Table of Content

    25 October 2002, Volume 17 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Cropland area change and the probability of maintaining dynamic balance of its amount in the Yangtze River Delta
    YANG Gui-shan
    2002, 17 (5):  525-532.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (465KB) ( )   Save
    Applying long-term statistic al data of cropland area,land use survey and relative so-cio-economic statistics of the Yangtze River Delta,this paper focuses on the tendency of crop-land area change and the probability of maintaining dynamic balance of its amount in the Yangtze River Delta from the point of view of the phases of cropland area change and their rela-tionships with the level of regional economic development.The analysis reveals that there are re-markable exponential correlations between the decrease in cropland area and increase in per capita gross domestic product(GDP)in the Yangtze River Delta.While per capita GDP is below12000RMB yuan,the economic growth has a great pressure on cropland area;while per capita GDP exceeds30000RMB yuan,the pressure of economic growth on cropland will gradually mitigated.At present,the Yangtze River Delta is experiencing the period of the rapid decrease in cropland area caused by the economic development,although the decrease rate is obviously be-low that of before1995.It is estimated that the pressure of economic development on cropland area will gradually mitigate after the year2004.From1998to2010,the cropland area will re-duce by5.5×10 4 ha according to the current investment intensity of land exploitation,it is possi-ble to maintain dynamic balance of cropland area in the Yangtze River Delta if the investment intensity of land exploitation cccould be doubled compared to the current investment level.
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    A spatial analysis model for measuring the rate of land use change
    LIU Sheng-he, HE Shu-jin
    2002, 17 (5):  533-540.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (733KB) ( )   Save
    Through subdividing the spatial changes of each land use type into three categories of components,i.e.,the unchanged part,the converted part and the newly-increased part,this paper finds out that the two existing models for measuring the rate of land use changes have serious limitations.The traditional quantity analysis model only considers the quantitative change of land use but completely neglects the spatial changes of land use.The GIS-based dynamic degree model would seriously underestimate the change rate of those land use with rapid growth,in par-ticular urban land use because it only takes the conversion process into account but neglects the spatial expansion process of land use change.Therefore,a new spatial analysis model is then pro-posed to modify those limitations and to improve the measuring precision.Secondly,the proposed spatial analysis model is applied in a detailed case study on land use change in urban fringe of Beijing and the measuring results from the3models are compared which substantially demon-strate that the proposed spatial analysis model can more precisely measure the dynamic change rate of land use.
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    PSR model and its application in the evaluation of sustainable land-use in the region
    ZHOU Bing-zhong, YANG Hao, BAO Hao-sheng, ZHAO Qi-guo, ZHOU Sheng-lu
    2002, 17 (5):  541-548.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (344KB) ( )   Save
    Starting with the analysis of the man-land relationship in the course of land use,this paper explains the system of PSR conception about sustainable land-use and puts forward the index system to make a study of the sustainability of region al land use.Some methods for the assessment of sustainability are proposed as follows:weight is determined by Delphi method;effect function is used to measure the value which is contributed by every factor;and coordinative function and secondary integrated evaluation are applied to make certain the degree and phase of the regional sustainable land-use.Dynamic pattern such as evaluation-regulation-reevaluation-reregulation is put forward to make land-use sustainable.The models and indicators made up are applied to evaluate synthetically the status of land use in Yujiang county of Jiangxi Povince.The result indicates that the status of land-use in Yujiang is at the beginning of sustainable use stages and there are lots of problems on socio-economy,resources and environment,therefore countermeasure s in connection with the problems are put forward in this paper.
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    Analysis of the impacts of recent urban development in the Pearl River Delta on soil resources based on RS and GIS
    HU Wei-ping, WU Zhi-feng, HE Jian-bang
    2002, 17 (5):  549-555.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (671KB) ( )   Save
    Based on RS and GIS technology,the authors set up a soil resources agriculture suit-ability evaluation spatial database of the Pearl River Delta in ArcInfo8.02,and built-up land-cover change theme information were extracted from TM imageries.10TM imageries taken in1988and1998were used to get the built-up area theme information.With the help of PCI soft-ware,the authors selected the MLC to do their job.Two built-up land-cover classes were extract-ed from the whole12classes of imagery classification.The authors designed an index called SU to describe the in tensity of soil resources effected by urban built-up land-cover change.The re-sults show that the higher quality soil resources are more easily used as urban built-up land.
