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Table of Content

    25 December 2002, Volume 17 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    To enhance guaranteeing capacity of sustainable development of national land resources:grasping every opportunity along with open up and innovation
    TIAN Feng-shan
    2002, 17 (6):  657-663.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (84KB) ( )   Save
    The accession to WTO of China brings new situation,new tasks and new requirements to the managerial work of China's national land resources.This paper analyses the status quo of land,mineral and marine resources after China's entry to WTO as well as the opportunities and challenges confronting China related to the improvements and enhancement of the corresponding managerial work.It points out that China should further strenthen national land resources inves-tigation and assessment ,quicken the pace of market construction of national land resources,strickly practice resources planning and macro coordination and control,energetically implement the strategic policy of"out going"and"incoming",deepen reform and administer according to law,promote science and technology advancement of national land resources by a big margin and strive to enhance guaranteeing capacity of sustainable socio-economic development of na-tional land resources.
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    Primary analysis on land readjustment potentiality
    ZHANG Zheng-feng, CHEN Bai-ming
    2002, 17 (6):  664-669.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (199KB) ( )   Save
    With the development of society and economy,the main aim of land readjustment in our country will be changed from merely adding arable land to multipurpose development direc-tion of promoting agricultural comprehensive productive ability,protecting eco-environment and consummating rural infrastructure.So how to reasonably analyze land readjustment potentiality becomes an essential item,and also is necessary for the land readjustment planning and land readjustment project.In fact land readjustment potentiality is a kind of potentiality that relatives to land readjustment criterion and restricts to economic and eco-environmental status.The essence is land use potentiality.Arable land readjustment potentiality is to add arable land area,promote agricultural comprehensive productive ability,reduce production cost and protect eco-environment.It could be achieved by renovation of country road and irrigation and drainage canals,combination and regularization of farmland,elimination of limiting factors and construc-tion of shelter belts.Rural residential land readjustment potentiality is to add arable land and to improve survival environment.It could be achieved by reduction of residential area,promotion of construction rate,use of idle land,combination of small village to central village and consumma-tion of infrastructure.Comparing to overseas land readjustment,China still belongs to the ele-mentary phase of land readjustment that the aim is to add arable land simply and does not be-long to the advanced phase that the aim is to improve comprehensive productivity and consum-mate eco-environment.Once land readjustment in our country comes into advanced phase,the potentiality would come great.
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    Possibility of realizing dynamic balance of farmland area in the Yangtze River Delta
    HUANG Xian-jin, PU Li-jie, ZHOU Feng, GE Xiang-dong, ZHANG Xiao-ling, PENG Bu-zhuo, LI Xian-wen
    2002, 17 (6):  670-676.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (136KB) ( )   Save
    China has implemented important economic policy of reforms during the1980s and1990s.And there was an urgent need to restructure the economy to improve macroeconomic per-formances.Drastic economic measures like abolition of prices subsides,devaluation of exchange rates,liberalization of international trade,and privatization of public enterprises characterize most of the reforms.In recent years,it is increasingly recognized that such fundamental eco-nomic changes may have important effects on the resources especially farmland.Given that,from mid-1990s,China begins to enforce dynamic balance of farmland area(DBFA)to satisfy the demand of land use for agriculture and non-agriculture sectors.The possibility of DBFA was pre dicted in research area of the Yangtze River Delta by modeling the driving forces of farmland change.According to the results of modeling,it is possible to realize DBFA in2005,and about 9.12%shortage of farmland area compared with the protected area in2010in the Yangtze River Delta.The possibility is different for11cities in the research area.It is possible to realize DB-FA in Taizhou City of Jiangsu and Huzhou City of Zhejiang.It is difficult to realize DBFA in cities of Nantong,Zhenjiang and Changzhou of Jiangsu Province and Jiaxing City of Zhejiang Province.It is more difficult to realize DBFA in cities of Nanjing,Wuxi,Suzhou and Yangzhou of Jiangsu Province.For Shanghai City,it is almost impossible to realize DBFA,and the short-age rates of farmland area are respectively20.01%and33.95%in2005and2010.The research results also show the cost is high if DBFA should be realized.Based on the analysis of DBFA policy system,some suggestions on reforming the policy implementation system have been given at last.
