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    25 December 2003, Volume 18 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Land use changes of Hexi Corridor between 1995 and 2000
    MENG Ji-jun, LI Zheng-guo, WU Xiu-qin
    2003, 18 (6):  645-651.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (368KB) ( )   Save
    Many environmental problems facing people are related with land use /land cover ch-anges nowadays.Taking two false color composite Landsat5TM(Thematic Mapper)images of band4,3and2taken in1995and2000as data sources,this paper carried out studies on land use and land cover changes of Hexi Corridor in the last5years by interpreting,on the basis of Geographical Information System(GIS)software,Chinese version of Arc info7.1,according to land resources classification system of1:100000Resources and Environmental Database of Chinese Academy of Sciences.The results show that great changes have taken place in land use and land cover in Hexi Corridor since1995:(1)The number of land use patches and the total length of patch edges tend to increase,which show that the landscape fragmentation was strengthened.(2)Changes of land use structure show that cropland,woodland and urban and built - up area increased evidently.On the contrary,water area and grassland tend to decrease.These changes reflect the deterioration of eco - environment and the acceleration of urbanization.(3)Regional differences of land use and land cover changes are evident ,which are characterized by the increase in cropland,woodland,water area and urban and built - up area and decrease in unused land and grassland in Jiuquan and Jiayuguan located to the west of Hexi Corridor;the increase in cropland,woodland and urban and built - up area and decrease in unused land,water area and grassland in the middle of Hexi Corridor,Zhangye City;and increase in cropland and urban and built - up area and decrease in grassland and water area in the eastern part of Hexi Corridor,Wuwei and Jinchang.
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    A study on dynamic monitoring of cultivated land use in Kenli County
    ZHANG Yin-hui, LUO Yi, ZHAO Geng-xing
    2003, 18 (6):  652-658.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (396KB) ( )   Save
    Remote sensing provides a powerful tool for study on Land Use /Cover Change.Two of the most common uses of satellite images in Land Use /Cover Change are land cover mapping via image classification and land cover change via change detection.Taking Kenli County in Shandong Province as a basic unit,using remote sensing image processing software ENVI 3.4and TM data,the whole process of cultivated land information extracting and dynamic change monitoring with TM data is described in this paper.The pretreatment of TM data includes images correction,data registration,data extraction and image enhancement.The image is classified by two methods,screen visual interpretation and supervised classification combined with screen visual interpretation.Both methods could acquire a good result,but the former method needs more manual work.Monitoring results are acquired based on the information extracting results by means of spatial analysis.It concludes that in agricultural regions,the methods of supervised classification combined with screen visual interpretation and post classification comparisons are effective in cultivated land information extracting and dynamic monitoring,especially in the coastal soil salinized regions.
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    Study on spatialization of population census data based on relation ship between population distribution and land use——Taking Tibet as an example
    LIAO Shun-bao, LI Ze-hui
    2003, 18 (6):  659-665.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (410KB) ( )   Save
    Land is an outcome affected mutually by human being and natural world.There exits a very close relationship between population distribution and land use.Through multi-variables regression analysis with statistical population data and various land use indexes at county level in China in1999,it was found that there was a co-relationship of multiple ratio=0.82between mean population densities and12land use indexes for the overwhelming majority administrative divisions at county level.And in Tibet autonomous region,Qinghai and Hainan provinces,the multiple ratios reached to0.99respectively.With the model of population distribution-land use and DEM,which was established by means of multiple variables regression analysis,a rasterized population dataset for Tibet autonomous region with a resolution of one kilometer by one kilometer was calculated.The dataset not only keeps consistence with statistical population at county level but also reflects change of population distribution inside a county.For the37townships in3counties in Tibet,which were selected to test and verify the model,there was a co-relationship of ratio=0.88between the townships’actual population densities and calculated population densities by the model.Therefore,land use is a very important parameter for spatialization of statistical population data.The relationship model between population densities and land use index can be applied to spatialization of statistical population.
