Table of Content

    25 June 2003, Volume 18 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Position,classification and educational system construction of resource discipline
    SHI Pei-jun
    2003, 18 (3):  257-266.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (504KB) ( )   Save
    The root of environmental problems is how to use resources.Strengthen researches on resources science is a key measure to resolve a series of environmental problems resulted from improper resources utilization.Nowadays,while researches on environmental problems become more and more perfect and thorough,it is urgent for us to strengthen the construction of disci-pline system and education system in the field of resources science.This paper is based on the author's work in recent years,such as researches on resource problems,practices of education and actions on stimulating the discipline construction of resources.The author puts forward an initial framework of the position of resource discipline,classification of discipline system and the educational system construction of resource discipline.In other words,the natural,social and technical characters of resources have definitely located the discipline of resources in intersect disciplines,while the discipline of resources should be categorized into classes of physics,engi-neering and management sciences,that is,resources science in physical science(resourceolo gy),resources technology in engineering science(resourcetics)and resources management in manage-ment science(resources managementology)according to Catalogue of Disciplines and Majors on Awarding Doctor and Master Degree and Graduate Students Education promulgated by Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council and the State Commission of Education of China in1997.There are3first level subjects in resource discipline;they are resourceology,resourcetics and resources managementology.Resourceology includes3second level subjects,9third level subjects and31fourth level subjects;resourcetics includes2second level subjects,5third level subjects and19fourth level subjects.Resources managementology includes3second subjects,8third level subjects and9fourth subjects.The major of bachelor in resource field is resourceolo-gy,and the major of master is resourceology,resourcetics and resources managementology.The key curriculum system of education consists of3professional elementary curriculums,8profes-sional curriculums and22professional task curriculums,which add up to33curriculums.
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    Research on water quantity,water quality and its regularities of distribution in Northwest China
    GENG Lei-hua, CHEN Xiao-yan, JIA Jian, ZHONG Hua-ping, SHEN Fu-xin
    2003, 18 (3):  267-273.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (126KB) ( )   Save
    By using40years synchronal data of rainfall,evaporation and runoff,the precipita-tion,surface water resources,groundwater resources and total water resources excluding duplica-tions in Northwest China are calculated.They are7981.9× ,2164.8×108m3 ,1034.6×108m3 and2304.4×108m3 ,respectively.Based on the analysis of spatio-temporal distribution of water re-sources,the quality of water resources in Northwest China is evaluated,at the same time,6par-ticularities of water resources in Northwest China are,summarized.
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    Spatial distribution of precipitation extremum in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in northern China
    ZHANG Wen-bo, LIU Bao-yuan
    2003, 18 (3):  274-280.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (378KB) ( )   Save
    The ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in northern China is the fra-gile zone of ecological environment.Changes of rainfall extreme s will have tremendous influ ence on agriculture and animal husbandry.Daily rainfall amount of109weather stations from1971to1998is used to analyze the annual change and spatial distribution of rainfall extremes in the e-cotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in northern China.The rainfall extremes com-prise five parameters of annual rainfall,annual erosive rainfall,annual erosive rainfall days,an-nual rainstorm,and annual rainstorm days.The result shows that annual average erosive rainfall is between3.5and17.6days and rainstorm is between0and2.6days.Annual rainfall,erosive rainfall and rainstorm have increased gradually in recent 30years in most parts of the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in northern China,and the annual rainstorm and ero-sive rainfall have increased more quickly than annual rainfall which shows that the rainfall in-tensity has increased and the potential erosion capability of rainfall has enhanced in most parts.The areas of positive change trend center in Chifeng and Tongliao of Inner Mongolia,Wuzhai in Shanxi province,and Yanchi in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.The rainfall extremums have deceased in only some areas and the areas of negative change trend center in Xixian county of Shanxi province and Luochuan in Shaanxi province.
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    Agriculture water allocation analysis of irrigation regions of the Yellow River Delta
    PAN Zhi-qiang, LIU Gao-huan, WANG Zhi-yong, YE Qing-hua
    2003, 18 (3):  281-287.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (330KB) ( )   Save
    There are six agriculture irrigation regions in Dongying Municipality which is located in Yellow River Delta.Because there is not enough water for the Yellow River in recent years,finding a proper water allocation solution for different irrigation regions has become an urgent issue.Because it is not consistent between the boundaries of counties and irrigation regions,the statistical data are dealt with areal interpolation methods using remote sensing as the ancillary data,and the statistical data of various irrigation regions are obtained.According to the principle of marginal revenue in economy,the marginal revenues of agriculture water for each of the irrigation regions are computed using the statistical data that are dealt with areal interpolation method,then we get the marginal revenue curves according to which we establish the water allocation model for the irrigation regions of the Yellow River Delta.This model gives a better solution to the water allocation of agriculture in the Yellow River Delta in the view of economic revenue maximum.