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    A study on the economic niche of land use theory and mechanisms of cropland conservation
    ZHANG Xia, GE Xiang-dong, PU Li-jie, HUANG Xian-jin, PENG Bu-zhuo
    2002, 17 (6):  677-683.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (279KB) ( )   Save
    Land use change is a self-organized behavior of conversion from low niche level to high level,including two aspects of its structure and intensity.Only under the control and con-cordance with land-use niche in different levels,the balance of its resource field can be kept in certain arable land maintenance.And this balance is the precondition to keep the dynamic bal-ance maintenance of total arable land.On the basis of the niche theory and the system boundary theory,in this paper we made up the model of land-use niche and took the Xishan City,Jiangsu Province as an example to quantitatively analyze interactive intensities in different land use types.The study shows that the cropland loses easily because the niche difference between non-a-gricultural land and agricultural land is big and the urbanization process gets fast.At last we dis-cussed an approach to set up mechanisms of cropland conservation using the resource flow field theory.At present level,it is more significant that land use niche is as a new method in LUCC studies.
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    An analysis of the self-purification function of Hulun Lake and its effect on regional environmental conservation
    HAN Xiang-hong, YANG Chi
    2002, 17 (6):  684-690.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (268KB) ( )   Save
    Based on a vast amount of full and accurate data and investigations,this paper dis cussed the eutrophication state of Hulun Lake and found out key factors influencing eutrophica-tion and causes of relative strong self-purification function of the lake.Hulun Lake is the fifth largest lake in the semi-arid continental climate region of high latitude in China.It belongs to animal husbandry pollution.The nitrogen input to Hulun Lake mainly comes from polluted point sources(the rivers),while phosphorus input from area source is more than that from point sources.Through many years observatuion s,it is found out that the changes in nitrogen and phosphorus content s are not obvious,indicating the existence of a strong self-purification function of Hulun Lake.The self-purification function of Hulun Lake is related to its special geographical position.First,Hulun Lake is an alternately inflow-outflow lake linking tectonic lake and rivers with vast area and deep water.All of these con tributed to the self-purification function of the lake.Second,the activity of planktons in the lake is restrained by the higher latitude,semi-arid climate and low temperature.Third,the structure of the lake is special with over30mouths of springs and sufficient replenishment of underground water to the lake.Hulun Lake is a freshwater lake ecosystem consisting of a relative large water body and its surrounding wetlands.It not only places an important role in keeping biodiversity and enriching biological resources,but also functions obviously in adjusting and impounding flood s.Consider-ing its ecological and social benefits,Hulun Lake is indispensable to the development of commu-nity and industry,agriculture and animal husbandry.All of these showed that Hulun Lake bears an important position in the regional environmental conservation.
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    Changes of groundwater resources in recent 50years and their impact on ecological environment in Hexi Corridor
    DING Hong-wei, ZHANG He-sheng
    2002, 17 (6):  691-697.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (277KB) ( )   Save
    The changing features of groundwater resources in recent 50years have been anal-ysed and compared by using calculated results based on surface water from mountain area s and their corresponding groundwater balance during different period of time in Hexi Corridor.The result shows that the annual surface water resources from mountains are relative stable,mean-while the recharges of groundwater are decreasing successively because of industrial and agri-cultural development and ir rigation system in the middle reaches becoming better and approach-ing perfection day by day since the1950s.The groundwater recharge decreased from62.413×10 8 m 3 in1955to55.514×10 8 m 3 in1999.As a result,a se ries of hydrogeological problems,such as constant decline of regional groundwater level,substantial reduce of spring water,yearly en-largement both in scale and amount of groundwater extraction,continuous decrease of surface water entering into the lower reaches,water quality worsening and so on.The eco-environmental system tends to change and becomes deteriorated with the changes of water resources in utiliza-tion and distribution patterns.
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    Processes of wetland landscape changes in Naoli River Basin since1980s
    LIU Hong-yu, ZHANG Shi-kui, LU Xian-guo
    2002, 17 (6):  698-705.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (542KB) ( )   Save
    Naoli River Basin,with a total area of2416700ha,is one of the largest basins in the Sanjinag Plain.The basin is rich in wetland biodiversity,especially in wetland landscapes,ecosystems and communities due to the physical conditions.But,since the beginning of the founding of the P.R.China,large scale land reclamation activities had happened for a few times.Especially at the rapid economic development period after1980,China has put economic reform and opening policy into practice.As a result,great changes had occurred in wetlands.The natural wetland area decreased from533200ha in1982to171700ha in2000,or reduced by67.8%,and paddy field area increased138200ha or39.43times of that in1982.Dry farming land area also increased from969100ha in1982to1363400ha in2000,an increase of40700ha.Now the Naoli River Basin has become an important national grain production base from the previous"great northern wildness".This paper explores the process of wetland landscape changes over the past20years based on remote sensing and GIS techniques,particularly,wetland landscape classification system.And temporal and spatial land use/land cover changes are emphasized to analyze the relationship between land use and wetlands.
