Table of Content

    25 June 2002, Volume 17 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    The measurement of water resources security:A study and challenge on water resources carrying capacity
    XIA Jun, ZHU Yi-zhong
    2002, 17 (3):  262-269.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (309KB) ( )   Save
    Water resources carrying capacity(WRCC)is a basic measurement of water resources security that plays a very important role in recognizing and building water resources security system.This paper focuses on the WRCC's measurement and quantifying method,which include the usable water resources evaluation,water demand calculation from eco-system and socio-eco-nomic development and the indicator of WRCC and its vector index.As a representative of water conflict in the Northwestern part of China,this paper addresses several key issues related to quantifying WRCC in this region,such as water cycle modeling in the changing environment,water demand problem for eco-system etc.It holds that the hydrological basis related to WRCC,integrated study of natural change and social economics,present practical models and RS/GIS technology,as well as regional variability should be emphasized.
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    Situation of land-water resources and analysis of sustainable food security in China
    LIU Yan-sui, WU Chuan-jun
    2002, 17 (3):  270-275.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (217KB) ( )   Save
    The early stage of the21st century will be the important time that China will witness rapid promotion of industrialization and urbanization and move towards higher degree.It is also a crucial period that China integrates into the world economy and enters the steady and continuous stage of social and economic development.However,such factors as trending towards constant growth of population,the speeding process of industrialization and urbanization,the formation of integration pattern of global trade,the transition of civil system and institution will make human-land conflict more intense,market competition unprecedented severe in China,which,undoubt-edly,have tremendous effect on the resource base of China's agricultural production and the sup-ply-demand balance of agricultural products,so,China's food security will be faced with chal-lenge.Based on the situation analysis of the water-land resources and its influence on food secu-rity in China,this paper puts forward that the shortage of water-land quantity and deficient matching between their distribution will affect directly on Chinese food security,and the quantity of food shortage will reach760×10 8 kg.However,the realization of the objectives of Chinese food security must rest on sustainable development of China's agriculture and rural economy in the21st century,so the primary strategy ensuring China's sustainable food security is to select the developing orientation and model with industrialization,ecologicalization,internationalization and localization as character in order to establish a domestic sustainable agriculture and rural eco-nomic system,and lay stress on optimizing the institutional environment,consummating the guar-anteeing system and breaking through the structural constraints to further reform and innovation.
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    Some observations on the water security and assurance issues
    CHEN Jia-qi
    2002, 17 (3):  276-279.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (57KB) ( )   Save
    The feature of natural water resources is different from other mineral resources due to the fact that water in the natural world possesses dual characteristics,i.e.beneficial to human society with its usable functions whereas harmful to human society due to water induced flood,waterlogging,drought and disease carrying and spreading effect.Therefore,to strengthen the role of water security and assurance a system consisted of structural measures in concert with non-structural measures should be adopted.In order to realize such a gole,attention should be paid to the following aspects:providing water for miscellaneous uses to a proper extend so that the water sources can be protected;giving incentive to efforts for mitigating the damage of natural disasters resulted from water with appropriate standard in adapting with the economic develop-ment level and the comprehensive national strength;increasing the usable water amount in every possible way including to develop new water sources;improving water-saving techniques and practising rational use of water;and paying great attention to enviroment al protection,especially to eco-enviroment so that the human survival circumstance can persist in forever.
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    Conceptual framework and research focus of resource security
    GU Shu-zhong, YAO Yu-long, SHEN Lei, LU Yao
    2002, 17 (3):  280-285.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (215KB) ( )   Save
    s:Resource security problem has been attracted worldwide attention both from devel-oped and developing countries.Here,the concepts,attributes and characteristics of resource se-curity are discussed.Resource security is defined as:the situation or capability of a nation or re-gion for sustainably,steadily,timely,sufficiently and economically getting the demanded natural resources.Resource security has quantity,quality,structure,equilibrium and price implications.Three types of resource security are classified.It is suggested that resource security should be viewed and studied openly,dynamically and systematically.Finally,it is concluded that the re-search should be focused on defining,measuring,decision-making and strategic selection of re-source security.