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    Study on integrated benefit of water resources in arid and semi-arid irrigated district
    ZHOU Wei-bo, LI Pei-cheng
    2003, 18 (3):  288-293.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (293KB) ( )   Save
    The agricultural development in arid and semi-arid irrigated district depends on water resources,eco-environment and society factors.Research of water resources integrated benefit e-valuation in irrigated area is a core problem concerning development of water-saving agriculture,soil and water environment protection as well as coordinated economic and eco-environmental development.Now adays the evaluation models of water resources mostly use economic benefit maximum as optimized objection function,regardless of social benefit and eco-environmental benefit.Especially research of water resources synthetical benefit in irrigated district is inade-quate.Based on the conception of water resources sustainable development,it is pointed out that water resources optimized allocation should consider economic benefit,eco-environmental benefit and social benefit.Applying analytic hierarchy process(AHP),this paper established the mathe-matical model for integrated benefit evaluation of wa ter resources in irrigated district.The evalu-ation index system is proposed based on characteris tics of water resources development.The eval-uation index system includes3aspects:economic benefit,social benefit and eco-environmental benefit.These indices systematically reflect features in arid and semi -arid irrigated district.Be-cause of the complex relation of indices factors,synthetical benefit evaluation includes quantita-tive and qualitative aspects.The model and indicators made up are applied to evaluate syntheti-cally the status of water resources utilization in Baojixia Irrigated Dis trict in Shaanxi Province.The assessment model played an important role for the evaluation and management of water re-sources and water-saving program in the irrigated district.
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    Agricultural water use efficiency and its response to environments andmanaging activities
    XU Zhen-zhu, ZHOU Guang-sheng
    2003, 18 (3):  294-303.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (324KB) ( )   Save
    s:Global change stands for the trend of modern world science.The interactions between global change and terrestrial ecosystems,which include water cycle,carbon cycle,food and fiber,serve as the core.Global temperature will rise and the precipitation pattern will be changed as a result of global change.Doubled CO 2 will cause global temperature increase by about 4℃,that will bring on change of water resource(±10%).After50years from2000on ward,the temperature in western China will rise by1.7℃~2.3℃,and the precipitation will in crease by5%~23%under condition of continual increase in CO 2 concentration.There will be a negative effect on grain yield based on global comprehensive factors,which includes overall climatic change,socio-eco-nomic change,and population increase etc.,despite grain yield in crease due to eleva tion of CO 2 .Global change will aggravate fresh water crisis of the world.Ac cording to pre dic tion,fresh water will be insufficient for the essential need of the one sixth population in the world by2050.Agri-culture is the largest consumer of fresh water,accounting for about 75%of current water use.How to increase agriculture water use efficiency(WUE)has become a key task of saving fresh wa ter resource,promoting sustainable use of fresh water re source and en hancing socio-economic development in arid or semiarid areas at present.The concepts and formulas of agriculture water use efficiency are different with various scales and application objectives.They mainly include physiological concept based on leaf level,general concept based on field level and comprehen-sive concept based on regional level.Elevated CO 2 can enhance crop WUE,but has a little ef-fect on crop colony after long growing period.Moderate high temperature can promote crop WUE,but over high temperature is impossible for such an enhancement,and the soil moisture has the same situation.Run-off can be mitigated by building terraces,inter-tilling etc.There are sig nifi-cant effects of different planting patterns on crop WUE,for example,the capacity of soil evapo-ration will decrease from59%to41%by prac ticing intercropping of field crops with forest.There are also some effects of different soil fertili ties,different fertiliza tion methods,cov ers on field,dif-ferent species and/or varieties etc.on crop WUE.The main principles for in creasing WUE in-clude decreasing run-off and evaporation,and promoting tran spiration of crops.This re view de-scribed model for increasing WUE based on three major paths,including engineering of water saving,agronomic management and methods of controlling physiological proce dures,breed ing and gene engineering etc.Several key researching directions are also put forward at the end of this paper.