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    Dynamics of the ecosystem service values of farming-pastoral zone along the upper reaches of Haihe River
    GAO Qing-zhu, HE Li-huan, HUANG Xiao-xia, JIANG Yuan
    2002, 17 (6):  706-712.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (899KB) ( )   Save
    The land use changes of farming-pastoral zone along the upper reaches of Haihe Ri-ver were obtained by analyzing NOAA/AVHRR data.Thus the dynamics of eco-environmental quality caused by land use changes were evaluated by using Costanza's method of evaluating the world's ecosystem service.The results indicate,the ecosystem service values of farming-pastoral zone along the upper reaches of the Haihe River have been diminished due to the land use change in the past10years.The loss of ecosystem service values is around2.5%~2.7%,equa-ling to4.18×10 7 ~4.90×10 7 US$.
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    Ecological crisis and countermeasures of the Three Rivers' Headstream Regions
    DONG Suo-cheng, ZHOU Chang-jin, WANG Hai-ying
    2002, 17 (6):  713-720.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (307KB) ( )   Save
    The Headstreams of the Three Rivers,the Yellow River,Changjiang River and Lan-cangjiang River,are of great ecological significance to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.They range from31°39'N to36°16'N and89°24'E to102°23'E with elevation s of the headstream regions varying from3450m to6621m.In Qinghai province the headstreams cover an area of0.318million km 2 ,accounting for50.3%of the province total.The largest marshland of China is located here,and these regions are regarded as"China's water tower".There inhabit large quantities of rare wild animals,such as yaks,Tibetan wild donkeys,Tibetan antelopes,and dark-necked cranes etc.On the whole,some 271kinds of wild animals and about 1000species of plants are identi-fied in the headstream regions.In recent two decades,due to global climate change and human activities,the ecosystems of these regions are degrading.The acreage of water and soil erosion reaches34462km 2 ;the areas suffering from rat-caused damages accumulated to6.58million ha,accounting for11%of the whole region;and the desertified area increases to2.53million ha.Some of the glaciers here are shrinking,and the shrinking rate of the glaciers where the Dangqu river originates reach es be-tween8.25m/a and9.9m/a.The lakes here are diminishing with quick water level descending,and the descending level in Zhaling Lake and Eling Lake are over2m.The critical problems urge the authors to seek approaches of ecological alleviation in the three rivers' headstream regions.Thus,the following countermeasures are put forward:to work out scientific plan as quickly as possible to establish natural reserves in the headstream regions;to properly settle the immigrants from responsive regions;to establish scientific research bases for developing and spreading new-high applicable technologies to speed up the environmental re-construction;to lead to restoration of grassland eco-system by eliminating rat-caused damages;and to set up ecological compensative mechanism among areas of upper,middle and lower reaches of a watershed to promote environmental reconstruction.The ultimate intention of this paper is to contribute to ensure the social development towards an ecological sustainability in the three drainage basins.
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    Characteristics of the Heihe water resources and water environment al protection
    ZHOU Chang-jin, DONG Suo-cheng
    2002, 17 (6):  721-728.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (174KB) ( )   Save
    Heihe is a relative larger inland river of Northwest China.It spans three major land form types of mountain,basin and desert areas.The water resources are extremely deficient.The water problem is outstanding,especially in the contradiction between economic construction and ecological environment.This paper,based on the investigation of the hydrologic characteristics in the Heihe watershed,focuses on studies of the chemical properties of the water there.A large sec-tion of the Heihe are dominated with HCO 3- in anion and Ca 2+ in cation,with orders in milligram equivalent percentage of HCO 3ˉ >Clˉ>SO 42+ in anion and Ca 2+ >Mg 2+ >Na + +K + in cation.However,different orders occur at the hydrologic station of Zhengyixia,namely,HCO 3ˉ >SO 42- >Cl ˉ in anion and Na + +K + >Mg 2+ >Ca 2+ in cation.According to conventional hydro-geological methods,three types of river water can be classified by taking the major aqueous anions and cations milligram equi-valents as criteria,i.e.,bicarbonate,sulfate and chloride.Tests show that most of the samples belong to bicarbonate types.According to the sampling test,the total mineralization of river water varies between365~751mg /l,total hardness varies between3.93~10.46me /l,and total alkality,between3.17~7.30me /l.This paper also analyses the trace element of river water in the Heihe and makes an assess-ment of the water quality of the region and policy implications to water conservation are presen-ted.
