Table of Content

    25 August 2002, Volume 17 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    On the national resources security and its guaranteeing strategies
    SHEN Lei, CHENG Sheng-kui
    2002, 17 (4):  393-400.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (261KB) ( )   Save
    This paper systematically discusses some fundamental implications of resources secu-rity and gives a preliminary classification of national resources security.The authors consider that the resources security is the mutual balance of resource supply and demand,thus it is a multiple concept with rich implications.In terms of geographical space,the resources security can be divided into global,regional and local ones.In the context of time se quence,the short-,middle-and long-term resource securities may be classified.Based on the types of economies,the national resources-producing security and national resources-consuming security may be dis-tinguished.The resources security was resulted from resources shortage or scarcity and oil secu-rity was the first presentation in the resources worries of historical develop ment in the world.The paper further analyzes the implications,basic characteristics,factors and development trends of national resources security and discusses the different kinds of strategies for national resources securities.Finally,from the perspective of system theory,seven major strategies guaranteeing na-tional resources security are identified,namely,resource conservation strategy,resource circula-tion strategy,resource consumption strategy,resource utilization strategy,resource recycle strate-gy,resource innovation strategy and resource management strategy,by which the multiple guar-anteeing system of national resources security may be established.
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    Influential factors and index system for appraising resources security
    WANG Li-mao
    2002, 17 (4):  401-408.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (306KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis of the five factors,this paper chooses14indices and establish-es an index system for appraising resources security.There are five indices in resources field.They are(1)resources support capacity(B)=KR s ?R c ,here K is the integrated coefficient of re-sources recovery,R s is the rest reserve of resources,R c is the consumption of resources;(2)de-pendence upon foreign resources(Y)=Q n ?Q c ,here Q n is net import resources,Q c is resources con-sumption;(3)ratio of resources reserve(S),S 1 =quantity of reserve resources?quantity of resources consumption per day,S 2 =quantity of reserve resources?quantity of resources consumption.The result of S 1 is the number of days that reserve resources can support.The result of S 2 is the per-centage of reserve resources account for the total of consumption in a year;(4)concentration de-gree of import from top three or top five countries (C)=the sum importing from top three or five countries?total of im port;(5)percentage of resources import(F)=the quantity of a kind of import resource?the total of world trade of that resource.There are two indices in political field.One is the stability of in ternational political relations.The other is the domestic political stability of re-sources export countries.Both international and domestic political stability has been graded into five levels and each has a ranging value from1to5,according to the political stability from un-stable to stable.In economic field,there are three indices.Two of them are the long-term and short-term capacities for importing resources,long-term capacity=100-resources import volume?foreign exchange reserve,short-term capacity=100-resources import volume?total volume of ex-port.The third is the coefficient of price fluctuation(P),which can be calculated by formula:P=(P h -P l )?P a ,here P h is the highest price of a certain period,P l is the lowest price of that period and P a is the average price of that period.There are two indices in transportation field,one is distance of transportation,and the other is the number of sea channels that resources transporta-tion ships passed.Ac cording to the transportation distance and the number of channels,they have been graded into five levels respectively and each gives value from1to5.In military field,there are two indices,one is the capacity controlling over the resources supply bases,and the other is the capacity controlling over the important transportation channels.They also have been graded into five levels respectively and each gives value from1to5.Some indices have been used for appraising the security situation of oil and grain in China.The appraisal results are as follows:in terms of dependence upon foreign supply,oil is more de-pendent upon international market than grain.Grain(wheat)is much higher than oil in terms of concentration degree of import from top three countries.Whatever long-term or short-term import capability,grain is much better than oil.In terms of resources reserve ratio,grain is higher than oil.
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    The types of deficient resources and the trend of supply and demand
    LANG Yi-huan, WANG Li-mao
    2002, 17 (4):  409-414.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (217KB) ( )   Save
    Deficient resource means resources insufficiency because the demand has exceeded the supply in a certain temporo-spatial scope and under certain economic and technical condi -tions.According to the classification of deficient resources,oil,cultivated land and fresh water are strategic deficient resources,which have a great impact on social-economic development and national security in China.Forest,rich iron ore,chromite,copper and sylvite are non-strategic deficient resources.With economic development and growth of population,the amount of short-age of the above-mentioned resources will increase and deficient level will be intensified during the period from the beginning to the mid21st century.In order to solve the problem compre-hensive measures should be implemented:(1)meeting the demand of deficient resources by us-ing foreign resources through various channels;(2)establishing resources strategic reserve for dealing with resources crisis;(3)reducing resources consumption by saving,replacing and com-prehensive utilizing;(4)resources improving the capacity of renewable resources by strengthen-ing protection of renewable resources;and(5)seeking for new ways to solve the shortage prob-lems based on the innovation of science and technology.
