Table of Content

    25 October 2003, Volume 18 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Experimental study on ecological use of water of a small catchment in Huangfuchuan area
    YANG Jie, Song Bing-yu, PIAO Shun-ji, TONG Chuan, GAO Qing-zhu
    2003, 18 (5):  513-521.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (401KB) ( )   Save
    Vegetation construction in a serious water loss and soil erosion area—— — Wufendigou small catchment has been performed for more than20years.The various plant communities of high-forest,shrub-forest and grassland are mosaically distributed over the small catchment.Its cover ratio of the vegetation to the area has come up to80%.Such vegetation construction has efficiently controlled water loss and soil erosion,but a quite amount of water resource has also been consumed,which is called ecological use of water(EUW).During the growing season of the year2002,evapotranspiration of the various vegetations,water storage capacity of the various soil types and precipitation etc.were measured in the small catchment.Then EUW of the four vegetation types was calculated as:①agricultural field,5321.3m3 /hm2 ;②the high-forest,4654.8m3 /hm2 ;③the shrub-forest,4047.8m3 /hm2 ;and④the grass-land,3244.3m3 /hm2 .While,EUW amount of different components in the catchment was esti-mated as follows:①EUW amount of all the vegetations,1500000m3 ;②the reservoir marsh,260000m3 ;and③the villages,4000m3 .Thus,the total EUW amount of the whole catchment was1700000m3 .It is noticeable that EUW amount of all the vegetations and the whole catchment exceeded precipitation about 200000and400000m3 in the same period respectively.This figure means that soil water storage capacity of the catchment would be consumed20~30mm.Therefore,con-struction of appropriate vegetation pattern and control of EUW amount would have very impor-tant role for maintaining stability of ecosystem and improving eco-environment.
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    Precipitation,soil water and soil water carrying capacity of vegetation
    GUO Zhong-sheng, SHAO Ming-an
    2003, 18 (5):  522-528.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (314KB) ( )   Save
    It is important to conduct research on precipitation,soil water and soil water carrying capacity of vegetation for forest management.In this paper,the authors investigated the canopy interception,surface runoff,plant growth,and soil water dynamics since2002in Shanghuang E-co-experimental Station in semi-arid regions of Loess Plateau.The results show that the water in-tercepted by the Caragana canopies is0.2~6.47mm with an interception rate of3.1%~53.3%.The total canopy interception is16.9%of precipitation.The runoff is0.24~1.5mm,1.5%~6.6%of rainfall.Precipitation is the only source of soil water supply.The vertical change of soil water can be divided into three layers:fast change layer,active layer and hypoactive layer according to precipitation impact on soil water and the character of the dynamic curve of soil water.The seri-ous stress of soil water on plant growth can change the color of leave,reduce plant's mean water content,lead to leaf drop,even to the dropping of most of the leaves,but does not lead to the death of Caragana shrub immediately in a short term less than a year.Soil water carrying capac-ity of vegetation is the ability of soil water to carry vegetation.The limit is the largest density of the vegetation community when soil water consumption is equal to or lower than soil water sup-ply in the root zone of soil layers from which plant roots can take and utilize water on an annual basis under modern management conditions.
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    The effect of vegetation restoration on soil stable infiltration rates in small watershed of loess gully region
    WANG Guo-liang, LIU Guo-bin, ZHOU Sheng-lu
    2003, 18 (5):  529-535.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (302KB) ( )   Save
    Changes occurred in soil stable infiltration rate,soil water stable aggregate and soil organic matter by stopped grazing in loess gully region of China.Data including soil stable infiltration rate,soil water stable aggregate and soil organic matter was collected through field experiments for present ecological study.Statistical analysis revealed that the soil stable infiltration rates vary significantly among different plant communities.And among communities having different plant life forms,the stable infiltration rates under bush and grass communities are faster than those under forest communities.Results of regression analysis include:(1)the soil stable infiltration rate has significant linear correlation with soil bulk density,total porosity and valid porosity;(2)the soil stable infiltration rate has linear correlation with layer thickness of fallen leaves and humus on soil surface;and(3)the soil stable infiltration rate has linear correlation with the content of soil humus and water stable aggregate.In loess gully region,bush and grass are superior vegetations than forest for ecological restoration,and among bush and grass plants,Artemisia sacrorum,Artemisia giraldii,Caragana korshinski,Stipa bungeana and Bothriochoa ischemum are superior plants for vegetation building.Although some trees can be planted for vegetation reconstruction in this region,yet,the forestation density,vegetation structure and site choice are also critical to forestation.