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    The mountain-basin complex of Heihe River and resource-environment safety of oasis zone in the lower reaches
    LIU Zhong-ling, ZHU Zong-yuan, HAO Dun-yuan
    2002, 17 (3):  286-293.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (318KB) ( )   Save
    Heihe River system,originating from Qilian Mountains,is one of the important inland rivers in Northwest China.From Qilian Mountains in the south to Gobialtai mountain in the north,the Heihe drainage basin forms a mountain-basin complex in the inland arid area.The oasis belt distributed in the basin was developed with soil and water material resources from the mountains.Ejina oasis,located in the central part of the arid Northwest China,serves as an important ecological defense of the entire region.In the latter half of the20th century,the ecological sys-tem of the oasis was severely damaged,the original landscape structure was dramatically de-stroyed,the water supply from Heihe River was decreasing year by year,from1.225billion m 3 a year in the1950s to0.724billion m 3 a year in the1990s.The level of groundwater table was lowed and the land salinization were aggravated accordingly.The area of Populus euphratica and Elaeagnus angustifolia woods were decreased from34.5thousand ha to22thousand ha dominated with virgin forest.The scrubs of Tamarix ramosissima were decreased by50per cent,becoming the sparse and short community.The serious degrada-tion of herb meadows led to succession to Sophora alopecuroides community.In order to conserve the important ecological barrier of Northwest China,the main objective is to restore and conserve the natural oasis,increase the coverage of Populus euphratica woods,Elaeagnus angustifolia woods,Tamarix ramosissima scrub and Haloxylon ammodendron brush woods.Meanwhile,it is necessary to develop artificial grassland to improve the land coverage,and to construct the artificial-natural oasis.Water supply must be guaranteed for the conserva-tion and the restoration of the oasis.More attention should be paid to keep the groundwater at a suitable level,control the water-salt dynamics,and enhance the coupling effect of the bio-land-scape diversity.Thus,the ecosystem health and resource-environment safety of oasis can be com-pleted.
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    The problems of ecological security in the Yangtze Basin and some suggestions
    YU Xiao-gan
    2002, 17 (3):  294-298.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (182KB) ( )   Save
    The ecological security of the Yangtze Basin plays and will play an important role in the sustainable development of national economy.The whole basin can be divided into five eco-logical zones based on the different ecological characteristics,problems and functions.In the five zones there exist different ecological problems.Finally the author puts forward the suggestion that the rational mechanism of ecological compensation and the appropriate model of basin man-agement should be established in order to guarantee the ecological security of the basin.
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    Food security:the impact of land conversion from farmland to forest or grassland on grain production in Northwest China
    FENG Zhi-ming, ZHANG Peng-tao, SONG Yu
    2002, 17 (3):  299-306.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (298KB) ( )   Save
    The conversion from farmland to forest or grassland is an effective way to make North-west China beautiful,but necessarily it may influence the grain production of that region.Accord-ing to the plan made by the five provinces /municipalities,till2010the accumulative total area of farmland to be converted to forest or grassland is about 400×10 4 ha,or24.8%of the total farmland area.That is to say,400×10 4 t grain(12.4%of the total grain production in1996)will be minified in Northwest China.Simultaneously positive impacts caused by this kind of conver-sion must be seen.They are expatiated as below:(1)the transfer of water,fertilizer etc.to re-served farmland can bring more marginal profit;and(2)the improvement of ecological condi tion and local environment can promote grain production and reduce the risk of natural disasters.Furthermore,the advancement in agricultural science and technology,and the construction of a-gricultural infrastructure must make reserved farmland more productive.After predicting we can see that the total yield of grain in Northwest China will hit4516.9×10 4 t,and the demand of grain,respectively based on the different level-400kg,425kg or450kg per capita,is about 3936.1×10 4 t,4182.1×10 4 t or4428.1×10 4 t.Then a conclusion can be drawn that from the long-term point of view the grain shortage will not appear in Northwest China on the whole,but the situation is austere.To achieve the equilibrium of demand and supply,Shaanxi,Gansu and Qing-hai must import grain from Xinjiang and Ningxia.