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    Climate change of annual precipitations in western China
    WANG Shao-wu, CAI Jing-ning, MU Qiao-zhen, ZHU Jin-hong, XIE Zhi-hui, DONG Wen-jie
    2002, 17 (4):  415-422.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (830KB) ( )   Save
    Considerable long-term variability was found in precipitation changes in western Chi-na,where arid or semi-arid climate predominate.A set of17-site series of proxy precipitation da-ta was applied in this paper,among which11are tree ring series,4are historical data series and2are ice core series.The proxy data were normalized as following:the average of1880~1979was taken as normal,and percentage anomalies were calculated for each decade from the1600s(1600~1609)to the1990s(1990~1999).Finally,EOF analysis was carried out.The EOF1shows great concentration of the variance in Tarim Basin and north of Qilian Mountains.It is in good accordance with the characteristics of EOF1found in precipitation observations and simulations covering1951~1999.It proves to certain extent the reliability of the proxy data.The400-year se-ries of precipitation for western China shows significant dry period in the17th century,especial-ly in the first half of the century.An increasing of precipitation was found in the second half of the20th century,especially during the last30years.These dry period and the increasing of pre-cipitation may associate with the Little Ice Age and Modern Warming separately.Finally,"secular periodicity"was studied.It was manifested well in the deficits of precipitation in early period of each century.
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    A scientific approach of using water resources in deep soil layer -- farmland experimental studies of utilizing water by fertilizer
    LIU Geng-shan, GUO An-hong, AN Shun-qing, LIN Ri-nuan, REN San-xue
    2002, 17 (4):  423-429.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (336KB) ( )   Save
    Because of shortage of rainfall and drought during the growth period of winter wheat in northern China,the available soil water(ASW)formed in flood season before planting,parti-cularly water stored in deep soil layer has become one of the important water sources for winter wheat growth.The experiments were conducted in man-controlled water supply field at Gucheng Agrometeorological Experimental Base of China Meteorological Administration(CMA).Two ferti-lizing depth treatments and a contrast(CK)were applied:(1)fertilizing at0~20cm(C1),and(2)fertilizing at20~40cm(C2).We analyzed the effect of different fertilizing depths on the growth of root system,the use of the available soil water before planting,water use efficiency and winter wheat yield.The experimental results indicated:the fertilizing depth of20~40cm can strengthen the growth of root system in mid-layer and deep-layer,therefore the space where wheat may ab-sorb more water and nutrient can be extended.This contributes to effective use of water in deep soil layer,which can bring into play the regulation function of soil reservoir to improve water use efficiency and yield of winter wheat.
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    Eco-environmental rehabilitation and spatial differentiation based on enlarging terrace and de-farming in the loess hilly-gully region
    XU Yong, TIAN Jun-liang, SHEN Hong-quan
    2002, 17 (4):  430-437.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (531KB) ( )   Save
    Based on research achievements in the past ten years and the successful experience of Yangou watershed demonstruction project in the loess hilly-gully region,as well as the characteristics of eco-environment al rehabilitation pattern of"enlarging terrace and de-farming",the areas of proposed reterraced fields,expanded graden plots and revegetated grass and forest as well as the amount of required investment on county(city,prefecture)level were calculated.With the aid of basic farmland enlargement index,garden plot expansion index,revegetated grass and forest index as well as investment demand density in dex,55counties of the loess hilly-gully region were classified into different categories,and their spatial differentiation characteristics were respectively analyzed.The following results are drawn as:(1)The area of newly built terraced fields needs to be is69.16×10 4 ha,expanded garden plots,79.2×10 4 ha,rehabilitated vegetation cover,541.02×10 4 ha,and total investment required,15.82billion yuan(RMB).Of which the enlarged terraces,expanded garden plots and rehabilitat-ed vegetation will need6.743,3.315and5.762billion yuan respectively.(2)There are two key eco-environmental rehabilitated areas in the loess hilly-gully region.The one is located in the contiguous areas between the northern Shaanxi province and the north-western Shanxi province,and the other is situated at the eastern Gansu province and the south-ern Ningxia autonomous region.(3)Regional policies adapted to different categories should be worked out as soon as possi-ble and the limited fund should be centralized in the two key areas of the loess hilly-gully re-gion.
