Table of Content

    25 April 2002, Volume 17 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    A study of ecological water requirements in Northwest China PartⅡ:Application of remote sensing and GIS
    WANG Fang, WANG Hao, CHEN Min-jian, WANG Yan, TANG Ke-wang
    2002, 17 (2):  129-137.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1025KB) ( )   Save
    The conflict between ecological water requirements and economic water demand has become critical in arid and semi-arid areas with population growth and economic development.This paper presents a mathematical model based on techniques of remote sensing(RS)and Ge-ography Information Syste(GIS).Results have been achieved as follows:(1)ecological zoning based upon the RS and GIS technology reflects the mechanism of water requirement;(2)regional math-ematical model on ecological water requirements was developed based on ecological zoning and water cycle of drainage basins;and(3)targets of ecological protection and scale of ecological con-struction was identified based on ecological protection and restoration mode coupled with experts comments as well as prediction of ecological and economic water requirements.
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    Calculating gross sea ice resource using AVHRR and MODIS data
    SHI Pei-jun, FAN Yi-da, HA Si, YUAN Yi, XIE Feng
    2002, 17 (2):  138-143.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (690KB) ( )   Save
    First,the methodology of using AVHRR and MODIS data to calculate gross sea ice resource has been discussed.Then,sea ice information extraction approach using the spectral information and GIS technique has been advanced.Based upon which,we calculated the area and the volume of sea ice resource on Jan.15and Feb.9,2001.It is also found out that the re-sults of using the bands of visible light,the near infrared and far infrared to calculate sea ice re-source are satisfactory.While calculating the depth of sea ice,it is unsatisfiedactory with the re-sult of using penetrating ability of the near infrared.MODIS data is better than AVHRR data in calculating gross sea ice resource.There are some important results including:(a)it is feasible to estimate the gross sea ice resource using NOAA/AVHRR and EOS/MODIS data.Because MODIS data is superior to AVHRR data in many ways such as spatial resolution and spectral resolution,the observation precision of using MODIS data is much better.Using the technology of delamination extraction,we can not only decrease the difficulty of extracting information on sea ice,but also increase the precision of extraction.(b)According to estimation,the amount of the available sea ice obtained is at least40billion cubic meters.Effective utilization of the re-source is very essential to the resolution of water scarcity problem and realization of sustainable development in Bohai Rim.(c)According to primary estimation,with the aid of industrialized technology,the available freshwater of the extracted sea ice will be over20billion stere during annual freezing season.In the light of reallocation of water resources,storage capacity of fresh-water cannot be increased.So,we should focus on improving storage technology of freshwater re-sources and pay attention to the study of new technology of exploiting sea ice so as to increase sea ice exploiting ability.
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    Analysis on regional land use transition:A case study in Transect of the Yangtze River
    LONG Hua-lou, LI Xiu-bin
    2002, 17 (2):  144-149.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (592KB) ( )   Save
    Regional land use morphology is the overall pattern of actual land cover in a region at a given time,comprising the main types of land use.It can be represented either(a)spatially,by a map of a region divided into cropland,pasture land,forestland,urban-industrial land and wasteland,etc.,or(b)non-spatially by the shares of regional territory under each land use type.Furthermore,it can change with the changes of the socio-eco nomic development phase that the region is in.Regional land use transition refers to the changes in regional land use morphology over time,and it usually corresponds to the transition of socioeconomic development phase.Transect of the Yangtze River(TYR),with obvious grads both in the change of physical envi-ronmental factors and in the level of socioeconomic development,was taken as study area in this paper.According to land use changes and pattern,five regional types of land use changes in TYR are classified.Land use changes in several years or decades are mainly driven by socioeconomic factors and restricted by physical factors,and they can be mainly reflected by the changes of cul-tivated land and built-up land,which are tightly interrelated with human productive activities.The changes of farmland and settlements in TYR are examined.Analysis of concerned data showed that the rural housing transition in TYR could reflect its regional land use transition.Regional rural housing transition,that is the development of rural housing of every region,should undergo some stages:the ratio of rural housing to increased settlements decreases gradu-ally,and the end of the transition corresponds to a new equilibrium between rural housing and other construction activities.The study of rural housing transition of every region characterized by land use changes in TYR showed that,every region was in different rural housing transition phase respectively,and they corresponded to their respective socioeconomic development level.