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    On the cultivated land security of Jiangsu Province
    NI Shao-xiang, TAN Shao-hua
    2002, 17 (3):  307-312.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (229KB) ( )   Save
    As one of the most economically developed provinces in China and one of the nuclear regions of the Changjiang Economic Belt,Jiangsu Province has favorable natural condition and higher land productivity.However,with the high-speed development of the province's economy in the past ten or more years,the further pushing forward of urbanization and industrialization in particular,the problems related to cultivated land security,are being revealed.At present,Jiangsu Province is facing with several major problems in terms of the cultivated land security.Firstly,the more and more obvious contrast between population expansion and cul-tivated land shrinkage has been found.Secondly,the protection of cultivated land is facing with the increasingly strong conflict from non-agricultural activities such as urbanization,township and village infrastructure construction.Thirdly,soil fertility of the cultivated land has been dropped considerably,resulting in cultivated land degradation in quality.Fourthly,the cultivated land is suffering increasingly from pollution.These problems have led grain shortage in many cities or counties in the province.The major reasons causing the above-mentioned problems include:(1)the farmer's income is much lower than the output for the means of agricultural production,resulting in jeopardizing farmer's enthusiasm in cultivation activities;(2)the area of urban and township has been greatly expanded,resulting in an occupation of large cultivated land;and(3)there are some inappro-priate points in the present policies with a relation to land management.In order to realize the cultivated land security of Jiangsu Province,the following measures are suggested.Firstly,the current environment for agricultural activities has to be fully improved.Secondly,the relationship between urban,township and village constructions and the protection for cultivated land has to be further coordinated.Thirdly,the present land cultivation structures should be greatly adjusted.Fourthly,local government should further strengthen the land man-agement.Finally,the public awareness of land security for the entire people should be en-hanced.
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    A study onecological patterns of the characteristic agriculture in southeast Fujian Province
    ZHU He-jian, CHEN Jiong
    2002, 17 (3):  313-318.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (220KB) ( )   Save
    The subtropical fruit should be developed as a characteristic agriculture on the basis of resource superiority in southeast Fujian province.Owing to fragile eco-environment,it is nec-essary to seek the best patterns of characteristic agricultural production.The establish ment of fruits-farming-grass-stock breeding (FFGS)complex system as an useful ecological pattern of characteristic agriculture is designed.The result of experiment shows that comparing the ecolog-ical pattern with the traditional pattern,the water and soil loss would reduce by about 26.3%and48.4%,and the contents of organic matter in0-20cm soil horizon could increase3.8g /kg and5.5g /kg.The total energy output of unit area of the ecological pattern is5.1time s as much as that of the traditional pattern.This ecological pattern shows a benign circulation in the pro-duction,gains favorable ecological and economic benefits and displays good prospects.
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    Groundwater resources and their characteristics in arid lands of Northwestern China
    HU Ru-ji, FAN Zi-li, WANG Ya-jun, JIANG Feng-qing
    2002, 17 (3):  321-326.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (552KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper the physical geographical setting,the formation and distribution of water resources and their utilizing situations in arid land in Northwestern China are analyzed.The dis-tribution and storing characteristics of groundwater in this region are discussed emphatically.In general,the groundwater resources in the plain area are transformed from water resources(in-cluding precipitation and melted water of snow and glacier)in the mountainous area and the latter is the only source of the former.It is believed that the groundwater in the plain area to-gether with the surface water construct a coherent water resource system,an unique hydrologi-cal unit and a complete water ecological system.Therefore,the features and the regularity of the transformation of the three types of water resources(the precipitation,the surface water,and the ground water)should be fully understood,which will play an important role in the sustainable development of this region.
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    Prediction to water supply-demand balance for West China
    TANG Qi-cheng, ZHANG Jie-bin, CHENG Wei-ming
    2002, 17 (3):  327-332.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (106KB) ( )   Save
    Based on balanced relationship of supply and demand of water resources in1980and1990in West China,this paper balanceablly predicts supply and demand of water resources in3periods.By comparing the difference of water supply,demand,shortage and shortage ratio in1980and1990in West China,it systematically analyzes spatial change s in relationship of water supply and demand as well as their cause s.Calculated terms are divided into prediction period of2010,and expectation periods of2030and2050.This research can provide fundamental basis for the implementation of development strategies of the West.
