active part in scientific researches on mangrove wetlands, to spread the knowledge about mangrove environmental functions, to reverse its decline trend and to achieve the ecological restoration and sustainable deve lopment of mangrove wetland ecosystem.
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    Studies on zoobenthos resources in the islands of the Changjiang estuary
    YUAN Xing zhong, LU Jian jian
    2001, 16 (1):  37-41.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (182KB) ( )   Save
    The benthic macro invertebrate resources in the islands of the Changjiang estua ry were surveyed,and their ecological characteristics were studied.The results show that there were 41 species of benthic macro invertebrates on the tidal flat wetland of the three islands.The dominant species were Corbicula fluminea,Potamocorbula ustulata,Sinonovacula constricta,Helice tridens tientsinensis,and Ilyrplax deschampsi.The ecological characteristics and environmental function of the benthic invertebrate resources in the islands were analyzed.The species composition and ecological distribution of the islands in the Changjiang estuary reflected ecological characteristics in estuarine.The wetland benthic fauna in the three islands of the Changjiang estuary can be divided into three categories,i.e.fresh water species,brackish water species and sea water species,which reflected the characteristics of eco environmental transitional zone in the estua ry.The species composition and number of zoobenthos in the wetland of the islands was related to sediment composition,sedimentary rate and topography of tidal flat closely.In the tidal flat wetland of the three islands,distribution pattern of benthic fauna in space reflected its success process with the elapse of time.According to the ecological succession of vegetation and the characteristics of fauna,tidal flat wetland in the Changjiang estuary may be divided into three ecological sere,i.e.saline algae zone,bulrush community zone and reed community zone.Many species of zoobenthos have great economic value,which are principally some species of Crustacean and Mollusc.Zoobenthos in the wetland of the three islands play an important role in the estuarine ecosystem such as transporting trophic material and transforming pollutants,acting as significant channel of energy flow,and influencing on the movement and stability of sediments.Finally,some suggestions for developing and conserving the benthic invertebrate resources were proposed.
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    Dynamic characteristics of abundance and community structure of fishery species in the overwintering ground of the Bohai Sea
    DENG Jing yao, JIN Xian shi
    2001, 16 (1):  42-46.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (213KB) ( )   Save
    By the bottom trawl surveys in the overwintering ground of the Bohai Sea in the winter of 1983,1993 and 1999,the yearly variations of species composition,abundance index and dominant species of endemic stocks were analyzed The abundance trended to decrease dramatically,the average catch per haul was 11 5,3 5 and 0 7 kg/h,and average number of individuals per haul was 669,145 and 37 individual/h,respectively The community structure and dominant species obviously changed Those dominant species like Collichthys spp.and Raja porosa in 1983~1993 were replaced by Neosalanx anderssoni in 1999 Overfishing is the main cause for the sharp decrease of abundance in economic important species Strengthening fishery management,and implementing hatchery release are the main measures and approaches to conserving,rehabilitating and enhancing fishery resources in the Bohai Sea
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    Study on valuation of rangeland ecosystem services of China
    XIE Gao di, ZHANG Yi li, LU Chun xia, ZHENG Du, CHENG Sheng kui
    2001, 16 (1):  47-53.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (124KB) ( )   Save
    It is of great significance to estimate ecosystem services value By using method proposed by Constaza et al (1997) and others,this paper calculated the unit area value of rangeland ecosystem services in terms of its biomass in China The results showed that the total value of annual rangeland ecosystem services in China was about US$149.79 billion,among which,the percentage of gas regulation took up 2 66%,that of disturbance regulation accounted for 16 07%,water regulation and water supply 14 44%,erosion control and sediment retention 9 08%,soil formation 0 31%,waste treatment 42 03%,pollination 7 83%,biological control 7 2%,refugia 1 08%,food production and raw material 22 26%,and recreation and culture 5 78% Owing to the integrated effects of biological communities distribution and ecosystem function of unit area,the contribution ratio of ecosystem services of various rangeland types different greatly The contribution ratio of marsh type made up 52 34%,the total contribution ratio of temperate steppe type,tropical herbosa type,tropical shrub herbosa type,lowland meadow type and alpine meadow type varied in the range from 5 03% to 7 74%,that of others types below 5%
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    Analysis for efficiency of typical rural landscape eco-engi-neering construction—take Xishan village as an example
    LU Bing you
    2001, 16 (1):  54-58.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (201KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the an alysis of the ways and efficiencies in constructing rural landscape eco engineering in Xishan village,Shandong province,we can conclude that this village is a very typical one in current rural landscape building.The successful experience has not only provided a good example for the study of landscape ecology,but also reflected the great importance of rational combination of landscape ecology with ecological engineering,in addition to the offering of a valuable guideline for rural sustainable development.
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    The EOF analysis on wheat dry-hot-wind in Henan Province
    CHEN Huai liang, ZOU Chun hui, FU Xiang jian, GUAN Wen ya
    2001, 16 (1):  59-64.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (117KB) ( )   Save
    The number of dry hot wind days have been obtained by analyzing statistical data from 30 meteorological stations in Henan Province during 1967~1996 and the EOF analysis has been conducted.The results showed that the dry hot wind day fields mainly assume the spatial distribution pattern of “less in south and more in north " and some other distribution patterns.With the elapse of time,a decreasing tendency of the dry hot wind days occurred throughout the province.The quasi six year and quasi three year periods have been found by the power spectrum analysis on time coefficients.The appreciable correlation exists between the first and second model time coefficients and the wheat yield in Henan Province.