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    Flood response to land use change in Taihu Lake Basin
    GAO Jun-feng
    2002, 17 (2):  150-156.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (930KB) ( )   Save
    The Taihu Lake Basin is one of the most populous regions with fastest economic growth and most intensive land use in China.Based on detailed investigations of land use data and land use information in1986and1996,this paper analyzes the quantitative and spatial changes of the basin's land use as well as reveals its change range,speed,regional difference and driving force.Based on flood season precipitation(from May to September)of1991,this paper identifies the reasons for frequent high flood water level in Taihu Lake Basin by compar-ing different runoff-yields of1986,1996under various underlying surface conditions.The char-acteristics of land use change are reflected in the increase of construction area and the decrease of arable land area.The main drive forces of the land use change are aspects of policy,economic growth and increasing population pressure.Land use characters in Taihu Lake Basin are high in-tensive land exploitation,quickly land use changes and inadequate reserve land resources.The change of underlying surface not only increased runoff-yield but also affected the process of runoff-yield,merge and flow.The increase of land use for construction purpose made peak flood come more quickly and higher,and flood water trend to concentrate,which result in serious damage.In addition,the change of underlying surface will completely or partly change the rela-tionship between river and river,river and lake,lake and pond,and eventually affect the process of draining.
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    The development of agriculture and changes of land use in Horqin in the20th century
    WULAN Tu-ya
    2002, 17 (2):  157-161.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (483KB) ( )   Save
    The rudiment of modern agriculture in Horqin appeared in the early Qing Dynasty,the development of which broke the lifeway of nomadism existing for centuries,and turned Horqin Grassland into an interlocking area between farming and slockbreeding.Based on the analysis of the development process of modern farming from appearance to expansion,especially the development process of the20th century,the study holds that land reclamation in the20th century played an important role in the formation process of land desertification,and large scale land expansion appeared in the late Qing Dynasty and right after liberation,eventually turning Horqin Grassland into present Horqin Sandy Land.
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    Mineral sustainable supply and its spatial reorganization in China
    ZHANG Lei
    2002, 17 (2):  162-167.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (371KB) ( )   Save
    It is certain that the total demand and structure of mineral consumption in China are going up and changed as the country pursues the target of industrialization constantly.In order to meet the above needs and to release the intensity of man-land relationship in country,it is pro-posed in this paper that China should reconsider its traditional development policy which stress-es mainly on domestic source for the growing supply.It suggests that a basic model of mineral sustainable exploitation of China in the21st century can be described as an equation of an ad-vanced structure,a modern technology,a globalized resource supply and an intensified environ-mental protection.It also argues that a basic model of spatial reorganization for regional mineral supply can be titled of like"opened-up the east entirely,stabilized the middle China greatly and exploited the west properly".
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    The characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of negative accumulated temperature in Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea
    GU Wei, SHI Pei-jun, LIU Yang, XIE Feng, CAI Xue-peng
    2002, 17 (2):  168-173.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (704KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the climate indicators of the accumulated value of mean temperature≤-4℃and the number of days,the annual data of the accumulated temperature and days≤-4℃of52meteorological stations of Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea are calculated.According to the cor-relativity of climate indicators with longitude,latitude and altitude,the equation of spatial distri-bution is established to calculate the accumulated temperature and days of214grids in the sea area which is short of data,and draw the contour maps of the accumulated temperature and days.The results show that the spatial distribution of the accumulated temperature≤-4℃has the characteristics of greater difference between South and North,and smaller difference between East and West.The distribution range of ice conditions in the normal year in Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea is the same with the contour of-100℃.In relatively serious year and the seri-ous year the ensurance ratio of the accumulated temperature≤-4℃is less than40%,and those in Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay are less than20%.
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    The status and conservation strategy of pangolin resource in China
    WU Shi-Bao, MA Guang-Zhi, TANG Mei, CHEN Hai, LIU Nai-Fa
    2002, 17 (2):  174-180.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (262KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper,a brief introduction is given to the resource types,geographic distribu-tion,resource value and price,international and domestic trade situation of pangolins in the world,with the focus on the resource status quo of pangolin in China,the causes for its decline,and protective measures that should be taken.At present the number of wild pangolin in China is es-timated to be somewhere between50000and100000.Although China's pangolin resource has decreased greatly,the annual domestic demand has reached as high as200000.The contradic-tion between supply and demand is very sharp.It is argued that the decline of pangolin resources is mostly due to overexploitation,habitat destruction,alien species' intrusion,and genetic dete-rioration.Measures should be taken to protect pangolin primitive habitat(on-site conservation),es-tablish natural reserves for pangolin,carry out research on domesticating techniques,search ac-tively for the substitutes for pangolin in medical uses.The purposes are to relieve the pressure on natural resource,reconcile the conflict between conservation and utilization,and prepare for off-site conservation.It is suggested that conditions be created to study the technology for the protec-tion of pangolin in vitro.