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    Preliminary study of Hongjiannao Lake's variation and ecological water demand
    TANG Ke-wang, WANG Hao, LIU Chang
    2003, 18 (3):  304-309.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (275KB) ( )   Save
    The Hongjiannao Lake is an important wetland in northern Shaanxi.A field survey was conducted in2002to investigate the Lake including its formation,recent change,ecological im plications and impacts of human activities.Based on data and remote sensing information col-lected,water consumption was calculated to estimate water budget of the Lake and explore the rea sons causing lake shrinkage in recent years.The result shows that the Lake has shrunk by over30%in the last ten years and continuous drought in the interior watersheds is the main driv ing factor.According to the importance of the wetland in the local fishery and ecological pro-tection,the minimal and appropriate ecological water demand was estimated and related counter-measures were suggested to facilitate the wetland preservation.
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    CLUE-S and its application for simulating temporal and spatial change of land use in Naiman Banner
    ZHANG Yong-min, ZHAO Shi-dong, P. H. Verburg
    2003, 18 (3):  310-318.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (647KB) ( )   Save
    Modeling is an important tool for studying land-use change due to its ability to inte grate measurements of changes in land -cover and the associated drivers.Based on an investigation of the existing land use change models,the authors use a model,CLUE-S,which can be applied to simulate land use change at regional extent.It is based on system theory to allow the in tegrated analysis of land use change in relation to socio-economic and biophysical driving factors.Most importantly,the characteristics of land use systems,such as connectivity,hierarchical organiza tion,competition,stability,resilience and so on,are almost completely included in CLUE-S that make it being capable of simulating different land use types simultaneously due to the explicit atten tion to the functioning of the land use system as a whole.To illustrate the functioning of CLUE-S and its validation,an application in Naiman Banner is presented in this paper.As one of the typical counties in Horqin Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia,great land use changes have taken place in Naiman over the past decades.Among those changes,the decrease of grassland,expansion of farmland and reforestation were the most important.The purpose of this case study is to simulate land use change over the past15years by CLUE-S using1985land use maps.Then CLUE-S's simulation results are compared with maps of the actual distribution of land use in2000for validation.The results indicate that CLUE-S is capable of classifying correctly85%of the grid cells into four categories:cultivated land and settlement (including villages and towns),forest,grassland,unused land and waters.Kappa equals0.80in the simulation at the basic grid level(500m×500m).Although the simulation is successful as a whole,the poor simula tion for forest can be found obviously.This failure is mostly caused by the lack of policy in the specification of the land use model.In fact,large amount of forest found recently in northern Naiman was planted guided by the policy of ecological protection.So special attention should be paid to policy factors in the future applications of CLUE-S.
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    Reponse of farm households' behavior to regional rural land transfer and agricultural land use change --A case study of Suzhou,Nanjing and Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province
    FANG Peng, HUANG Xian-jin, CHEN Zhi-gang, PU Li-jie, LI Xian-wen
    2003, 18 (3):  319-325.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (305KB) ( )   Save
    With the start of rural reforms in Mainland China in1978,rural factor markets(i.e.markets for labor,capital,land,and technology)began to develop despite the facts that there are still collectively owned.Since1992,a market economic system has been introduced that has accelerated the development of the rural land market.With respect to land ownership,few land sales by collectives still take place.Market functions,however,gain importance in land requisition by the government.With respect to land use rights,the wasteland market already performs as a competitive market.In order to learn about the development condition of rural land market in developed areas of China as well as to analyze the influencing factors more scientifically,this paper makes a typical analysis of the operation of the land market at farm household level in Jiangsu Province based on the inquisition in the southern,middle and northern parts of Jiangsu Province.To test the effects of response of farm households' behavior to rural land transfer on agricultural land use changes in developed areas in China,the field work of questionnaires of240farm households' behavior had been held in6administrative villages respectively distributed in Suzhou City,Nanjing City and Yangzhou City of Jiangsu Province.Based on feedbacks of the questionnaires,a model was established to analyze agricultural land use changes influenced by farm households' during regional rural land transfer.It showed that,farm households with higher non-agriculture income proportion or with more constructed farmland promote farmland to be transferved out.Along with the gradual improvement of the rural land transfer system,the administration function of the government on farmland transfer has been gradually declined,and as far as the type of transformation is concerned,the types of rural land use change from the economic crop production to the aquatic farming.Given that,the article finally put forward some suggestions concerning sustainable agricultural land use.