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    Management countermeasures and rainfall resources in the hilly area around Dongting Lake
    XIE Xiao-li, WANG kai-rong
    2002, 17 (3):  333-338.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (126KB) ( )   Save
    The hilly area around Dongting Lake is a typical agro-forest multi-ecosystem in the hilly area of southern China.Rainfall resources are indispensable to water environment and water equilibrium in the ecosystem.Locational observations on water environment factors in the ecosystem and monitoring and research on water equilibrium in the small watershed were carried out.Results showed that the rainfall resources were rich in the region.But with the differences in seasonal allocation of rainfall,both surplus and deficiency occurs in the process of water balancing in the system.The seasonal surplus water was311.3mm,and the deficiency was134.7mm in the average year.About 76%of precipitation belonged to derivative resources for water cycle,and the remaining amount overflowed to downstream water area in the form of runoff.Some 1.31×10 10 m 3 of water,1.64×10 6 m 3 of silt and0.89×10 4 t of nutrients(N,P,K)in the area are lost or transported into Dongting Lake in the process of rainfall erosion each year.Thus rainwater conservancy is the basic form of the rainwater management .The utilizable rainwater is2.41times as much as the maximum requirement of irrigation water for the existing farmland at present,and the ratio of utilizable rainwater to requirement is related to ecosystem scale.The main factors affecting water equilibrium and water use efficiency are limitations of rainfall conservancy project and the construction of sloping land ecosystems,especially the construction of agro-forest multi-ecosystem.It contains the planting patterns of vegetation community and sustainable conservation of soil productivity.
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    A study on the effect of soil water on vegetation rehabilitation in watershed of loess hilly area
    WANG Guo-liang, LIU Guo-bin, CHANG Xin, XU Ming-xiang
    2002, 17 (3):  339-344.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (306KB) ( )   Save
    According to the study on the effect of soil water on rehabilitation of vegetation in Zhifanggou watershed of loess hilly region,the following conclusions are drawn:(1)The content of water in grass ground is higher than in shrub ground and the shrub ground's is higher than aboreal ground's.(2)The pine(pinus tabulaeformis)makes a lighter dried soil layer.By means of strip forestation,the content of the water of Robinia(Robinia pseudoacacia)ground can be improved.(3)The degree of the dried soil layer is related with vegetation and forestation density.(4)The natural vegetation may cause a dried soil layer too.
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    Driving force analysis of land use change in Bohai Rim
    HE Shu-jin, LI Xiu-bin, ZHU Hui-yi, ZHANG Ming
    2002, 17 (3):  345-352.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (447KB) ( )   Save
    As one of the most important economic centers in the coastal open regions of China,the area around the Bohai Sea has been developing fast since the implementation of reform and open policies in the last20odd years,as a result,cities and towns got drastic expanded,but farmland sharply declined.According to socio-economic statistical data,general surveys,analysis of detailed surveys of land as well as field investigations in the rural areas of the Bohai Rim in the corresponding period,the major driving forces that affect the trend of farmland change,in-crease of non-agricultural population,non-agricultural development,restructuring of agriculture,defarming and disaster damage,land management,exploitation and reclamation,as well as land management policies are discussed in the paper.
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    Sustainable development of tourism resources of Guilin,Guangxi
    WANG Yu-ming
    2002, 17 (3):  361-365.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (370KB) ( )   Save
    Guilin is transforming from international sightseeing-type destination into sightseeing and holiday-spending destination.In this process,Guilin should heighten its competitiveness in international tourism market to further optimize the space structure of tourism resources,build the core sector,linkage sector and radiating influential sector,come into being the new develop-ing strategic situation and promote the quality upgrade and structural adjustment of tourism prod-ucts.