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    Driving mechanism analysis of ecological-economic-social capacity interactions in oasis systems of arid lands
    ZHANG Chuan-guo, FANG Chuang-lin
    2002, 17 (2):  181-187.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (459KB) ( )   Save
    Capacity of oasis systems is the result of mutual coupling by ecological capacity,eco-nomic capacity and social capacity.The mechanism of ecological-economic-social capacity inter-actions is driven by core factors of water,investment and population.The interior drive to realize the maximum ecological,economic and social benefit s of water factor decides the optimizing as-sembled ways of ecological-economic-social capacities.Under restriction of boundary benefit de-gression law,the optimum proportion of investment distribution lies in difference of unit invest-ment benefit.Population factor has double functions in the mechanism s of ecological-economic-social capacity interactions via changing the deficient degree of water resources and investment.
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    Index system and method for assessing water resources renewabili ty of the Yellow River Basin
    SHEN Zhen-yao, YANG Zhi-feng
    2002, 17 (2):  188-197.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (469KB) ( )   Save
    Based on qualitative analysis of water resources renewability,the assessment index system of the Yellow River water resources renewability is established.There are32indexes al-together,which reflect natural,natural-artificial compound and social characteristic s of the renew-ablity of water resources.The values of these indexes in9administrative divisions consisting of19second-order drainage areas of the Yellow River are obtained.The gray associate method and principal component analytical method are used to screen the index system,and19indexes are selected as final assessment indexes.Two kinds of assessment standards of water resources re-newability are established,one is based on the data of Yellow River Basin,the other is based on the data of the whole China.It is pointed out that the assessment standard based on the data of the whole China should be used in actual assessment.Then the principal component weight method is used to determine the weight of19assessment indexes.Finally,the gray asso ciate analysis method and fuzzy synthesis judgement method are used to assess the water re sources re-newability of the9administrative divisions and19second-order drainage areas of the Yellow River.The result shows that the water resources renewability of the Yellow River is rather low,and the water resources renewability of the9administrative divisions and19second-order drainage areas is from moderate to low.
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    The evaluation and analysis of the tourist resources of Jilin Province
    YU Tao-fang, GU Chao-lin, XU Yi-lun, WANG Hong, DUAN Xue-jun
    2002, 17 (2):  198-202.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (373KB) ( )   Save
    This paper comprehensively evaluates and analyzes the tourist resources in Jilin Prov-ince in three parts.The first one is the evaluation of the resources,which is followed by the struc-tural and spatial analysis of the resources.Based on that,the concept planning is made for the tourist resources of Jilin Province.The method of analytic hierarchical process is used to evaluate the tourist resources and then by tables and graphs,the structural and spatial analysis is made.It is found that,the natural resources have fundamental roles in Jilin,and the human and cultural resources are important parts.In the spatial distribution analysis,the resources show the charac-teristics of"six clusters"and"three zones"spatial relations.Finally,the concept planning is made based on the evaluation and analysis.
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    Ecosystem health and its evolution indicator and method
    XIAO Feng-jin, OUYANG Hua
    2002, 17 (2):  203-209.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (378KB) ( )   Save
    Ecosystem health is a multidisciplinary integrative field exploring the interrelations between human activity,social organization,natural systems,and human health.An ecological sys-tem is healthy and free from"distress syndrome "if it is stable and sustainable,i.e.,if it is active and maintains its organization,and autonomy over time and is resilient to stress.The basic ecolog-ical axioms of evolution ecosystem health include the axiom of dynamism,the axiom of hierarchy,the axiom of creativity,the axiom of relatedness and the axiom of differential fragility.The evolu-tion components of ecosystem health include eight criteria,e.g.,vigor,organization,resilience,etc.E-cosystem health is at the early stage of development,and there are some problems to solve.As we further develop the theory of ecosystem health,the quantitative methods,particularly those from the development of remote sensing applications and GIS technique will contribute to the capacity to analyse and evaluate ecosystem health over large areas.The advanced technique will promote its further development.