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    Research on mechanism and application of integrated techniques for preventing winter wheat drought in North China
    HUO Zhi-guo, LI Shi-kui, AN Shun-qing, XUE Chang-ying, ZHU Zi-xi, WU Nai-yuan
    2002, 17 (5):  556-563.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (420KB) ( )   Save
    Several techniques for preventing agricultural drought such as scientific use of soil moisture before sowing,deep tillage,straw mulch,limited water stress,and multi-functional drought-resistant reagents are integratedly used at good time and in right place before seeding and at different development stages.The application indexes are quantified.The technique was carried out in Henan,Hebei and Shandong provinces in1998~2000.Results show that the inte-grated technique for preventing winter wheat drought touches off and optimizes the five water use mechanisms of seeking-water,increasing-water,keeping-water,saving-water and controlling-water by other unique techniques.It exerts the manifold drought-prevent ing and drought-resistant functions of physiology and ecology of plants,soil physical and chemical properties,soil reservoir,the mi croclimatic effect of wheat field and the spray of chemical preparation etc.The technique lasts throughout the development stage of winter wheat and can realize the sustainable drought-pre vent ion and drought-resistance.The integrated technique possesses the more distinct effect of increasing production and saving water than any other single technique.Under the conditions of two typical drought years,the integrated technique enabled the water use efficiency increase by10.6%~53.7%,averaging27.7%;and the wheat increase by7.0%~42.3%,averaging16.6%.Per hectare net income increased by490~1200yuan.
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    A study on water resource s carrying capacity for irrigation agricul tural development in arid area-a case study of Hexi Corridor
    ZHOU Wei-bo
    2002, 17 (5):  564-570.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (162KB) ( )   Save
    The scale of agricultural development of the arid area depends on the carrying ca-pacity of water resources,Taking Hexi Corridor as an example,this paper sets up an evaluation model by applying the fuzzy synthetic evaluation method.The results showed that the develop-ment of water resources in Hexi Corridor tended to reach saturation capacity.Therefore,to de-velop water-saving irrigation,raise utilization factor of canal system and improve water use effi-ciency are the fundamental way out for assuring and developing agriculture in arid area.
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    Spatial pattern of steppe degradation in Xilin River Basin of Inner Mongolia
    TONG Chuan, YANG Jing-rong, YONG Wei-yi, YONG Shi-peng
    2002, 17 (5):  571-578.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (495KB) ( )   Save
    Steppe degradation is a major problem facing environment and animal husbandry in Inner Mongolia,China today.Using Landsat TM images of1999,and combining with field inves-tigation,and based on the diagnosis model of degradation succession of typical steppe in Inner Mongolia,the vegetation map in1999in the Xilin River Basin was compiled.Supported by ARC/INFO,the spatial pattern of steppe degradation was studied.The areas of steppe having different degradation degree throughout the Xilin River Basin,the upper,middle and lower reaches and different landform types were calculated.The total area of grazing degraded steppe in the Xilin River Basin in1999was7689.3km 2 ,71.86%of the total area basin.Light grazing degraded steppe was3678.8km 2 ,47.84%of the total grazing degraded steppe,medium grazing degraded steppe was1933.6km 2 ,25.15%of the total grazing degraded steppe,and heavy grazing degrad-ed steppe was2077.2km 2 ,27.01%of the total grazing degraded steppe.Based on the calculation formula of steppe degradation index,this paper calculated respectively the value of steppe degra-dation index of the whole basin,the upper,middle and lower reaches,and lower mountain,hill,lava tableland and high plain.Steppe degradation index per unit area of the upper,middle and lower reaches is middle reach>lower reach>upper reach;steppe degradation in dex per unit area of landforms is high plain >hill >lava tableland>lower mountain.With grid point sam pling on steppe vegetation degradation map,the value of steppe degradation index of each grid was calcu-lated,and the distribution map of steppe degradation index was compiled.The result is that the spatial pattern of steppe vegetation degradation in Xilin River Basin is complicated.Steppe degradation spatial pattern at large scale in the Xilin River Basin is related to human grazing in-tensity in the upper,middle and lower reaches and different landforms ,in the middle and low er reaches,steppe in river terrace,plain and hill area degraded obviously.Second,there are quite a number of central areas where steppe degraded seriously in the Xilin River Basin,which are all related to over-grazing.