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    Differences of natural characteristics between two typical karst ecosystems in Lijiang River Basin
    CHEN Yu-dao, JIANG Ya-ping, ZHU Yin-hong
    2003, 18 (3):  326-332.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (690KB) ( )   Save
    By comparing the natural characteristics between two karst ecosystems,i.e.,typical peak forest plains and typical peak cluster depressions in Lijiang River basin of Guilin in China,their differences focus on karst forms,hypsographic features,hydrologic net,soil and vegetation,flood disaster,and system in-out function etc.Among them,karst forms,hypsographic features,exploitable and usable water and land resources are key factors that lead to differences between the two systems.Because of flat and wide terrain,abundant exogenous water and fertile soil,typi-cal peak cluster is of suitable foundation for urban development and population agglomeration.However,flood disaster,lack of surface water in dry season and surface collapse form environ-mental problems to social development.In the other way round,typical peak cluster depressions are characterized by numerous mountains,high terrains,deficient exogenous water,deep buried groundwater and infertile land.These features lead to poor living environment unsuitable for pop-ulation agglomeration.Natural villages are difficult to develop in the typical peak cluster depres-sions.
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    The evaluation of degradation of farmland eco-system of Poyang Lake zone based on extension engineering method
    AI Liang-hui, WU Ci-fang, CHEN Mei-qiu, XU Bao-geng
    2003, 18 (3):  333-339.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (312KB) ( )   Save
    The degradation of farmland eco-system is the main reason for low agricultural pro-ductivity and poverty of the local farmers.The object of this research aims at finding out the de-gree and distribution law of farmland ecological degradation,which is the foundation and prereq-uisite for the restoration and rehabilitation of farmland eco-system,and also is the important means of improving the productivity of farmland and alleviating the poverty of farmers of the Poyang Lake zone. With the method of the extension engineering,this paper evaluates the farmland eco-system of the selected area which is typically characteristic of the Poyang Lake zone.The result of evalu-ation shows that the degradation of farmland eco-system in the selected area is extremely seri-ous,the degraded land area covers16633.85hm 2 ,which accounts for39.96%of the total se-lected farmland.Based on the mapping of the evaluated result,it clearly displays that the de-graded farmland is mainly distributed along the Poyang Lake and in low hilly area.According to the result of evaluation,this paper analyzes the mechanism of the degradation,and explains its current status and evolving law of farmland ecological degradation.The degrada-tion of farmland eco-system is mainly due to constant decline of vegetation cover rate,which lead to water and soil loss.Inappropriate human activ ities such as excessive exploitation of land re-sources and deficient infrastructural investment,to a certain extent,inevitably result in the degradation of the farmland ecosystem.At the end,this paper puts forward three main measures to restore and reconstruct the de-graded farmland eco-system in Poyang Lake zone,that is improving the vegetation cover rate,restoring woodland and wetland from cropland and increasing the agricultural infrastructure in-put.
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    Sustainable utilization of weed diversity resources in agroecosystem
    CHEN Xin, TANG Jian-jun, ZHAO Hui-ming, Katsuyoshi SHIMIZU
    2003, 18 (3):  340-346.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.012
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    Weeds are accompanying plants that influence the growth and production of crops in agroecosystem.With the properties of high tolerance to adverse environment,fast growing and high reproduction,weeds become important biological resource and play an important role in ecological balance in agroecosystem.Weeds can provide germplasm for crop genetically modification,can be used to develop medicines and control insect pests,can be developed as ornamental plants,and can be used as pioneer plants to restore degraded environment,promote nutrient cycling and conserve soil biota diversity.Weeds control by chemicals is the major factor that leads to weed diversity decrease.It is suggested that seeking approaches that favor to weed species diversity conservation and have no adverse effect on the growth of young trees in young orchard,building up weed species data base and develop ing benefit genes from weeds are the foci for the further studies.
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    The simulation for the restoring succession rule of the degenerated grassland communities in Inner Mongolia
    LIU Yong-xin, HAO Dun-yuan, MA Ke-jian
    2003, 18 (3):  347-352.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.013
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    According to the monitoring data under fenced condition in typical grassland of Inner Mongolia from1983to1993,a cellular automation model is established to discuss the typical steppe grassland community succession.The computer simulation result is close to the dynamic tendency of actual community restoration succession,so the hypothesis that proposed for estab-lishing the model proves to be correct.Furthermore the grassland degenerated procedure can al-so be simulated using this model,and the cognition to the degenerated grassland and re storation procedures is also deepened.
