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    25 August 2003, Volume 18 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Exploration,exploitation and management of marine sand resources in Hong Kong of China
    ZHANG Qiao-min
    2003, 18 (4):  385-393.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1559KB) ( )   Save
    Exploitation of marine sand ranks today as the world second most important marine mining activity after oil extraction.Since the1980s,the Hong Kong Government spent about HK$170million and carried out a series of exploration activities of marine sand resources for coastal reclamation fill material.About 740×106m3 of marine sand in22sites were revealed in1828km2 of Hong Kong waters,of which420×106m3 in9sites have been set aside by the Gov-ernment as their thick cover,seriously contaminated cover or environmentally too sensitive to dredge is suitable for exploration.From1990to the end of2002,about 270×106m3 of marine sand have been dredged from areas of seabed in Hong Kong to provide50%of the fill material for reclama tion,totaling2,100ha of new land.Based on data of marine geophysical investigation and marine drilling,Quaternary sequence stratigraphy and geological model of marine sand occur-rence in Hong Kong waters was established,acoustic turbidity on the seismic reflection profiles associated with Holocene marine sediments with gas was revealed and tested.The Hong Kong Government took the policy of unified exploration and unified management for marine sand re-sources,placed em phasis on environmental and ecological impact assessments for sand dredging,used exhausted marine sand borrow pits for disposal of uncontaminated mud and contaminated mud.All the above exploration achievements and management experience can be used for impor-tant reference of marine sand exploration and management in other places of China.
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    Co-management and joint-conservation for the fishery resources in the East China sea area
    GUO Wen-lu, HUANG Shuo-lin, CAO Shi-juan
    2003, 18 (4):  394-401.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (572KB) ( )   Save
    China,Japan and Korea have exploited the fishery resources in the East China Sea area long time before,and the area is the traditional fishing ground for the three countries all the time.As over-fishing for a long time,the commercial stocks of the area have been declined in general,so some actions must be taken urgently to conserve the stocks.However,most of the fish-es in this area travel seasonally along the coastal lines of the three countries,therefore,the stocks shall be conserved successfully none but cooperation among the three countries.More-over,this also complies with the provision of the United Nations Convention on the law of the sea.The three countries have cooperated in the fisheries production and management for a long time,which provide a good foundation for co-management and joint-conservation to the fishery resources in the East China Sea area.Nevertheless,co-management and joint-conservation is still faced with some difficulties at present,so this paper proposes that different schemes should be practised in different phases,that is,the first priority is to control fishing efforts in the near fu-ture and to implement total allowable catch(TAC)system in the long term.
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    Discussion on optimizing the energy structure of eastern coastal areas of China basing on renewable portfolio standard
    FAN Jie, SUN Wei, REN Dong-ming
    2003, 18 (4):  402-411.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (575KB) ( )   Save
    Eastern coastal areas of China have been developed rapidly since the implementation of reform and opening policy.However,with the high-rapid development of economy,energy con-sumption in this area increased greatly.The energy structure,basing on coal,has resulted in seri-ous ecological and environmental problems.Exploiting renewable energy resources and introduc-ing Renewable Portfolio Standard(RPS)are the important approaches to optimize the energy structure of Eastern China and realize sustainable utilization of energy.The present paper,ac-cord ing to the international experience of executing RPS in other countries and conditions of ex-ploiting renewable energy resources in China,distinguishes broad sense(including large-and medium-scale hydro power)from narrow sense (not including large-and medium-scale hydro power)and quantitatively an alyzes the quota.The research shows:(1)The narrow-sensed renewable en-ergy quota is5.1%and broad-sensed renewable energy quota is18.4%.(2)Western China con-tributes90.2%to balance the whole country's renewable energy resources if not including large-and medium-scale hydropower.Including large-and medium-scale hydropower,the figure is63.8%.Exploiting small hydropower is more important to Western China.(3)Power corporations of East-ern China accomplish quota not only by buying Tradable Green Certificate(TGC),but also by ex-ploiting renewable energy resources in Western China.Implementing RPS is the gradual process of reasonably utilizing renewable energy re sources and reducing the cost.The execution of RPS attains the destination of sharing the benefits and taking on the responsibilities between Eastern China and Western China.