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    Studies of the regional classification about returning farmland to forests or grassland on the Loess Plateau
    PENG Wen-ying, ZHANG Ke-li, LI Shuang-cai
    2002, 17 (4):  438-443.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (310KB) ( )   Save
    The Loess Plateau is famous for its severe water and soil loss in the world.An effective measure to control water and soil loss is to return farmland into forests or grassland.Scientific investigation and analysis of land use structure is key to return farmland into forests or grassland.Based on scientific sample data,the gradient composition of farmland,the ratio of land reclamation under different slopes and their regional differences were analyzed.Meanwhile,the regional classification about the gradation of returning farmland to forests or grassland on the Loess Plateau was discussed in this paper.The conclusions could help government in determining the order and the areas of returning farmland to forests or grassland,and contribute greatly to assure not only food supplies but also regional eco-environment al rehabilitation with limited funds.
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    Development orientation and emphases on the high efficient eco-agriculture in the Three Gorges Area
    FANG Chuang-lin, HUANG Jin-chuan
    2002, 17 (4):  444-450.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (293KB) ( )   Save
    Developing high efficient eco-agriculture in the Three Gorges Area is an urgent task.It is not only the need of smooth resettling transmigrants,mitigating conflicts between man and nature,effective preventing ecological environment from deterioration,but also the need of ente-ring into the WTO,restructuring agriculture and constructing the Three Gorges ecological eco-nomic area.On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of different trades of agriculture such as farming,forestry,stock raising and fishery,this paper brings forward the overall development di-rection of eco-agriculture and dominant industries for each county in the Three Gorges Area.The whole development framework of the area is as follows:reducing the provision crops and expan-ding the economic crops,especially the high quality,refinement and characteristic produces;opti-mizing economic forestry,quickening the pace of constructing eco-forestry and developing spice-forestry by a big margin;developing grass for stockbreeding,leveling off the scale of pigs and enhancing the scale of goats or sheep;and taking eco-fishery development as a general direction.According to the above development perspectives,the Three Gorges Area will be turned into a great umbilical orange,preserved szechuan pickle,beast medicine and spice production base in China,a high quality fruit production belt along the Yangtze River,an important fresh water aquatic production zone in West China,and an influential Chinese traditional medicinal materials producing area.
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    Assessment on Zhalong Wetland value
    CUI Li-juan
    2002, 17 (4):  451-456.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (229KB) ( )   Save
    Zhalong Wetland is located in the lower reaches of the Wuyuer River to the west of Songnen Plain,Heilongjiang Province.Wetland values of Zhalong contains direct use values(products and service from wetland),indirect use values(environmental values),and current non-use values.Use values of Zhalong Wetland include direct use and indirect use values.The selected valuation objections cover main plant s and animals in Zhalong,and apply direct market value method to evaluate.Tourism value was gained by TCM method.The value of C fixing was calculated by tax rate of Sweden.Re-searching value,waste disposing value and habitat value were gained by Robert Constanza method.Non-use value of wetland are not competitive,it is to say that when valuing non-use va-lues,market dosen't work.In order to reserve natural resources,the price of wetland values must be marked.Price is the reflection of objective things through one's mind,so only Willingness To Pay(WTP)can reflect the true price of wetland values.
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    A theoretical and practical study on urban water price--Taking price of running water in Jinan as a case
    HAN Mei, ZHANG Li-na
    2002, 17 (4):  457-462.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (210KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis of the value of water resources,the view that reasonable wa ter price consists of the valuation of water resources,water supply cost,external cost and opportunity cost is clarified.As many problems concerning water price exist in Jinan,standards of reason-able water resources charge should be worked out including the charges of surface water re-sources,underground water resources and channeling water resources from Yellow River.Criteri-ons of the charge for sewage treatment should be raised.The existing unreasonable water pricing methods must be reformed.In order to impel the whole society to economically use water re-sources,the seasonal water price and water price formulated according to the quantity of con-suming water should be put into practice.