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    A primary study on regional resources security strategy
    CHENG Yu-sheng, YAN Yi
    2003, 18 (3):  353-362.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (163KB) ( )   Save
    At present,resource security problem has attracted worldwide attention both from developed and developing countries.It is known to all that Zhejiang province is short of natural resources.With the quickening of urbanization and industrialization,the antinomy between resources' supply and demand has become more and more seriously.Some resources are deficit,especially land and water resources,hence seriously threatening the sustainable development of economy and society in Zhejiang province.On the basis of this background,from the connotation of resources security,this paper brings forward the gross thoughtfulness of regional resources security system taking Zhejiang Province as research object at first.Then,the paper analyses the status quo of regional resources and resources supply.Finally,the author deems that there are five ways to establish regional resources security system,include"intensive-type"regional resources utilization system,"open-type"regional resource supply system,"synthesis-type"regional resources caring system,"applicable-type"regional resource technology system and"prewarning-type"regional resources management system,and so on.
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    Methodology and case study of ecological evaluation for land consolidation
    WANG Jun, LUO Ming, LONG Hua-lou
    2003, 18 (3):  363-367.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.015
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    Taking Yuyang district of Yulin city in Shaanxi province as an example,methods of ecological evaluation for land consolidation are explored using GIS combined with mathematical model in this paper.And some measures concerning land consolidation for cultivated land,woodland,grassland and unused land having different integrated ecological evaluation values are put forward.These conclusions are drawn as follows:(1)Cultivated land with ecological evaluation values varying between80and100can be classified as protected area of basic farmland,its consolidation measures should be focused on further improvement in irrigation works and crop quality;consolidation of artificial woodland should be directed at planting fruit trees and developing special fruit products of locality;and unused land can be taken as reserved resources of cultivated land for reasonable development.(2)Cultivated land with values ranging from65to80can be classified as farmland protected area and its consolidation measures can be concentrated on the design of windbreaks and soil and water conservation measures;the consolidation measures of woodland and grassland should keep them from being degradated and reasonably develop fruit trees;and the unused land could be developed into cultivated land to an appropriate way without damaging eco-environment.(3)Cultivated land with values being50~65,the consolidation measures would gradually return the cultivated land to grassland and woodland,protect original vegetation and increase vegetation coverage of the unused land.(4)Cultivated land with values of0~50,consolidation measures should be taken to return cultivated land to grassland and woodland,increase vegetation coverage of the grassland and woodland,and forbid the unused land to be turned into cultivated land.
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    Mapping critical areas of resources using RS &GIS -- a case study on a micro-watershed in northern part of India
    YANG Xue-fei, XU Jian-chu, P. K. Joshi, P. S. Roy, K. K. Das
    2003, 18 (3):  368-374.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (476KB) ( )   Save
    Resource utilization and resource degradation varies with changes in spatial and temporal characteristics of resources.It is important in resource management to identify areas which are prone to degradation(hot-spots of resource utilization),and to apply specific management to such areas accordingly,in order to prevent resources and environment degradation.The present study is a pilot project carried out at a micro-watershed in northern India to exploit the method of mapping the hot-spots of the resource utilization.Four parameters are considered practically as the major factors,viz.importance of the resource,resource requirement,resource accessibility and disturbance index.GIS and RS are employed for the spatial analyses.As a result,the study area is divided into three hot-spot resource utilization zones:high critical area,medium critical area and low critical area.These reflect spatial differences of resources utilization and resources degradation from high to low respectively.
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    Overview on ecological-economic integration model research
    GAO Qun
    2003, 18 (3):  375-384.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.03.017
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    An increased awareness of integrated ecological-economic models to understanding long-term and large-scale problems is evident in recent years.This paper presents a review of modeling approaches used in integrating economic and ecological aspects of environmental and resource and economic development problems.Although derived from a common linguistic root,ecology and economics vary greatly and are often conflicting disciplines,each with temporal and spatial frameworks that seem to preclude the concerns of the other.But economic and eco logical systems are interconnected in many ways with feedbacks and synergies.A monodisciplinary ap-proach can only provide partial analysis and undermines the complexity of ecological-economic systems.Modelling of ecological and economic systems is a complex,yet essential,task.Ecologi-cal economists must use an interdisciplinary approach to link existing models from dis parate disciplines.The improved modelling software and computer hardware have made at least the technical part of the task much easier.This paper views ecological-economic integra tion in the sense of combining processes,instead of one process and a variable.Sustainable economic and ecological systems require a fully integrated multidisciplinary model.The uses of models are un-derstanding,assessing,and optimizing of complex ecological-economic system.The modelling approaches reviewed in this paper reflect those characters.Three major topics are addressed.First the theoretic base of ecological-economic models is discussed.Next,the major methods used in ecological-economic models are summarized.Third-ly,sets of ecological-economic models about environmental and resource problems are de-scribed.
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