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    Geographical distribution of China's grain yield risk area
    DENG Guo, WANG Ang-sheng, ZHOU Yu-shu, LI Shi-kui
    2002, 17 (2):  210-215.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (550KB) ( )   Save
    Based on risk analysis theory,we make use of ISODATA method to divide China into different risk areas at the prefectural and provincial levels with risk-factor division index and synthetic division index respectively.The results show that the difference in risk levels in China relates closely to local disaster induced environment,disaster factors and productivity.The divi-sion results could serve as reference on resources utility,grain yield allocation and risk decision.
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    Considerations to some issues on vegetation rehabilitation in western China
    YU Gui-rui, XIE Gao-di, WANG Qiu-feng, NIU Dong
    2002, 17 (2):  216-220.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (172KB) ( )   Save
    Because vegetation rehabilitation in western China centered on returning farmland to forest or grassland is a complicated eco-economic system engineering,we must establish a long-term steady policy and law insurance system while establishing a long-term steady economic compensation mechanism,which should be based on biological zone of vegetation determined by climatic elements such as water and heat,driven by market economic mechanism of regional complementation under national control.To this end,we discussed several scientific issues which include the geographical pattern of natural vegetation in western China,moderate returning size and rehabilitation technology after returning,environmental service function output of vegetation restoration engineering,ecological industry and economic compensation mechanism,and the pro-tection and improvement of natural vegetation as well.At the same time,we pointed out some er-roneous understandings and ill tendencies in the pilot project of returning farmland to forest or grassland.
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    Water environmental issues in Taihu Lake of China:Problems,causes and management
    QIN Bo-qiang, WU Qing-nong, GAO Jun-feng, FAN Cheng-xin, XU Gang, CHEN Wei-min, MAO Rui, CHEN Yu-wei
    2002, 17 (2):  221-228.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (654KB) ( )   Save
    Taihu Lake is a large shallow lake located in the Changjiang River Delta.It is con-fronting with three major issues:(1)Deterioration of water quality without any significant improve-ment since the control of drainage of wastewater taken in the end of1998;(2)the flood risk did not eliminate but rather the fragility increases with the development of economy;and(3)devel-opment of swampiness and eutrophication in eastern Taihu greatly reduces the ability of flood drainage and water supply.The reasons accountable for these problems have been addressed.Lack of estimates about changes in composition of pollution sources causes the failure of control of wastewater discharge,especially the inadequate drainage control mainly against the point source from industry as the contribution from domestic and agricultural pollution might increase and exceed the industrial pollution.In eastern Taihu,the densely developed pen-fish-culture caus-es increase in bait input,which in turn leads to the increase in nutrient deposition in lake bottom and makes it become internal loading.The excessive development of pen-fish-culture also affects the harvesting of aquatic plants,which speeds up marsh development in eastern Taihu and re-duces the flood drainage ability.The problem associated with flood is attributed to dramatic changes of underlying surface,leading to the advancement in peak flood and increase in peak flood discharge.Finally,a conceptual model of lake management is suggested for this specific lake.
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    Optimization of the supply and demand system of urban water resources
    YU Shu-xia, SHANG Jin-cheng
    2002, 17 (2):  229-233.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (395KB) ( )   Save
    This paper uses system dynamics to analyse the structure of water supply and demand system of urban water resources.The supply and demand system contains four level variables,in-cluding population(POP),industrial output (IO),the total supply of water resources(TWQ)and the total quantity of polluted water resources(PWQ).Among them,the TWQ is the dominant one,which is determined by two rate variables,i.e.,the water supply rate and the polluted water pro-duced rate.In the system,water price and the investment for polluted water treatment are the key assistant variables.The functions of these two assistant factors are fully considered.And we can conclude from the outcome of the system that sustainable utilization of urban water resources can be realized if the two factors harmonize with each other.Taking Changchun City as an example,which was one of the cities that water supply was the main factors constraining her development,and water pollution was serious,the paper analyses supply and demand dynamic system of urban water resources,and introduces the scenario to solve these problems.