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    Investigation,analysis and assessment on water-front resources of Yangtze River in Suzhou
    MA Rong-hua, YANG Gui-shan, ZHU Hong-yun, WAN Rong-rong
    2003, 18 (6):  666-671.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (792KB) ( )   Save
    It is the foundation and precondition to implement the stratagem“to develop regions along Yangtze River,to construct industial strap along Yanagtze River”and plan industial distribution along Yangtze River scientifically and reasonably for knowing about use status quo of water-front resources and evaluating water - front resources scientifically and reasonably.Satellite images with high resolution are used to quickly find out the target areas along the bank to make certain the used spatial location and geometric shape by method of image fusion with lower resolution image.The use status quo along the Yangtze River in Suzhou is clarifi ed,on the basis of which,the water - front resources are evaluated by GIS based on scientific and reasonable division of riverbank cells.All the job provides some important consultation for scientific and reasonable utilization and exploitation of water - front resources of the Yangtze River in Suzhou.
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    Progress in the research on land evaluation in China during the latest ten years
    NI Shao-xiang
    2003, 18 (6):  672-683.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (507KB) ( )   Save
    Based on collections and reviews of the land evaluation papers published on Chinese journals in recent 10years the major progress in this research field is presented in this paper.During this period the research on land evaluation in China has witnessed much progress in its theory,methodology and application.Firstly,much attention has been paid to the integrated considerations of social and economic factors as well as natural elements which are used in land evaluation,and to those methods which make a close combination of qualitative approach with quantitative one.Secondly,land suitability evaluation has received more rapid development although other activities such as land capability assessment were still conducted.Thirdly,the evaluation for cultivated land including the grading and valuation was popularly carried out almost in whole country and,however,the land evaluations for forestry and livestock still are less developed research fields.In the same time,very active activities have been found in the evaluation on urban land following the rapid development of land market in urban areas in China since the early1990s,and a number of new ideas have emerged and some new method-ologies have achieved in the land evaluation for tourism resources development.Fourthly,some new fields of application of land evaluation have appeared,such as the land evaluation for land degradation control in ecologically fragile regions and for land consolidation in urban and rural areas.Besides,the land evaluation for sustainable land use,particularly the development of indicator systems used in the evaluation has become one of the enthusiastic activities in the research of land evaluation.Finally,several advanced approaches such as Artificial Neural Networks(ANN)and Genetic Algorithms have been attempted in use for land evaluation even if the conventional methods such as the Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP)were still used.In add-ition,Geographical Information System(GIS)has been popularly used in land evaluation,espec-ially in land suitability assessment.
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    Water balance and water security study in the Haihe basin
    ZHANG Shi-feng, JIA Shao-feng
    2003, 18 (6):  684-691.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (303KB) ( )   Save
    The water resource problem in the Haihe basin is very serious.But the water balance issue has not been adequately studied.This paper points out that there are three kinds of water balance issues.The first kind is the precipitation-runoff balance to the total water amount;the second is water supply,water consumption and water discharge balance to the water resource amount;and the third one is the water supply and water demand balance.In the Haihe basin,the reason for unbalanced water supply with water consumption and water discharge is that the water consumption amount caused by non-use factors,such as water evaporation of the rivers,lakes and wetlands as well as other phreatic evaporation has not been quantitatively clarified.Quantitive calculation on status quo of water balance problems is done in this paper.The major factors related to balance are identified as water supply being41billion m3 ,the amount of water discharged into sea,5-10billion m3 ,non use water consumption,5.9-7.1billion m3 ,and water shortage amount is also evaluated.This paper has studied the water use properties in the Haihe basin.The water demand/supply balance is dealt with,especially the water security status of recent years is probed.It is found out that in light of water balance,water supply and water demand was safe in the years of1994-1996,but water supply was not safe in the period of1997-2001.This paper has also proposed the measures to meet water security in the basin and related suggestion has been raised to guarantee this balance.