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    The causes and alleviating countermeasures of the problems of wa ter resources utilization in areas along Yellow River in Inner Mongolia
    WANG Chuan-sheng, YOU Fei, XUE Dong-qian
    2002, 17 (5):  579-589.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (497KB) ( )   Save
    Due to the changing regime of the main stream runoff of the Yellow River and the in creasingly deteriorated ecological environment,the contradictions among water resources,eco-logical environment and economic development get quite acute in the areas along the Yellow River in Inner Mongolia,which are the main irrigated areas along the upstream s of the Yellow River and the greatest water consumed areas besides the others.This paper emphatically discuss-es the main causes that result in the problems of water utilization in the areas.The conclusions are that the main natural cause of the problems is the great reduction of the passing water of the Yellow River,and the anthropogenic factors are summed up into the following aspects:the irra-tional water use,se rious pollution of water environment,low efficiency of local economy,and single urban function.The authors propose two groups of countermeasures to alleviate the con-tradictions among water resources,ecological environment and economic development.One be-longs to short-term measures,such as the change of irrigative model,adjustment of water price,and the treatment of water environment al pollution.The other is the long-term strategies,includ-ing the constitutional innovation,the key technological breakthrough,the effect of urban driving,and the environmen tal construction.
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    Analysis of cruxes to water scarcity and countermeasures in areas along the Yellow River
    WANG Hai-ying, DONG Suo-cheng
    2002, 17 (5):  590-596.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (253KB) ( )   Save
    The up per and middle reaches of the Yellow River are significant parts of Western development strategy,and the lower reaches are the strategic parts of Longhai-Lan-Xin(Lianyungang-Lanzhou-Urumqi)economic strip of the new Eurasia-continental Bridge.Since the1990s,the continued occurrence of the trunk stream cutoff of the Yellow River for several years has seriously affected the development of society and economy and human's life,and limited the exertion of economic potential of the drainage area.Probing the cruxes of the problem of water scarcity,including the uprush of water requirements resulted from the social and economic de-velopment,the severity of water pollution,the low efficiency and heavy waste of water use,the absence of perfect administrative system,the lacking in manoeuvre ability,etc.,the authors put forward some proposals to mitigate the problem of water scarcity:(1)to set up perfect market mechanism such as practising water capitalized management,setting up use system with com-pensation and benefit compensation mechanism,reforming investment system;(2)to enhance wa-ter administration and legislation taking a specific drainage basin as a unit for the rational allo-cation of water;(3)to adjust industrial structure and build national economic systems related to economical water use;and(4)to quicken the pace of implementing South-to-North water transfer project and water conservancy project.
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    The study on effect between population gathering and ecological environment of human settlements of small towns in northwest China rural region
    LI Yu, DONG Suo-cheng
    2002, 17 (5):  597-603.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (280KB) ( )   Save
    Based on statistical method,this study analyzes the status quo of population aggrega-tion and human eco-environment al construction and development in small towns of rural areas in Northwest China.As a whole,the small towns' development level in rural areas of Northwest China is slower than the country' avarage level.There is no doubt that,in Northwest China's rural areas,the focus of future strategic development is rural-urban interactive relation s.We should pay attention to the phenomenon that most of the rural population would still live in rural areas for a long period of time in the future,rather than living in small towns at once.Furthermore,the target of harmonious development between population aggregation and human settlements is to carry out small towns' intensive development by changing extensive development.In addition,the construction of farmers' housing is in rapid development period,and is characterizeds by cur-rent impendence and long-term existence.Finally,the paper raised stratagems and countermea-sures for harmonious development between population aggregation and eco-environ ment al con-struction of small towns in Northwest China's rural areas.