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    On wild mushroom resources and their utilization in Yunnan Province,Southwest China
    YANG Zhu-liang
    2002, 17 (4):  463-469.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.011
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    Yunnan is very rich in wild mushroom resources.About 600species of wild edible mushrooms occur in the province.Among them nearly60species can be exploited presently on commercial scale.Noteworthy,various species of wild edible mushrooms occur in southern,central and northern parts of the province,thus people in different regions can use different resources.These wild edible mushrooms serve as one of the important natural resources on which people of all nationalities there rely,and play a certain role in improving the food structure and economic development.In order to rationally utilize and effectively conserve Yunnan's wild mushroom resources,it is necessary to develop mushroom deep-process industry,and to make fine products with high quality and value.Artificial improvement of ectomycorrhizal mushroom fruiting,introducing good strains as well as selecting new strains by using local wild mushrooms are important measures for sustainable development.Poisonous mushrooms especially the lethal ones,such as Amanita fuliginea and A.oberwinklerana,have relative great potential usage due to their poisonous chemical constituents,which should be studied further.
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    Future on the EOS (Earth Observing System)information applied to the gas hydrates
    CHEN Sheng-bo, LIU Chuang, GUO Guang-meng
    2002, 17 (4):  470-475.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.012
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    Volumes of gas hydrates stored on earth could be developed and used as a kind of clean fuel.The release of methane from the gas hydrate can lead to the global climate changes,and the environmental disasters can be induced by the gas hydrate.Therefore,the studies and exploitation of the gas hydrates have becom e a focus of attention at home and abroad.New EOS(Earth Observing System)information,including the launched EOS-AM1(MODIS and MOPITT)and the will be launched CHEM can offer a new kind of technological tools for the study and development of the gas hydrates.They could be applied to the gas hydrates by the information characters of MODIS and MOPITT.
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    Monitoring urban encroachment on cultivated land with TM images in China
    TIAN Guang-jin, ZHOU Quan-bin, ZHAO Xiao-li, ZHANG Zeng-xiang, TAN Wen-bin
    2002, 17 (4):  476-480.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (251KB) ( )   Save
    After the implementation of Reform and Open policy,the double-pressure of rapid economic development and population growth has imposed an unprecedented profound impact on Chinese dynamic change of land-use patterns.One of the most important problems is the urba-nization encroachment on cultivated land.China's per capita arable land is0.106ha,only making up44.9%of the world average.In the coastal area,a great amount of cultivated land was en-croached by urban expansion.Two-time TM images in1988and2000are used to monitor urban encroachment on cultivated land.The dynamic results revealed that of the land occupied due to urban expansion,80.2%is cultivated land and19.8%is forest land,grass land,rural area and other land.Index RI (Urban encroachment on cultivated land taken total land percent in the city and county)is built to study the regional difference.The cultivated land loss from grade3~6in coastal and plain area is about 88.68%while North China Plain is31.27%,Yangtze River delta17.8%and Pearl River delta is6.02%.The three parts witnessed the fastest urban expansion and cultivated land loss in China.The urban encroachment on cultivated land in Jiangsu,Shandong,Henan,Hebei and Guangdong takes about 50.99%and Beijing,Zhejiang,Sichuan,Guangxi,Shanghai takes22.85%.Except for Henan(located in North China Plain)and Sichuan(in Sichuan Basin),the others are coastal provinces.The cultivated land loss rate in Beijing and Shanghai is the fastest while that in Jiangsu,Guangdong,Zhejiang,Tianjin,Shandong,Hebei and Hainan comes second.With the rapid economic development and urbanization,the paradox between urban expansion and cultivated land will be more serious.Only more positive measures are taken to slow down the rate of cultivated land loss can the grain security be guaranteed.Firstly,the high-productive land should be protected.Secondly,high technology and machines should be applied to increase per unit area grain production.Thirdly,the rural residential land should be reclaimed with the local residents' immigration into cities and towns.