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    Sustainable utilization:an ethical principle of resources utilization
    CHEN An ning
    2001, 16 (1):  65-70.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (196KB) ( )   Save
    The paper expounds the concept of the ethics of resources utilization.Based on the analyses of practices and actual demands of the ethics of sustainable utilization,and basic ethical consciousness in the society,the paper explains the rationality of the ethical principle of sustainable utilization.It points out that ethical principle of sustainable utilization can be deduced from “veil of ignorance between intergenerations"and is intergenerational fair.The paper gives the frame of the analysis of ethical function in the game of resources utilization and discusses the ethical mechanisms about putting away the“prisonersdilemma",the reasons of ethics failure and the necessity of ethics legalization in resources utilization.This paper considers that if persons have enough high moral level or trust in others ,they can avoid falling into the “prisonersdilemma" ,on the contrary,when they dontt have enough high moral level ,or cant trust others,they have to face entire ethics failure and “isolation paradox" in resources utilization,therefore,the ethics of sustainable utilization need to be legalized.
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    Effects of global climate change on forest ecosystems
    LIU Guo hua, FU Bo jie
    2001, 16 (1):  71-78.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (136KB) ( )   Save
    Human induced greenhouse effects and their impacts on global climate change and eco environments,especially the responses of forests to global climate change,have aroused interests of many scientists.In this paper,the potential effects of future climate change on forest ecosystem structure,species composition,tree and forest distribution and productivity are discussed systematically.In the meanwhile,the fields that must be further studied are advanced.
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    Impacts of forest vegetation on runoff generation mechanisms: a review
    ZHANG Zhi qiang, WANG Li xian, YU Xin xiao, E.Klaghofer
    2001, 16 (1):  79-84.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (116KB) ( )   Save
    Runoff generation mechanism is one of the key research focuses in the hydrological study on which more and more attention is concentrated.The complexity of hydrological processes such as scale dependence and nonlinear behavior resulted from the widespread spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of hydrological environment and fluxes makes it very difficult,given that without detailed understanding of the physical processes,to extrapolate the information from one area to another or from one scale to another.Current generation of physically based,distributed parameter models could accommodate the assessment of hydrological impacts of forest vegetation changes to certain degree in comparison with traditional approaches.However,the confidence of such models and the scale issues highlights current and future research needs in the forest vegetation influences on the runoff generation and delivery mechanisms.Three major research methods being adopted are hydrometry,tracer/isotope tracing,and dynamic calculation at the spatial scale from hillslopes to watershed.The current understanding of forest vegetation influences on the runoff generation could be summarized as (a)runoff is controlled by variable source area mechanisms for forested watershed,(b)major runoff components for forested watershed are saturated surface runoff,subsurface runoff,and groundwater runoff,(c)co existing and shifting of different runoff generation mechanisms,and (d)preferential flow is a key factor in controlling runoff generation for forested watershed.
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    Supporting conditions and laws for sustainable water resources utilization
    WANG Xian jia, HU Zhen peng
    2001, 16 (1):  85-90.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (187KB) ( )   Save
    Sustainable development,as a new method of socioeconomic development adopted in recent years,has been extensively accepted.Sustainable utilization of water resources is an important part of sustaiable development.Under the frame of sustainable development,this paper proposes the supporting conditions and laws to which sustaining water resources utilization should follow,including some supporting conditions and laws of nature,socioeconomy and physical environments.The supporting conditions and laws show the basic rules for realizing sustainable utilization of water resources from different sides,thus providing theoretical basis and methods for sustainable water resources utilization.
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    Geochemical features of oil and gas resources in northern Tibet and way for discovering mineral deposits
    HUO Ming yuan
    2001, 16 (1):  91-94.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (136KB) ( )   Save
    A tentative evaluation on oil and gas resources in northern Tibet carried out by using the latest remote sensing oil and gas surveys in combining with existing oil and gas geological and geochemical data revealed that oil and gas accumulation totalled about 4 to 6 billion tons in the study area. The focus of survey was in the northwestern part of Qiangtang Plateau, especially in the composite portion of geochemical anomalous low value area with meganapple structure where it is most promising to find out mass oil and gas fields with an accumulation of more than a hundred million tons.
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    Study on the sustainable utilization of biological and tourist resources in Mt.Luofushan of Guangdong Province
    XU Song jun
    2001, 16 (1):  95-100.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (201KB) ( )   Save
    Mt.Luofushan in Guangdong province is located at 23°15′~23°22′ N and 113°57′~114°4′ E.The main peak of Feiyunding is 1 281.5 m above sea level.It is one of the four famous mountains in Guangdong and serves as a comprehensive nature reserve of South Asia subtropical evergreen broad leaved forest and the rare and endangered animals plants in the province.Mt.Luofushan is rich in flora and fauna where a total of 1 168 species of vascular plants belonging to 676 genera in 201 families have been identified.Of them,69 species are timber plants,440 species are medicinal plants and 112 species,oil plants.Because the forest was frequently destroyed and the animals were hunted by human being before,many big animals were hard to survive in the forest.Only a few species can be occasionally seen,such as raccoon dogs,leopards,foxes and so on.There are 10 species of rare and endangered plants native to China found in this area,in which the first class national protection plant is Alsophila spinulosa.Of the animals Panthera pardus fusca and Python molurus bivittatus belong to the first class protection animals.The tourist resources of Mt.Luofushan are rich too.There are a lot of stone caves,springs and waterfalls.From Qin and Han dynasties Mt.Luofushan has been famous landscape in China.The Chong Xu Guan is one of the well known Taoism places in China,where there is a historic site called “Xi Yao Chi”.This paper raised some suggestions about the long term utilization of biological and tourist resources of Mt. Luofushan. It is necessary to combine nature conservation with reasonable economic utilization and tourism for protecting natural resources and maximizing its ecological,social and economic benefits.
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