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    Evaluation of the lake recovery area eco-economy benefit in Dongting Lake wetland
    ZHUANG Da-chang, OU Wei-xin, DING Deng-shan
    2003, 18 (5):  536-543.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (324KB) ( )   Save
    In Dongting Lake area,because of human's unreasonable exploitation and utilization,the wetland's ecosystem degeneration and ecological value decline occurred,resulting in serious effect to regional economic sustainable development.Lake recovery is a main method to renew the ecological function of the wetland ecosystem.In this paper,the eco-economic theory and a range of evaluation methods are applied,which capture different components of the total economic value(TEV)based on the investigations and experiments for the purpose of evaluating the eco-economic benefit of the lake recovery skills.The main evaluation methods include:the method of tax rate of Sweden researching value,travel consumption method,Robert Constanza method,market value method and assets value method.The conclusion shows that the total assets value of the wetland resources in the Lake Recovery area is690214.13×10 4 $RMB,which is about four times that of before.The result suggests that renewing the wetland ecological environment,protecting the wetland resources and carrying out the assets management of the wetland resources in Dongting Lake area are the effective ways to realize the sustainable utilization of the wetland resources and to guarantee the sustainable development of the regional economy around the Dongting Lake area.
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    The study on biomass composition dynamics of community in degenerated steppe of Leymus chinensis after shallow ploughing
    BAOYIN Taogetao, LIU Mei-ling
    2003, 18 (5):  544-551.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (342KB) ( )   Save
    Grassland is a kind of important resources.With the increase in population and the over-grazing,the grassland all over the world had been degenerated.In order to find a feasible method to recover the degenerated grassland,we used the method of shallow ploughing to study the biomass composition dynamics of community in Degenerated Steppe of Leymus chinensis.Many statistical methods were used to study the changing laws of biomass composition of degenerated steppe of Leymus chinensis17years after shallow ploughing.The results showed that the increase in over-ground biomass have a singlet regression with recovering years after shallow ploughing.The biomass was affected more by the composition of community than precipitation during the prophase and metaphase of succession.The biomass proportion of Gramineae was dominant in all families,but during prophase and meta -anaphase of recovering the biomass proportions of Chenopodiacae,Compositae and Rosaceae raised,and they all had negative correlations with Gramineae.As far as biomass of different life forms was concerned,the biomass of rhizome grass was more than90%of the total productivity.The primary productivity and the changing laws between years of community had correlation with the over -ground biomass of perennial rhizome grass and perennial forbs prominently.From the biomass of community in different water ecological types,the biomass of xerophilous plant was dominant of all.Over -ground total productivity of community had obviously positive correlation with the over-ground biomass of xerophilous plant.The index of diversity of community appeared an open-up parabola after shallow ploughing.The biomass of Gramineae,Compositae,Rosaceae,rhizome grass,bunch grass and taproot forbs had obviously linear correlation with the index of diversity of community.So it could be seen that the method of shallow ploughing could improve the productivity and quality of grassland.
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    Study on the land use structure of Chinese counties
    FENG Zhi-ming, YANG Yan-zhao, SONG Yu, ZANG Peng-tao
    2003, 18 (5):  552-561.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1658KB) ( )   Save
    Some forerunners have studied regional land use structure.But there is no precedent of study on the land use structure of counties,especially on a nationwide scale.Therefore,this study will take land use structure of Chinese counties as a primary study object and discuss the structure of land use from a new point of view.First,it gathers,disposes and analyzes“The Sub - areas of Land Resource Utilization”,which is released by National Land Resource Survey Office.Then land use structure is classified by means of Least Square Error,with chosen guidelines and set up classification system.Second,according to the established principles,the primary classification results are analyzed and dealt with.Furthermore,by combining qualitative analysis from top to bottom and quantitative analysis from bottom to top,a scheme of classification,with six series and forty - four styles of land use structure,is set up.According to the result of classification,this paper selects the main styles of land use structures in China.By the method of percentiles,the authors make a conclusion that the following thirteen styles of land use structure make up of the main styles of land use structures in China:Gg,Ff,Uu,Ggu,Uug,Ffa,Ffau,Aa,Ggf,Aaw,Aaf,Aac and Ffua.There are1565counties belonging to those styles,making up79.86%of the total country's area.At the end,this paper discusses systematically on the main thirteen styles of land use structure characters,the rules of territorial distribution and the utilization perspective.