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    The application of EPIC model to calculate crop productive potentialities in loessic yuan region
    WANG Zong-ming, LIANG Yin-li
    2002, 17 (4):  481-487.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (285KB) ( )   Save
    In Loess Plateau,soil erosion is very intensive,and the actual productivity is low.To study the region's crop yield potential can offer grounds for increasing crop yield and conducting agricultural production programming.This paper introduces the characteristics,component,and application procedure of EPIC,and revises some crop parameters.Taking the maize and wheat as example,we proved that there is a good adaptability for EPIC model to be used in Loess Plateau for crop productivity simulation research.The results indicated that the average deviation between simulated and measured values for wheat was7.78%,that for maize9.60%;the number of annual average water stress days of wheat was9.9,the minimum was1.7,the maximum was23.1,that of maize was13.4,1.1,22.1.These values are in accordance with actual rainfall condi tions of the growing period of the above mentioned crops.The revised model is very accurate in normal years,but it is necessary to improve the revision method of the crop and soil parameters in arid years.
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    Forecast on changes of steppe degradation patterns in the Xilin River Basin,Inner Mongolia:an application of Markov process
    TONG Chuan, HAO Dun-yuan, GAO Xia, JIANG Qing-hong, YONG Shi-peng
    2002, 17 (4):  488-493.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (254KB) ( )   Save
    At present,steppe degradation is a major environmental problem in Inner Mongolia of China,resulting in desertification and reduction of steppe productivity.However,data on area, change and forecast of steppe degradation is inadequate at regional level.Steppe in the Xilin River Basin is one of the typical patterns in pastoral area of northern China,it is also one of the most important husbandry bases in Inner Mongolia and an UNESCO/MAB Biosphere Reserve.Using Landsat TM images of1985and1999,and combining with field community investi-gation,we compiled steppe vegetation maps in1985and1999of the Xilin River Basin.Further,according to the model of degradation succession of typical steppe in Inner Mongolia,we com-piled steppe degradation maps.Supported with ARC/INFO and ARC/VIEW,grid sampling on steppe degradation map was finished,the size of each grid is3km×3km.Based on steppe degra-dation index(SDI)aggregating the information of area and grade of steppe degradation developed by the authors,the SDI of each grid was calculated.The values of SDI were divided into five grades to indicate the degree of steppe degradation increase.In1999,the total area of grids where the value of SDI is3is3924km 2 ,36.67%of the total area of the Xilin River Basin;the total area of grids where the value of SDI is4and5is5049km 2 ,47.18%of the total area.Then,the translation probability matrix from1985to1999of different grade of degraded steppe was calculated.With application of Markov process,the changing trend of steppe degra-dation pattern in the Xilin River Basin was forecasted.The results showed that if no fundmental measures are taken to prevent steppe degradation in this region,the trend of degradation will continue.That is to say,the area of steppe at grades1,2and3will decrease,and that of grades4and5will increase.Up to2025,the total area of grids where the value of SDI is3is3389km 2 ,31.67%of the total area of the Xilin River Basin;the total area of grids where the value of SDI is4and5is6406km 2 ,59.86%of the total area.
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    The evaluation model of climatic resources of herbage in the pastoral area of northern China
    Yin Dong, Wang Chang-gen
    2002, 17 (4):  494-498.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.016
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    Applying the method of fuzzy mathematics,the evaluation model of climatic resources of grazing is set up by analysing of the relationship between natural herbage and ecoclimate ele-ments.An analysis and evaluation of climatic resource of herbage of5provinces(region)in north ern China is present ed from the points of general situation of resources,efficiency of re-sources and utilization of resources.The research result can provide a scientific basis for strate-gic decision-making for development of stock farm.