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    Expanding law and restraining mechanism about urban land:Taking Xi'an city as an example
    XUE Dong-qian
    2002, 17 (6):  729-736.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (327KB) ( )   Save
    Economic development that takes evolution of industrial structure and diffusion of po-pulation as the center is the internal motive force of urban land expansion,communication con-nection is the external driving force,and management and planning are intermediate forces.From nationwide point of view,the expanding speed of urban land in Xi'an is lower than the country's average level.The basic reason for the gradual decrease of cultivated land lies in suburbaniza-tion caused by economic development,function substitute caused by adjustment of industrial structure and land adjustment caused by population space division.Based on basic concept and model,this paper points out that equal attention should be paid to"circle expanding model"and"exclave expanding model".The basic elementary theoretical models about urban land expansion include"circle expanding model","leap expanding model"and"radiative expanding model".Under the premise of taping the potentialities,land expansion should regard"circle expanding model"or"exclave expanding model"as equally important in the future quite a long period of time .The former is mainly taken into account in the near future and the latter,at a specified fu-ture date.Finally,factor features(including factor construction,factor transformation,function formation and structural change)and expanding phases about land expansion of Xi'an are identi-fied.
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    Countermeasures for adjustment of agricultural structure and development of industries restrained by resources and envi ronment in Northwest China
    LI Rong-sheng
    2002, 17 (6):  737-742.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (226KB) ( )   Save
    The paper analyzes the advantages and restriction of agricultural resources in North-west China,i.e.,shortage of water resources,vulnerability of eco-environment,obscurity of loca-tion and poverty of social resources;discusses the three ways of adjusting and optimizing agricul-tural structure with resources restriction and agricultural industrialization,i.e.,to strengthen the combination of agriculture with animal husbandry by developing herbivorous herd,to develop value added and foreign exchange earning horticulture and to enlarge agricultural space by de-veloping desert agriculture;and proposes the corresponding countermeasures for developing eco-economic agriculture and protecting eco-environment.
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    Measuring and forecasting regional sustainability of ecological economy:a case study of Wuwei City,Gansu Province,China
    YOU Fei, ZHONG You-li, WANG Chuan-sheng
    2002, 17 (6):  743-749.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (283KB) ( )   Save
    Using ecological footprint (EF)model,this article evaluates the ecological economic sustainability of Wuwei City.As a calculational result of biotic,manufactured and energetic re-sources consumption,the per capita EF is1.589423ha in1999.While the actual per capita bio-productive area,translated into a world average spatial productivity,is only0.856876ha,which implies an ecological deficit of per capita0.73254ha.Further,per capita EF and GDP of56countries and regions are analyzed and are proved to be of high correlation.The exponential model fits in well with their relationship,and it is of theoretical consistency.Applying this model,by the year2015,per capita ecological footprint of Wuwei will run up to2.60142ha,with ecological carrying capacity of only per capita1.0657ha.Per capita ecological deficit by then,will reach1.5357ha.
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    Application of SOFM neural network to ecological assets regional ization in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    LI Shuang-cheng, ZHENG Du, ZHANG Yi-li
    2002, 17 (6):  750-756.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (308KB) ( )   Save
    Artificial neural networks(ANNs)whose elements are inspired by biological nervous systems are composed of simple elements operating in parallel.Commonly neural networks are adjusted,or trained,so that a particular input leads to a specific target output.Neural networks have been trained to perform complex functions in various fields of application including predic-tion,pattern recognition,system identification,classification and optimization.Conventional statistical models fail to deal with non-linear relations among the physical factors.However,as an alternative approach,ANNs can map complex temporal and spatial pat-terns by using non-linear transfer functions.In this paper,regionalization of ecological assets is conducted by unsupervised artificial neural network,namely Self-Organizing Feature Mapping(SOFM).The field data employed as input for training represent spatial ecological features such as longitude,latitude,annual mean temperature,annual mean precipitation,aridity,biological tempera ture,assets demand index,assets scarcity,NPP of unit area and ecological value of unit area collected at84sites on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.After the iterative learning phase in the SOFM analysis,each of the84sites is associated with an output unit.Each output unit contains some of the sites and there is obvious discrete grouping of cases.The SOFM,therefore,appears to have organized the sites such that the various output units are associated with different eco-logical assets classes.In order to assess the performance of SOFM,the comparison with cluster analysis is carried out.The result indicates that the overall performance of the neural network algorithm was better than that of cluster analysis for ecological regionalization.Finally,using SCS paradigm,conver-sion from SOFM classification to ecological assets regionalization is conducted.ternsbyusingnon linearconductedbyunsupervisedSOFM.Thefielddata
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    Application of shadow price method in calculation of water resources theoretical value
    YUAN Ru-hua, ZHU Jiu-long, TAO Xiao-yan, MAO Chun-mei
    2002, 17 (6):  757-761.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (201KB) ( )   Save
    The Huanghe River is the main water source in Northwest China and North China,and it has huge effect on the economic development of these areas.The shadow price method is adopted in the paper,which divides the Huanghe River into four sections on the basis of its actual conditions,develops and solves the linear programming model of the optimizing allocation of valley water resources,than gains the shadow price of water resources in each sector of every section.This shadow price is the theoretical value of water resources.