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    Dynamics and trends in cultivated land in lower Yangtze Valley in the past decade
    LI Xiao-wen, FANG Jing-yun
    2003, 18 (5):  562-567.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1466KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the multi-temporal remotely sensed data of TM,this research attempted to reveal the spatio-temporal trends in cultivated land in the lower Yangtze Valley by depicting and analyzing the intensity of cultivated land loss and transformation modes related to the cultivated landuse,the environmental impacts associated with cultivated landuse transformation were also discussed.The results showed that:1)The transformation between cultivated land and woodland,shrubs&water body acted as the main contributors to the changes in cultivated land,leading to remarkable reduction both in quantity and quality of the cultivated land in the lower Yangtze Valley from1988to1998,2)The transformation from cultivated land to the urban landuse reflected the rapid encroachment to farmland in the process of urbanization.This process is most obvious in the major urban areas of the Yangtze River Delta such as Shanghai,Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou District,Nanjing and Hangzhou,where urbanization is believed to be most intense nation wide in the past decade,3)The rate of cultivated land loss is0.77%,which mainly occurred in the Yangtze River Delta and Caohu Lake Basin where is dominated by the large area of high quality cultivated land well equipped with irrigation system.On the other hand,the newly developed cultivated land was observed mainly in coastal region and hilly area.In general,the resource dynamics of cultivated land in the lower Yangtze Valley in the past decade was dominated by the drastic decrease in quantity and the obvious decline in quality.A series of ecological problems were also highlighted in the process of landuse transformation related to the cultivated land.
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    Analysis of the evolved structure of land use in the lower Yangtze River basin
    ZHENG Guo-qiang, JIANG Nan, YU Xing-xiu
    2003, 18 (5):  568-574.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (175KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the Landsat TM data(1985and2000)and other correlative statistical data,the paper focuses on the research of the tendency of evolved structure of land use in the lower Yangtze River during the past15years.The research reveals the tendency of evolved structure of land use in the lower Yangtze River basin,the evolved types of land use structure and the relation between land use pattern and main socio-economic factors. The research results show that the general changing tendency of land use is the decrease in the amount of arable land area and the increase in the amount of construction land area including land for urban,mining and communication.In the amounts of the decrease of arable land,the construction land area from occupied arable land is the largest.Applying GIS technology and based on the quantity change model,degree change model and sample cell of77counties(cities),5types of the space-time evolved structure of land use in the lower Yangtze River basin have been divided.Using the method of Canonical Correlation Analysis(CCA),three canonical variables for the relationship between the change of land use in the lower Yangtze River and the socio-economic factors are identified.The first canonical variable differentiates arable land from other land use types and its canonical loading is0.875.The corresponding explanatory variable is gross domestic product per capita and density of population and their canonical loadings are respectively-0.801and-0.73.The second canonical variable differentiates land for urban,rural and communication use from other land use types and their canonical loadings are respectively0.992and0.591.The corresponding explanatory variable is gross population and secondary industry and their canonical loadings are0.734and0.642.The third canonical variable differentiates forestland and grassland from other land use types and their canonical loadings of forest and land are respectively-0.877and-0.748.The corresponding explanatory variable is gross agriculture value and primary industrial value and their canonical loadings are respectively0.706and0.639.