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    Rattan resources and development strategies in Yunnan province,Southwest China
    WANG Kang-lin, PU Ying-dong, XU Jian-chu
    2002, 17 (4):  499-503.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.017
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    Yunnan is recognized as a very important region with rich germ plash resources of rat-tan plant in China,and the local ethnic groups possess abundant indigenous knowledge on rattan cultivation,utilization and conservation.Rattan,as a kind of non-timber forest product,plays an important role in biodiversity conservation,potential economic contribution,ecological security and other global issues.Moreover,it is closely related with local people,and earned income for various local minority nationalities.However,there are also some problems in the rattan industry with the economic development,such as destruction of tropical forest,environmental degradation,reduction of rattan resources,and especially some elite rattan species become scarce,even endangered.So the introduction,propagation and cultivation of the elite rattan species will not only satisfy the needs of rattan industry,but also create new employment opportunities,increase income of rural communities,efficiently protect natural resources and mitigate the pressure on natural forests,promote ecological sustainability and enrich the Chinese elite rattan species gene pool.This paper mainly discusses the present situation of rattan resources,their utilization and future development strategies,based on the demand of the rattan plantations,consisting of four objectives:(1)to sum-marize the characteristics of rattan resources and their distribution in Yunnan;(2)to introduce the current conditions in rattan studies;(3)to discuss the problems confronting rattan development;and(4)to recommend the rattan development strategies and scenario-based models in Yunnan.
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    A study on state and comprehensive control ways of subsided land of Yanzhou coal mining area in China
    CHEN Long-qian, GUO Da-zhi, XU Shan-kuan, LI Jian-min, ZHANG Yi-zhi
    2002, 17 (4):  504-508.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.018
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    In this paper,the state and comprehensive control ways of subsided land of Yanzhou coal mining area in China are studied on the basis of analyzing the current situation and trend of subsided land and its problems,and the comprehensive control ways are put forward.The mining area of Yanzhou now has7production mines and2mines under construction.With an annual output exceeding30million t,it serves as the modernized coal production and the greatest coal export base of the country.To the end of2000,its subsided land amount had reached5389.40ha,and estimation s revealed two subsided land centers covering4.4×10 4 ha would be formed in the coal mines of Yanzhou and Jidong in the mid21st century.Land subsidence in Yanzhou coal mining area,brought a number of serious problems to lo-cal industrial and agricultural production,the society and ecological environment :(1)changed the existing topographical features of the earth's surface;(2)aggravated soil erosion of the earth's surface along with drop of soil quality of cultivated land;(3)made large subsided farmland out of production,caused the enormous loss to local agricultural production;(4)turned the subsided land into swampy land,destroyed the ecological environment seriously;(5)the peasant s lost land which they depended on for existence,the social instability factor in creased;and(6)the destruc-tion of infrastructure in the exploiting field made village movement more difficult.To facilitate harmonious sustainable development of industry and agriculture of Yanzhou coal mining area,namely,not only to guarantee the normal performance of coal production,but also tackle the problem of recla mation well after land subsidence,and it is necessary to integrate macroscopically and microscopically the comprehensive ways to control subsided land.The main countermeasures are identified as:(1)to work out the unitary scientific planning and adopt con-trol measures suitable to local conditions;(2)to combine subsided land control with movement of village associated with underground coal mines;(3)to implement land use system of"compen-sating with reclamation";and(4)to raising the harnessing funds through various channels and set up leading bodies of comprehensive control of subsided land.
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    Analysis of the landscape spatial pattern and influence caused by development and construction activities in coastal ecotone:A case study of Boao District,Hainan Island
    CHEN Peng, GAO Jian-hua, ZHU Da-kui, WANG Ying
    2002, 17 (4):  509-514.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.019
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    In this paper,Boao District in Hainan Island was chosen for case study,the landscape ecological characteristics of the coastal ecotone were analyzed.Five indices such as landscape diversity,landscape dominance,landscape fragmentation,landscape isolation and ecological risk were identified to analyze quantitatively the rela tionship between the development and construction activities and landscape pattern.The results indicate that the density of these activities is to a certain extent relative to the landscape fragmentation,it is the driving power resulted in variations of the landscape patterns.Based on the theory of landscape ecology,the paper puts forwards some suggestions for landscape ecological construction.
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    Utilization of organic wastes for manufacturing soilless media
    LI Qian-sheng, GUO Shi-rong, LI Shi-jun
    2002, 17 (4):  515-519.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.04.020
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    The history and trend of substrates for soilless culture were introduced briefly.Present situation of research,development and application of organic substrates manufactured by organic wastes were reviewed in detail.Important issues of organic substrates manufactured by organic wastes were discussed according to the general criteria for soilless media.Standardization of the ecologically-sound substrates is the key to develop this industry.
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