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    The contribution of the precipitation resource of the periphery mountainous areas of the deserts to the oases in China
    JIANG Shi-kui
    2002, 17 (6):  762-767.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (133KB) ( )   Save
    The desert areas of China,a stretch of about 4500km from northeastern to north wes-tern China,are surrounded by mountains.Mountains retard the incoming vapor in the atmo sphere and the most parts of precipitation fall on the windward side.The annual precipitation in the in-terior of desert account s for only200~300mm.The annual totals in Northwest deserts account for several tens,even as less as ten to twenty.But on the mountain slopes there are much more precipitation,and the water continuously goes into the deserts so that some oases form.Hence mountains are the main water supplies of oases.No water,no agriculture.Mountains can be con-sidered as the life roots of oases.From mountains to oases are the deserts with very less vegeta-tion which can be taken as the buffer zones.As viewing the situation as a whole and compre-hensively,we can take the mountains,deserts(gobis)and the oases as a big ecological system.We must manage well their relationships so as to enhance this big ecological system to be stable and strengthened and be maintained in a sound cycle so that the agriculture in oases is kept sus-tainable.
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    A study on the exploition and the sustainable utilization of marine resources in the Bohai Sea
    ZHANG Yao-guang, GUAN Wei, LI Chun-ping, DONG Li-jing
    2002, 17 (6):  768-775.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (320KB) ( )   Save
    The Bohai Sea,a semi-enclosed inland sea in China with a maritime area being7.7×10 4 km 2 ,has rich marine biological resources,marine oil-gas resources,sea salt resource,tide-land re source,ports and coastal tourism resources.With the exploition of marine resources in the Bohai Sea,marine economic industrial sectors such as marine fishery,marine oil-gas ex ploition,marine transportation,coastal tourism,coastal ship-building and the sea salt industries have been formed.Through assessment of marine resources in the Bohai Sea,the exploition of marine re-sources and the increase of marine economy,instructural characteristics of marine industrial de-partments and the problems such as marine environmental pollution in the Bohai Sea at present are analyzed and studied.The Analytical Hierarchic Process(AHP)is applied to the exploition and utilization of marine resources in the Bohai Sea,the emphasis and development direction are put forward.This article clarifies marine economy of the Bo hai rim is the economy which is dominated by capitalizing on resources,hence countermeasures for sustainable utilization of ma-rine resources in the Bohai Sea are put forward.
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    Progress in research of ecological footprint all over the world
    WANG Shu-hua, MAO Han-ying, WANG Zhong-jing
    2002, 17 (6):  776-782.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (297KB) ( )   Save
    Ecological footprint which was put forward in recent years by ecological-economists is a useful indicator for measuring the pressure imposed by human on natural capital and also a powerful indicator for regional sustainability.Base on the analyses about EF theory's back-ground,the concept ,theory and method is concisely introduced in this paper.Particularly,the pa-per analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the ecological footprint model systematically and reviews the past decade researches that have been reported.Finally,this theses analyses the trends of EF to the full.
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    Trends of overseas studies of ocean and coastal tourism
    LIANG Xiu-cun, DING Deng-shan
    2002, 17 (6):  783-791.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.06.020
    Abstract ( )   PDF (364KB) ( )   Save
    Ocean and coastal tourism is one of the fastest growing areas within the world's largest industry.The development of beach resort and the increasing popularity of ocean and coastal tourism has exerted increasingly great pressure on the coastal areas,and has resulted in and will continues to have negative impacts on the ocean and costal environment.Foreign studies of o-cean and coastal tourism published from the early1990s on are reviewed,with specifical focuses on the spects of society,economy ,environment,evaluation of tourism resources,planning and man agement and sustainable tourism.Meanwhile,the development of small island tourism has been giv en more con cern.The paper aims at promoting theoretical research and product deve-lopment of ocean and coastal tourism in China.
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