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    Urbanization base of city-land use expansion in the Zhujiang River Delta
    ZHANG Wen-zhong, WANG Chuan-sheng, XUE Dong-qian
    2003, 18 (5):  575-582.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (784KB) ( )   Save
    City-land use change(CLUC)in confusion during speedup urbanization is a common problem in many countries and also one of the best concerns of researchers.Correlative studies on it have signality in understanding mechanisms of CLUC and instituting policies of city-land use regulation.The author selected the Zhujiang River Delta in Guangdong,China,one of the regions with the highest level and the most rapid urbanization process as a case.Relations be-tween CLUC and urbanization of its courses,current status and special structure were discussed in this paper.And CLUC characters and trends under different levels,status and special struc-tures of urbanization also were analyzed.The paper first abstracted city-land use information from RS data of1990and2000in Zhujiang River Delta,and then revealed expansion characters and spatial disparities of city-land use.Also,by calculating synthesized index of CLUC(Ulc),28counties in investigated area were divided into3classes of CLUC:high expansion,low expan-sion and comparative stabilization.Meanwhile,the coupling relationship between CLUC and ur-banization was studied by comparing with relative urbanization levels of development.And cou-pling relationship in spatial structure between CLUC and urbanization was further dealt with.The main conclusions show the coupling relationship between CLUC and urbanization is quite good in Zhujiang River Delta from1990-2000.High expansion regions are centralized in the triangle with Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Zhuhai as its vertexes and in both sides along the main traffic lines.The trends of diminishing intension of CLUC are also showed from the cores centered around Guangzhou,Shenzhen and Zhuhai to the marginal areas.
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    The coupling effects of the exploitation of agricultural resources
    ZHU He-jian, HE Shao-fu
    2003, 18 (5):  583-588.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.010
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    For increasing the utilization ratio of agricultural resources,the coupling effects of agricultural system were studied in this paper.Based on the analyses of the characteristics of agricultural resources,the necessities of system coupling for the exploitation of agricultural resources were affirmed.The implications of agricultural system which was divided into six production strata were expounded especially theoretically.The characteristics of each production stratum were described,so as to provide certain theoretical foundation for the study of agricultural system coupling.The structure elements of agricultural system coupling were designed.Through the interrelatedness and interaction between the structure elements in the time sequences,spatial patterns and the ecological processes,the structure elements were coupled in an agricultural system for the mutual complement of superiority.This design was put into practice in mapping town and gained remarkable coupling effects.And how to bring the coupling effects into full play in the process of exploiting agricultural resources was discussed.
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    Study on Aloe vera L.irrigated by seawater in the sea-beach of South China
    LIU Lian, LIU Ling, LIU Zhao-pu, FU Yong-sheng, YUN Yan, DENG Li-qun, CHEN Ming-da
    2003, 18 (5):  589-594.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (289KB) ( )   Save
    In the non-cultivated land resources of sea-beach of Hainan Province,some experi-ments were conducted to study the effect of growth and yields of Aloe vera L.irrigated under different ratios between seawater and fresh water treatments A1(CK):100∶0;A2:90∶10;A3:75∶25;A4:50∶50;A5:25∶75and A6:0∶100.The results showed that:(1)The coefficients of the seedlings and the general growth of Aloe vera L.were treated as A3>A2>A1irrigated with certain concentration of seawater,but the result was descended when the concentration of seawater exceeded certain extent.Field experiments were carried out for3consecutive years,and results indicated that there are no significant distinctions between the dry and net weights of Aloe under A1,A2and A3,but root weight on A3is higher than the one on A1,the leaves weight on A4is higher than the A1too,and dry weight decreased within the scope of20%.These results showed that it is feasible to irrigate Aloe vera L.with seawater.(2)The time of nutrition period shifting towards the procreation is delayed on the condition of enhancing seawater irrigation.And it is propitious to enduring leanness of Aloe vera L.as a result.(3)The content of salt descended ra-pidly at the range of0~10cm of soil depth under these kinds of seawater irrigation practices.But the change is slow below10cm.And the content of salt of0~50cm of soil is around0.3%when irrigated with seawater without artificial controls.