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    Optimal allocation of water resources in Dongjiang River Basin
    CHEN Xiao-hong, CHEN Yong-qin, LAI Guo-you
    2002, 17 (3):  366-372.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (358KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the theory of″decompose-coordination″for large-scale systems,a system op-timal operation model with multi-objective programming is developed for optimal allocation of water resources in Dongjiang River Basin.The methods of hierarchical analysis and step by step toleration obligation are used in the process of coordination through sub-systems.Under two ini-tial storage conditions of the three large reservoirs(Xinfengjiang,Fengshuba and Baipenzhu),dead storage and normal storage,water resources of the drought year(p=97%)is distributed opti-mally in Dongjiang River Basin for water demand in the year2020.The results show serious damage of water supply(damage level4)with large amount of water shortage(2.35billion m 3 /a totally)in the drought year under the initial condition of dead storage of the three large reser-voirs.While with the initial normal storage of the three large reservoirs,water demand of the15water users in the year2020can be basically contented(only2.58million m 3 /a water shortage totally for agriculture)under dry year(97%).Normal storage of the three reservoirs as the initial condition is the key for the dry year water supply to the water demand year2020.However,wa -ter demand is increasing in keeping with the rapid socio-economic development,feasible mea-sures,e.g.,adjustment of the structure of industry,saving on water and enhancement of water management,should be taken to keep the sustainable use of water resources in Dongjiang River Basin in the future.
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    Terrestrial net primary production and its spatio-temporal patterns in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau,China during1982-1999
    PIAO Shi-long, FANG Jing-yun
    2002, 17 (3):  373-380.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (872KB) ( )   Save
    The terrestrial net primary production(NPP)and its spatio-temporal pattern in Qing-hai-Xizang Plateau during1982-1999were studied based on an ecological process model,using remote sensing data(NOAA-AVHRR),historical temperature,precipitation and solar radiation data,along with vegetation and soil texture information.As a result,a total mean annual NPP in the Plateau was0.21PgC(1Pg=10 15 g),occupying about 12.43%of China's total annual NPP.The NPP decreased from southeastern to northwestern part;this was coupled with the changes in precipitation and temperature.In the past18years,the terrestrial NPP in the Plateau increased from0.19PgC·a -1 in1982to0.24PgC·a -1 in1999,with an annual average increasing rate of about 1%.Regions with a significant increase in NPP appeared in southeastern Qinghai,Xining district,partial southwestern Qinghai,and eastern and partial southern Xizang.Monthly mean NPP for all months but not that for October and December showed an increasing trend through the past18years for most vegetation types.
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    Network efficiency:A new indicator for environmental impact assessment of trails
    GE Xiao-dong, LI Wen-jun, ZHU Zhong-fu
    2002, 17 (3):  381-386.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (257KB) ( )   Save
    Tourism will bring certain negative impacts on environment,which are usually con-cen trated around the places for sightseeings.The spatial pattern of the itinerary system can regu-late and restrict the behavior of the visitors,and can therefore decide to a great extent the de-gree of the touring environmental impact caused by visitors.The study showed that the existing indicators from landscape ecology cannot assess the impacts efficiently since those indicators in landscape ecology usually separate the trails' spatial structure and their ecological functions in-stead of integrating them.This paper takes the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve as a case study area,and pro poses a new indicator named Network Efficiency,which links the corridors' spatial pattern and their ecological functions.Compared with the traditional indicators Connectiv-ityγand Annularityα,the study shows that the Network Efficiency is more efficiently used for environmental impact assessment of the scenic spots.Besides used for environmental impact as-sessment,the Network Efficiency can also be used directly in the analysis of the itinerary capac-ity and practical use by visitors,and thus offer valuable information for tourism management .
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    A study on approaches to sustainable utilization of wetland in the Dongting Lake
    LI Jing-bao, ZHU Xiang, CAI Bing-hua, LI Hui
    2002, 17 (3):  387-392.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.03.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (230KB) ( )   Save
    Wetland is featured by its unique ecological function and socio-economical value.Due to reckless exploitation,the function of wetland is severely damaged and accompanied by the degeneration of ecological environment.Research shows that such approaches to sustainable uti-lization of wetland in the Dongting Lake are effective in the aspects of population control,polder removement,wetland restoration,establishment of wetland preservation area,development of in-dustries characteristic of wetlands in disaster avoiding and waterlogging tolerance.Sound eco-nomic,social and ecological benefits have been gained.Therefore it is held how to coordinate the rela tions among population,resources and environment are the strategic targets for the real-ization of wetland sustainable utiliza tion.
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