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    Study on the risk evaluation technologies of main agrometeorological disasters and their application
    HUO Zhi-guo, LI Shi-kui, WANG Su-yan, LIU Jin-luan, XUE Chang-ying
    2003, 18 (6):  692-703.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (800KB) ( )   Save
    Basing on the theory of risk analysis of disasters,several kinds of risk evaluation tech-ology of main agrometeorological disasters in China are put forward,including establishment technology of the sequences of yield reduction rates of annual crops and perennial fruit trees,different factors causing disasters,index sequences causing disasters,risk estimate models;risk evaluation technology of loss(yield reduction rate)caused by disasters,indices and methods taken to reduce risk.By analyzing and studying the correlation between meteorological data day by day from1961to2000and yield and disasters,the main factors,grades and indices causing disasters and the corresponding yield reduction rates which are suitable for drought of winter wheat in North China,cool injury of corn and rice in Northeast China,waterlogging of winter wheat and cold in Jianghuai valley and cold damage of banana and litchi in South China are selected.Making the risk evaluation of drought of winter wheat in North China and cold damage of banana and litchi in South China as examples,the methods which can be used to calculate risk probability and divide risk grades aiming at annual crops and perennial fruit trees are given.The technologies and methods of risk evaluation of drought of winter wheat basing on actual yields,climatic productive potentialities,natural water deficiency rate and the methods taken to reduce disasters are studied,and the risk probabilities under different conditions of yield reduction rates,indices causing disasters and methods taken to reduce disasters are calculated.The results indicate:the risk probability distributions of drought of winter wheat in North China,cold damage of banana and litchi in South China have the character of juncture and regionalization.The risk probability of natural water deficiency is high in the whole growing period of winter wheat in North China,but it will decrease gradually with the increase in irrigation times.Generally,the irrigation times in the year of light drought is1-2,in the year of moderate drought is2-3and in the year of heavy drought is3,which can meet the water requirement of winter wheat in many areas,and the risk probability of water deficiency is low.The study can supply scientific evidences to government and production department to control the occurrence of agrome-teorological disasters,to take precautions against harm or reduce harm that disasters to agriculture,to make methods to reduce loss,to formulate insurance policies about agrome-teorological disasters and to transfer the risk.
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    Potentials and limitation of AVHRR for grassland classification in Xilingol,Inner Mongolia
    WANG Zheng-xing, LIU Chuang, ZHAO Bing-ru
    2003, 18 (6):  704-711.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (631KB) ( )   Save
    AVHRR-NDVI has been widely used for land cover characterization in global and national scales,yet there are few reports on regional scale,and fewer investigations about the potentials of the original bands of NDVI for grassland classification.This paper explores the seasonal dynamics of four grasslands(meadow-steppe,steppe,desert-steppe,and sand-steppe)in Xilingol,Inner Mongolia using1999AVHRR and its NDVI .First,desert could be easily detected due to its low-flat NDVI pattern.Second,Ch3>3180and Ch5>3100in June could be applied to detect sand-steppe from other two grasslands.Third,Ch2>200in August or NDVI6~8 >1.2is used to differentiate good meadow-steppe from other land covers.The results have less details compared with TM-based classification,but there are still informations for long-term change detection,espe-cially for desertification.More works are needed to verify the potentials and limitations of AVHRR to detect poor meadow-steppe from normal steppe.
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    Optimal spatial allocation of water-land resources for sand /dust storm prevention and control in different ecological regions of the capital circle
    WU Shao-hong, YAO Hua-rong, YANG Qin-ye
    2003, 18 (6):  712-718.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (876KB) ( )   Save
    The capital circle including47counties and cities is one of the most important sand/dust storm source areas for sand/dust storms of recent years that have affected some metropolis such as Beijing and Tianjin.This situation is highly concerned by the whole society.According to the features of eco - geographical regions of the circle,Daxing is a case standing for the north rim of defoliated broad - leaved forest and shrub - grass region of North China,Huailai is for shrub and grassland of the Sangganhe River and Yanghe River Basins,and Zhangbei is for steppe of west Bashang Highland.Objectives of this study are to control and to reduce the possibility of sand/dust storm through re-allocation of the usage of water-land resources.Data for the study are from“Land Use Database”of China Resources and Environment Remote Sensing Data Base;1∶1000000Land Resources Map of China;and the local government statistics and field surveys.Analysis indicated that main problems for the causes of dust/sand storm occurrence are illogical land use structure,irrational land use allocation and unsatisfied water resource for land use requirement.Taking water resources supply and land-use types as the two most important restraining factors,gray linear programming model was applied to re-allocate water-land resources.Sand/dust storm prevention and control was taken as the first objective of the model.Economic development and sustainable regional development is the second.Different scenarios for different objective schemes were completed.Geographical information system(GIS)technology was employed to map the different scenarios /schemes.Land use type conversion based on water resources limitation is the main way to achieve the scenarios.Common measurements are sandy land controlling and bare land coverting.Converting parts of dry farmland to medium coverage grassland is the special measurements for Daxing;converting sloping(higher than15°)farmland to grassland is for Huailai;and reducing dry farmland and increasing coverage of grassland are for Zhangbei.