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    Glacier change and its effect on surface runoff in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers
    YANG Jian-ping, DING Yong-jian, LIU Shi-yin, LU An-xin, CHEN Ren-sheng
    2003, 18 (5):  595-602.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1810KB) ( )   Save
    Glacier is an important component of eco-environment in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.The effects of glacier change on eco-environment has attracted re-searcher's attentions for a long time past in the source regions.GIS provides an efficient tool to analyze the status and change of glaciers.In the paper,the Geladandong area in the source region of the Yangtze River and A'nyêmaqên Mountains in the source region of the Yellow River are selected as the test areas.Based on RS data in the two periods-one in1969and the other in2000in Geladan dong area of the source region of the Yangtze River,one in1966and the other in2000in A'nyêmaqên Mountains of the source region of the Yellow River,glacier variations during the Little Ice Age(LIA)maximum,in1969(1966)and2000are analyzed by means of aerial photos,satellite images,topographic maps and the derived digital elevation models (DEM).Glacier changes in the whole source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers are inferred from study of the above two test areas.Tuotuohe basin is selected as typical area.The impacts of glacier variations on surface runoff are analyzed in Tuotuohe basin in the paper.The results indi-cate that the glacier area had decreased by about 1.7%from1969to2000in Geladandong area of the source region of the Yangtze River,while about 17%from1966to2000in A'nyêmaqên Mountains of the source region of the Yellow River,and that the largest retreat rate of glacier terminus is41.5m per year in the Geladandong area,while57.4m per year in A'nyêmaqên Mountains.Compared with glaciers in the source region of the Yellow River,withdrawal rate of glaciers is smaller and glaciers seem almost steady in the source region of the Yangtze River.Glaciers advance markedly from1969to1995in the source region of the Yangtze River and from1966to1981in the source region of the Yellow River.At this period the majority of glaciers is in advance or stable state.The changing time from glacier advance into retreat in the source region of the Yangtze River is about 10years later than that in the source region of the Yellow river.Glacier retreat results in about 7million cubic meters losses of glacier causes water resources every year in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers,respectively.Although retreat of glaciers causes increase in glacier melt water runoff,the effect of glacier retreat on sur -face runoff is relatively small because of small ampli tude of glacier change.
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    The impact of foreign direct investment and international trade on natural resource s and environment development in the coastal regions of China
    MA Li, LIU Wei-dong, LIU Yi
    2003, 18 (5):  603-610.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (316KB) ( )   Save
    The last several decades have witnessed increasing foreign direct investment (FDI)of transnational corporations from the developed countries into the developing countries and hence the rapid growth of international trade of the latter.The huge FDI influx have brought capital,technologies and management experiences to the developing countries and promoted their economic growth.On the one hand,the comparatively advanced production technologies with FDI inflow can help reduce industrial pollution in the developing countries;on the other hand,it may transfer pollution industries to these countries because they generally have loose control over industrial waste discharge.Moreover,the loose environmental regulations in the developing countries let firms enjoy a low production cost because of less pollution treatments,which in turn may make these countries specialized in the production and exportation of pollution-intensive products.Since the Opening and Reform in1978,especially from1992onwards,the coastal region of China has registered the fastest economic growth rate in the country,which can be partly attributed to the participation of the country in economic globalization.In the meantime,the pressures from environmental degradation and natural resources scarcity in the coastal region have been getting more and more intensified as a result of fast economic growth.Thus it is very important for decision-makers to understand the contributions of FDI inflow and export growth to the intensified environmental and resources pressures.It is from such a point of view that we will analyze the relationship between FDI inflow and international trade and the natural resources consumption and industrial waste discharge in the coastal region in China.Our major findings are that,in general,FDI-involved enterprises and exports have contributed less than domestic enterprises and domestic sales to the intensification of natural resources and environmental pressures in terms of the amount of resources consumption and industrial waster discharge per unit of industrial output or export value,though they have indeed contributed a lot to the total amount of natural resources consumption and industrial waste discharge.It should be noted,however,the findings can not be attributed only to the comparatively advanced production technologies of FDI-involved enterprises and the high environmental requirements of exported goods,but also to the sectoral structure of FDI and export.
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    On adjustment to the management policy of land resources
    CHEN Bai-ming
    2003, 18 (5):  611-616.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (213KB) ( )   Save
    In order to fit new situation,management policy of land resources should be adjusted in China.Firstly,the guideline of“paying equal attention to quantity and quality,synchronously giving attention to ecology”ought to be reviewed,because the guideline seems not to give prominence to ecology.Actually,lots of problems concerning quantities and qualities of cultivated land resources are caused due to the ignorance of ecological reconstruction.So the management of cultivated land resources should not be“synchronously giving attention to ecology”,but “paying preferential attention”and strengthen ecological reconstruction,including the establishment of law and statute in relation to the agro-ecological environmental protection and reconstruction,as well as the complementarity and consummation of the idiographic article in ecological reconstruction.Secondly,the guideline of“balance for gross cultivated land quantity in whole country”and“balance for abatement and reclamation of cultivated land quantity”ought to be reviewed,owing to the adjustment of the development process of industrialization and urbanization and correction of agricultural structure,as well as the need for ecological reconstruction.It is difficult to ensure that the total amount of cultivated land remains unreduced and to maintain balance between the amount of cultivated land used for other purposes and the amount of developed and reclaimed.The accession to WTO of China brings new encounter and opportunities,so the guidelines should not be mentioned henceforth,and may change to“enhance guaranteeing capacity of cultivated land resources for the integrated food throughput ”or other similar parlance.Lastly,the total amount of cultivated land within their administrative areas is not reduced at provincial level should be reviewed,owing to the impersonal presence of three ecological zones including eastern part,central part and western part which have different developing levels and the obvious regional characters in agricultural production,because of expansion of territory,multiplicity of natural environment,and imbalance of regional development.From the embodiment of regional industrial developed stratagem and promotion of concerted development in the regional economy,permission should be given to some administrative areas at provincial level for not necessarily maintaining balance in gross cultivated land quantity,and food scarcity may be solved by customs quota or unified food market in the whole country.