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    A study on the calculation methods of the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lakes
    LIU Jing-ling, YANG Zhi-feng
    2002, 17 (5):  604-609.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (233KB) ( )   Save
    In arid and semi-arid areas of northern China,lakes have been facing a number of problems such us dried-up,shrinkage and serious water pollution.Non-scientifical utilization and management of the lake resources has resulted in water shortage and water quality degrada-tion.To keep rational water level and self-purification ability of the lakes is the guarantee for scientific and sustainable utilization of the water resources.The calculation method of the mini-mum eco-environ mental water demand for lakes is the basic precondition to keep rational uti-lization and management of the lake ecosystem.Based on the analysis of the crisis of lake eco-environment and the obstacles to the solution of the problems in China,the concept and calcula-tion methods about the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lakes have been analyzed.According to the feature s and actual situation of the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lake ecosystem s we put forward the calculaton methods:(1)water quantity balance method;(2)exchange water cycle method;(3)minimum water level method;and(4)function method.The results show that the function method can reflect exactly the relationship s between the healthy state and the minimum eco-environmental water demand of the lake ecosystems.This can offer technical support against the trend of eco-environmental deterioration and for the restoration of the lake ecosystems.These different methods should be used for different kinds of and different eco-environmental characters of the lake ecosystems.To define the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lakes,it is possible to offer scientific support for lake ecosystem management and restoration.In northern China the lake ecosystems will get into the new period of scientific management and ecological restoration after the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lake ecosystem s is determined and implement eco-environmental construction planning is imple-mented.
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    An interpolation evaluation model for regional water resources sustainable utilization system
    JIN Ju-liang, DING Jing, WEI Yi-ming, FU Qiang
    2002, 17 (5):  610-615.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (145KB) ( )   Save
    Evaluation of regional water resources sustainable utilization system is a core problem of regional sustainable development strategy research.Nowadays the evaluation models of re-gional water resources sustainable utilization system mostly express the complex relation of eval-uation indexes and evaluation grades by obvious mathematics functions,the formats of the evalu-ation functions will alter according to the evaluation contents of the regions concerned and it is very difficult to resolve the evaluation functions.For this reason,a new model for evaluation purposes named SP model is presented based on Shepard interpolation technique.The results of case studies show that SP model is directly driven by the sample data produced from evaluation grade standard of regional water resources sustainable utilization system,the modeling method is convenient and effective,and the model can be applied to evaluate other regional natural re-sources sustainable utilization system.
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    A study on model and method for reducing resources compensation collection in"three-underground"mineral resources exploita tion
    WANG Yun-jia, WANG Ying-hong, LIAN Da-jun
    2002, 17 (5):  616-621.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (453KB) ( )   Save
    Aiming at current state and problems of compensation collection for exploiting mineral resources related to"three-undergrounds"(underground waters,underground railways and traffic arteries,underground buildings),based on the theory of resources value and current standard of resources compensation collection,as well as theoretical analysis,practical calculation and com-puter simulation,the paper gives the theoretical basis for reducing compensation collection of ex-ploiting"three-underground"mineral resources,puts forward certain parameter determination mod-els such as the comprehensive evaluation of mining difficult degree,compensation collection,ra-tional recovery coefficients of"three-underground"mineral resources and studies the determi na-tion methods of border,reserves,recovery coefficients of mining"three-underground"mineral resources promptly and accurately,as well as designing and developing program systems.All these offered theoretical basis and methods for improving compensation collection of"three-un-derground"mineral resources,mineral resource management and decision-making of exploita-tion.
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    Analysis of the threshold area of national and regional per capita arable land in China
    CHEN Bai-ming, ZHOU Xiao-ping
    2002, 17 (5):  622-628.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.014
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    This paper firstly points out that the threshold area of per capita arable land in China identified by FAO does not exist in fact;then advances that the threshold area of per capita arable land,which needs specific premise,has its distinct spatio-temporal characteristics.There-fore,according to the actual productivity of1995in China,the corresponding threshold areas of per capita arable land under different food demanding level in China are obtained:0.092ha for400kg per capita,0.104ha450kg per capita,and0.115ha500kg per capita(the current thresh-old area of per capita arable land in china).And based on the forecasted arable land area and productivity,threshold area of per capita arable land in2010,2030and2050are also calculat-ed:0.059ha,0.067ha,0.074ha in2010(the threshold area of the near future per capita arable land in China);0.052ha,0.058ha,0.064ha in2030(the threshold area of the medium-term per capita arable land in China);0.046ha,0.052ha,0.058ha in2050(the threshold area of long-term per capita arable land in China).