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    Study on landscape visual management system of Qinghai-Tibet railway
    ZHANG Hui, SHEN Wei-shou, ZOU Chang-xin
    2003, 18 (6):  719-725.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (289KB) ( )   Save
    The railway construction,owing to setting up the construction sites such as taking and discarding soil,sand and stone material fields and construction campsites,will certainly give rise to the strong visual impact on the landscape along the railway if the construction sites design irrationally.This paper refers to the visual management system(VMS)of the US Forest Service and the visual resources management (VRM)of the US Land Management Bureau.Using the techniques of RS and GIS in combination with the landscape characteristics along the Qinghai - Tibet railway,according to the location,area,relative slope and distance from viewer,the length of the construction sites along the railway and the adjacent landscape type of construction sites,visual management system of Qinghai - Tibet railway is analyzed and built and the visual impact of the construction sites were evaluated.On the basis of the above analysis,some suggestions were put forward so as to amend and redesign the construction sites.
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    Dynamics of waterfowl habitats in the Eastern Dongting Lake Nature Reserve between 1989 and 1998
    ZHAO Shu-qing, FANG Jing-yun, CHEN An-ping, LEI Gang
    2003, 18 (6):  726-733.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (513KB) ( )   Save
    Habitat alterations remain the greatest threats to the world’s biodiversity.This study characterized the dynamics of waterfowl habitats at landscape scale in the Eastern Dongting Lake Nature Reserve between1989-1998by using satellite remote sensing techniques.Landsat TM satellite images for1989and1998were classified and analyzed.The waterfowl habitats were grouped into eight types:water body,mudflat,sedge land,reed land,paddy field,dryland,forest and settlement.By applying geographic information system(GIS),patch-related landscape indices were generated and the spatial patterns of waterfowl habitat changes over the10-year period were analyzed.The study indicates that the area of the suitable habitats for waterfowl,such as water body,mudflat,sedge land and paddy field decreased,while the fragmentation of these suitable habitats increased between1989-1998,which was indicated by a decreased mean patch size.The changes in the area and fragmentation of the unsuitable habitats for waterfowl such as reed land,dryland,forest and settlement showed a different pattern.The analysis also suggests that great changes in waterfowl habitats had happened during the past10years,the highest change rates were from sedge land to reed land and from paddy field to dryland,which were10.66%and6.13%of the total area of the Nature Reserve,respectively.The above-mentioned dynamics of waterfowl habitats between1989and1998suggests that the suitable habitats for waterfowl in this study area degraded.This study also proposed feasible suggestions on the biological conservation and habitat management through analyzing the reasons that caused the degradation of the suitable habitats for waterfowl.
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    Analysis to flowing characteristics of forest resource and its products in China
    SU Yun, CHENG Sheng-kui
    2003, 18 (6):  734-741.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (332KB) ( )   Save
    It is valuable for understanding the relationships between resources flowing and envi-ronment and realizing the sustainable and supporting capacity of certain regional resources to their economic development to focus on the resources flowing and its dynamic characteristics in the social and economic system.Assuming that material input equals output,material flow analysis(MFA),which abides by the material balance principle,can be used to analyze resource flow through deforestation-production-consumption chain pertaining to forest resource.In order to have a quantitative comparison of fluxes of divergent forest products,the uniform physical units—timber volume equivalent (cubic meter)—is adopted to convert and calculate the amount of forest resource flows.Based on the statistics data of forest resource and its products including the data of their importation and exportation,this paper analyzed the flowing characteristics of the forest resource and forest products in China’s economic system during the Ninth Five-Year Plan period(1996~2000).The results showed that the amount of extraction or consumption of forest resources in China in the period is as large as16962×10,sup>4m3 per year,of which about 48.3%is imported from abroad.And also90.7%of native forest resources was flowed to the industry of manufactured log,saw-wood,veneer and so on,leaving only9.3%of its total for papermaking industry.So the paper pulp and the forest consumption by manufacturing paper had been chiefly depended upon importation of forest resources.Some 75%of forest resource in terminal consumption is primarily used in three categories that are architectural decoration,furniture producing and packing.Therefore,the authors suggest that China has to increase the utilization efficiency of forest resource and to increase the input of forest into the paper production for higher economic benefit for the purpose of controlling the exhaustion of forest resource and making it sustainable.The Strategies of making most of the forest resource and improving the ability to guarantee the supply security of native forest resource should be taken in China.