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    Discussion on ecological use of water research
    SONG Bing-yu, YANG Jie
    2003, 18 (5):  617-625.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (169KB) ( )   Save

    During the last decade,research on ecological use of water(EUW)has been greatly pro-gressed.The various concepts of EUW were propounded,such as the versions of physical geogra-phy balance and ecosystem stability etc.But the unified concept has not been conformed until now.According to the connotation of EUW concept,the various combinations of the six terms(e-cology,environment,eco-environment with use of water,water requirement,water consumption)can be merged into two terms:ecological water requirement and ecological use of water.EUW of zon-al vegetation is the basic research of EUW,which can provide scientific basis and goal for eco-logical conservation and vegetation construction.The definition of EUW concept can be suggested as follows:For maintaining normal devel-opment and relative stability of various kinds of ecosystems,the water which has to be consumed by the ecosystem and has to exist in the ecosystem is called ecological use of water(EUW).

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    Analysis and discussion of the static partial equilibrium model for the valuation of the ecosystem capital
    DOU Wen, SHI Pei-jun, CHEN Yun-hao, LI Jing
    2003, 18 (5):  626-634.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.016
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    The static partial equilibrium model is a kind of valuation model on ecosystem capital with good maneuverability.As there is still dispute in the field of the valuation of ecosystem cap-ital,this article analyzed the static partial equilibrium model in light of the purpose,characteris-tics,theoretical assumptions,approaches and methods of the job.Based on the analysis,several limitations of the traditional model were pointed out and an advanced model was proposed.Then we selected a watershed in Huangfuchuan valley on the Yellow River as our research area to compare the difference of the valuation results yielded from the traditional model and the ad-vanced model.We found that woodland and grassland would take a higher price in the advanced model but shrubbery would take a lower,and the total valuation yielded from the advanced model would be higher than that of the traditional model by about 1/3.
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    An analysis of the relationship between water resources and population-economy-society-environment
    LIU Chang-ming, WANG Hong-rui
    2003, 18 (5):  635-644.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (358KB) ( )   Save
    Water resources serve as the material base of the existence and development of human beings.It is a huge complicated system involving population,economy,society and environment.Water resources and water cycle are the keys in the system.Based on the summarization of the water resources concept and its attribute of nature,economy and society,this paper discusses the relationships between water resources and water cycle,water-balance structure,population,economy,society and environment in details.The paper also emphasizes the interactions of water cycle and water balance,water resources utilization and evaluation,economic activity,and water resources carrying capacity.Given an example of the Yellow River valley,the paper states that there is a closer relationship between water resources,population,economy,society and environment.The author gives a definite concept and connotation of water resources carrying capacity on the base of summing up the former studies.Summarizing the model system of water resources carrying capacity,the author also points out that it is very essential to use the system to depict the complex relationship between water resources and other four aspects,namely population,economy,society and environment.Considering the problem from the viewpoint of the regional sustainable development and alleviating the benefit conflict of distribution of water resources,we should clarify the following aspects:water demands for ecological environment,including rivers,animals,plants and land;water demands for population and social-economic development;and water environment capacity that can tolerate certain amount of pollutants.So,in order to promote the sustainable development of population,economy,society and environment,it is of great significance to simulate and predict the evolvement of the huge complex system with the combination of remote sensing,GIS and modern math theory,seek a reasonable allocation of water resources carrying capacity,and study the enhanced module of water resources carrying capacity.
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