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    Characteristics of groundwater resources and water environmental problems in Anhui Province
    WANG Guo-qiang, LI Ying-xia, WU Dao-xiang, GE Xiao-guang, LIU Yang, YE Chao-han
    2002, 17 (2):  234-239.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (523KB) ( )   Save
    This paper sketches the natural condition and spatio-temporal distribution of water re-sources of Anhui Province,especially,the distribution characteristics and current situation of groundwater exploitation and utilization.With regard to water resources,surface water predomi-nates in area to the south of Huaihe River(Huainan)but is equal to groundwater in volume in the area to the north of Huaihe River(Huaibei).Water resources in Anhui province are inadequate and are unevenly distributed in time,so such natural disasters as flood and drought happen fre-quently along with various kinds of geologic disasters due to concentration in precipitation.Meanwhile water resources are also unevenly distributed in space.There are abundant water re-sources in mountain area where population is less,however,water resources are short in Huaibei area where population is large with sufficient cultivated land.These distribution characteristics and the water pollution aggravate the contradiction of water use.This article discusses the role of human engineering projects and economic activities to the transformation of natural water bodies and the environment geological problems caused by the irrational exploitation of groundwater re-sources.In some cities such as Fuyang,Jieshou,Huaibei,etc.,excessive mining of groundwater causes regional descent of groundwater level and land subsidence.In some mining areas such as Lianghuia and Tongling,sewer drainage for mining and karstic water exploitation caused ground-water depletion,water resources pollution and karst cave and karstic earthen cave collapse.In the area to the north of the Jieshou-Lixin-Guzhen line,the endemic dental fluorosis and dental caries are common due to regional high fluorine contained water distribution.In mountain area and Southern Anhui ,endemic goiter is popular because the intensively cut topography provides good conditions for groundwater discharge,leading to lower iodine content in groundwater.Regional wa-ter shortage is witnessed in the Changjiang River-Huaihe River Dividing Area and the Huaibei Area.Water resources deficit,serious water pollution and other water related environmental prob-lems seriously damage the ecological environment.These problems seriously restrict the sustain-able development of economy,society and environment of Anhui Province.Wa ter is the most ac-tive element of environment,and its most important characteristic in water cycle is repeated us-age and satisfies the need of ecological balance.The macro global hydrologic cycle unites,the en-vironments of all countries throughout the world to a whole,and regional micro hydrologic cycle connects the intrabasins or regional environments.Therefore,in order to realize sustainable devel-opment of water resources,it is necessary to build a man-land harmonious environment for human living by taking synthetic utilization and management of water resources and water environmental protection as a whole.
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    Probing into the development direction and forest resources in Ngari prefecture of Tibet
    DENG Kun-mei
    2002, 17 (2):  240-245.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (228KB) ( )   Save
    This paper gives an indepth analysis of the types,quantity and quality and current situation of exploitation and production of forest resources of Ngari prefecture in Tibet.It also exlores the existing problems in forestry production such as single resources structure,poor in re-served resources,backward management in production;uneven distribution of forest resources;prominent differentiation in horizontal and vertical distribution;and vast expanse of wasteland and barren mountains resources suitable for forestry resulting in difficulties in afforestation and serious damage of eco-environment.On the basis of the above discussions,the following counter-measures are identified as:(a)to perfect forestry institutional and management system and strengthen forest resources management;(b)to economize fuel forest and protect eco-environment;(c)to put into effect forestland contract system and energetically develop forestry;and(d)to in-crease scientific and technical input ,promote forestry with science and technology and take the road towards sustainable forestry development.
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    Market creation for environmental services of forest resources and private sector participation in China
    LIU Can
    2002, 17 (2):  246-252.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (118KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this paper is to trace the market creation for environmental services of forest resources in China.The history and current situations of market creation for environmental services of forest resources have been analyzed.Market creations for watershed management,biodiversity conservation,landscapes and carbon storage have been further discussed.Challenges and policy recommendations have been presented in the paper.
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    Trends of overseas studies of tourism resources evaluation
    LIANG Xiu-cun, DING Deng-shan
    2002, 17 (2):  253-260.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.020
    Abstract ( )   PDF (340KB) ( )   Save
    Papers on studies of tourism resources evaluation published abroad from the late1960s to the late1990s are reviewed,especifically those related to issues of evaluation research into the visual qualities of tourism resources,evaluation research into the social cultural and heritage values of tourism resources,and evaluation research into the monetary value of tourism re-sources.The paper aims at promoting theoretical research and practical application of tourism resources evaluation in China.
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