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    Research object,discipline system and development approaches of resource science
    FENG Zhi-ming
    2003, 18 (6):  742-752.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (458KB) ( )   Save
    Some basic problems on the development and construction of resource science,such as:the research objective and its content,disciplinary system and main subdisciplines,degree programs and curriculum setting of resource sciences are discussed in the article.It was indicated that the resource science is an integrated science,which focuses on the formation,evolvement,quality and quantity characters,changes spatio - temporal distribution of natural resources,and the relationship between natural resources and the progress of human society.Nowadays disciplinary system and main subdisciplines of resource science mostly include academic resource science,comprehensive(basic)resource science,departmental(applied)resource science and regional resource science.Comprehensive resource science can be further divided into seven subdisciplines,similarly,departmental resource science can be further divided into nine subdisciplines;as the pandect and application in specific area of resource science,academic resource science and regional resource science can be further divided respectively.A3d - network system model of the discipline development on resource sciences is put forward.Based on the above study,referring to major setting,degree programs and curriculum design of resource sciences in the foreign universities and colleges,as well as the domestic circumstance of some undergraduate and graduate resource - related disciplines and majors,it was proposed to conform the dispersal research contents of resources sciences,add cross - discipline division of resource science and technology to the national‘Discipline classification and its code’and‘List of disciplines and majors which can recruit graduate students and offer Doctor’s and Master’s degree’.In order to impulse the development of resource disciplinary system and the training of advanced talents in the field of resource science,college of resources and environment which were set up in some universities could also set up resource science,resources technology and resources management,the three undergraduate majors within the discipline of resource science,moreover recruit graduate and doctoral students.
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    Development of Chinese renewable energy resources GIS
    WANG Ying, LI Xiao-bing, HU Hai-bo, KONG Ping-tao, ZHANG Dong-hong, LI Jun-feng, WANG Zhong-ying, SHI Jing-li
    2003, 18 (6):  753-759.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (827KB) ( )   Save
    The exploitation of renewable energy resources is becoming a world wide trend because of it’s regeneration and cleanness.According to characteristics of renewable energy resources,a stable and simulative evaluation index system was set,including the resource monitoring index,facility index,economic assessment index and environment assessment index.Based on the index system,a renewable resources geographie information system was developed successfully.It was the first countrywide renewable resources information system which can provide standard data management and dynamic monitoring.The renewable sources include the wind energy,the solar energy,the biomass energy and the geothermal energy.The system adopted Client/Server mode,based on GeoMedia Professional.The spatial analysis function and the evaluation model will be helpful to assess resources quantity and support decision makers about the exploitation and utilization of China is renewable energy resources.
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    A genetic projection pursuit interpolation model for comprehen sive assessment of development level of regional water resources
    YANG Xiao-hua, YANG Zhi-feng, LI Jian-qiang
    2003, 18 (6):  760-765.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (260KB) ( )   Save
    It is difficult to establish the mathematics model and to control the precision of the assessment models in the multi - index complex system of water resources development.In order to solve the nonunniformity indexes problem and to raise the model precision for water resources development level assessment,a new model,genetic projection pursuit interpolation model(GPPIM),is presented for water resources development level assessment by using projection pursuit,genetic algorithm,interpolation technique and lots of sample data from the assessment standards of water resource development level.And its detailed step is developed.GPPIM remarkably improves calculation accuracy.The results of case studies in Xian show that GPPIM has the features of direct,credibility and effective.It proves a good assessment method in both classifying and arrangement,and could be applied to various water resources comprehensive assessment issues.
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    Study of ploughed field information extraction in rice area of Thailand
    ZHANG Feng, WU Bing-Fang, HUANG Hui-ping, LI Miao-miao
    2003, 18 (6):  766-772.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.06.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (818KB) ( )   Save
    Ploughed field information is an important information for farming,and serves as the foundation for studying land use and land cover change.In this study,the Landsat TM image is data resource while the geometric features including characteristics of spectrums,compactness and smoothness are taken into account first.The use of regional growing method allows the multi-resolution segmentation of an image into highly homogeneous image objects polygon.Based on ground observed information,standard deviation of spectrums,shape index,density and asymmetric of objects polygon are chosen as identification characteristics and fuzzy function is used to define the types of ploughed field.In multidimensional feature space,we adopt nearest neighbor method to classify every object polygon.Based on classification,the same class of adjacency is combined,and then the area and the proportion of the ploughed field are calculated.The object-oriented method is adopted to extract boundary of Thailand farmland.The field examination of ground observation and analytical result indicate that class match rate is90.25%,area equal rate,90.25%and shape consistency,90%.
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