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    Flood control works and water resources shortage in Haihe Plain
    LUO Xin-zheng, ZHU Tan, SUN Guang-you
    2002, 17 (5):  629-634.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (126KB) ( )   Save
    Shortage of water resources becomes increasingly serious in Haihe Plain,so the top-ics concerning causes and mitigation countermeasures are urgent ly needed to be dealt with at present.Studies on the impact of flood control works on water resources of Haihe Plain are help-ful for resolving water resources shortage problem.Having analyzed the causes of drought and waterlogging and the system of flood control works in Haihe Plain,the paper points out that the flood control works have led to the reduction of the Plain's water resources and damaged its wa-ter resources reserves,and puts forward countermeasures aiming at mitigation of water resources shortage situation through restoring water resources reserves based on improvement of the flood control works.The new viewpoints that water resources reduction of the Haihe Plain resulting from flood control works and water resources increase by rehabilitating and reconstructing wet-lands such as lakes and marsh lands will give certain enlightenment to the overall reexamination of the flood control works,synthetic diagnosis of the causes of water resources shortage and rightly taking countermeasures of water resources shortage.
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    A study on the water resources pollution problem in the Three Gorges area of the Yangtze River
    ZHAO Gang, RAN Guang-he, ZHANG Bo
    2002, 17 (5):  635-639.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (181KB) ( )   Save
    The Three Gorges Dam Project is a transcentury project that has aroused world atten-tion.It is expected that when the Dam begins storing water,the flow velocity of the Yangtze River will be slowed down greatly and the self-purification ability of the river will decline.As a consequence,the pollution degree of the water resources will be constantly aggravated.The vi-tality of the Three Gorges Project depends not only on the engineering quality of the project but eventually on the eco-environmental quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir area.The problem of the water resources pollution of the reservoir area is a fatal factor of the life-span of the project.The higher the environmental quality of the reservoir area,the longer the operational life-span of the project,and vice versa.Therefore,the problem concerning water resources pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir area should be attached much attention.Regulations on water resources protection of the reservior area should be formulated and financial input on water resources pro-tection should be intensified so as to perfect water pollution control mechanism of the area.
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    A preliminary study on the solar radiation resources and actuality in use of the Kunming City
    ZHANG Yi-ping, FAN Miao-miao, LI Meng, SHI Hao-yu, LIN Fan, ZHANG Wen-yan, HU Jia-ming
    2002, 17 (5):  640-643.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (180KB) ( )   Save
    Based on observations of data,the solar radiation resources and actuality in use of Kunming have been studied.The results indicate that distribution characteristics of solar radiation in Kunming are unique,which can provide favorable environmental conditions for the use of solar energy,and result in marked rise of temperature in the solar-energy water heater when the weather is fine in dry season.By computing different popularization rate and temperature rise rate of the solar-energy water heater,it is seen that the effect of energy-saving is marked in Kunming in despite of limitations.It is important to utilize solar energy in cities by enhancing popularization rate of solar-energy water heater in Kunming.
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    A study on supplying fish feed and preventing silt sinking in reservoirs by planting grasses in southern China
    LI Ke-yun
    2002, 17 (5):  644-648.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (143KB) ( )   Save
    To solve the problems existing in reservoirs of southern hilly areas of China,such as long-term shortage of fish feed,low fresh fish yield,serious soil erosion and large amount of silt sinking,experimental researches were conducted recently in Baibeichong reservoir of Changsha county.The study aims at supplying feed for fish,con serving water and preventing soil erosion and sinking of silts in the reservoir by planting Lolium xhybridum Hausskn in the beach,Schunach,Coastcross-1bermuda grass and King grass in barren hills,and interplanging Dacttylis glomerata L.and Ladino Trifolium repens L.with young trees.The results indicated that the annual output of fresh fish in the reservoir was increased from1000kg to the current 7000~8000kg,volume of silts was decreased by5160m 3 ,and significant economic and ecological effects were obtained in the study area.
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