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    The intensity and modes of urban landuse growth in Shanghai
    LI Xiao-wen, FANG Jing-yun, PIAO Shi-long
    2003, 18 (4):  412-422.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1239KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the multi-temporal remotely sensed data of TM&ETM,the magnitude,in-tensity and spatial heterogeneity of urban growth in Shanghai region were studied by integrating the urbanization index with GIS gridding analysis,the results indicate that:1)The urban landuse growth relatively centralized along the directions represented by Baoshan-Minhang,and Jiading-Pudong,which also formed south-north and east-west axis of urban growth respectively.The ur -ban landuse composition(i.e.,residential&industrial landuse)and growth rate differed much in each stage,which led to the urban growth dominated by different urban landuse types and thus pre sented different performance.The urban landuse growth were controlled by the residential lan- duse from1987to1990firstly,and then transformed being composed of residential and in dustri-al landuse from1990~1995.Finally,the industrial landuse acted as the key contributor to the ur -ban landuse growth,2)The urban growth modes were distinct in each stage,and showed the gen-eral trend from"single core growing"(urbanization is organized by single large city central)to the modes of"multi-core growing"and"point-axis growing"(urbanization are co-launched by city cen-tral,satellite towns and main traffic lines),thus the whole urbanization network has been setup and upgraded greatly,followed by the urban landuse function changed to be more complicated and multi-use oriented,3)the magnitude,rate and contribution to urban landuse growth showed strong difference for the landuse of city growing and developing zone.The city growing landuse dominated by the residential area decreased sharply in contrast with the rapidly increased trend for the landuse of developing zones,which manifest that the establishment and expansion of de-veloping zones played a key role in urban landuse growth in the past decade.
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    Study on the irrigation systems in agriculture by seawater
    LIU Zhao-pu, LIU Ling, CHEN Ming-da, DENG Li-qun, ZHAO Geng-mao, TANG Qi-zhi, XIA Tian-xiang
    2003, 18 (4):  423-429.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (419KB) ( )   Save
    From 2000to2002,the field experiments and indoor simulating experiments were carried out in Laizhou,Shandong Province to study the effect of seawater irrigation on the growth of Rumex plant and sunflower and Helianthus tuberosus L.The results were as follows:(1)In the condition of the total rainfalls and irrigation being212.9mm and1500m3 ·hm-2 respectively,the soil salinity content in0-40cm soil layer was rarely affected by0∶1,1∶9,1∶3and1∶1proportions of seawater and freshwater.And the indoor simulating experiments indicated that the rate of desalinization in1m soil layer reached17%after irrigated with1∶1proportion of seawater and freshwater.These results indicated that soil salinization could be controlled by the proper proportion of seawater irrigation in semiarid region.(2)The soil moisture evaporation in semiarid region was lowered greatly due to seawater irrigation.Soil water suction in30d soil profile irrigate d with1∶1proportion of seawater and freshwater was only a half of that in0∶1(to tal freshwater).(3)The biomass yields of Rumex plant and sunflower and Helianthus tuberosus L.irrigated with1∶1proportion of seawater and freshwater had no differences from that with total of freshwater,and the biomass yields increased by100%in contrast to non-irrigated.
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    Study on soybean throughput based on cultivated land resources restriction in China
    LIU Ai-min, FENG Zhi-ming, YAN Li-zhen, YU Ge
    2003, 18 (4):  430-436.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (147KB) ( )   Save
    Theoretical studies have been made systematically on the relationship between farm-land resources and crop productivity.After analyzing the economic benefit of soybean in North-east China and Huang-Huai-Hai Plain,studying the impact of resources and environment on soy-bean production,evaluating the maximum production scale in the main soybean producing area on the county level,the maximum production of soybean is estimated to be28~34million tons.Be cause there is serious spatial dislocation in soybean production and processing,the soybean trade strategy of"Importation into the South and Exportation out of the North"should be carried out.Though the Sanjiang and Songnen plains in Northeast China Plain in have great potential productivity of soybean,and are also the main maize producing area,expanding soybean culti-vated area will inevitably result in the decrease of maize cultivated area.So considering the limit-ed farmland area,the integrated balance between farmland resources and farm produce should be studied.
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    Changes of pan evaporation in the recent 40 years over the Yellow River Basin
    QIU Xin-fa, LIU Chang-ming, ZENG Yan
    2003, 18 (4):  437-442.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (718KB) ( )   Save
    Evaporation(evapotranspiration),on the one hand,is an important component in the heat and water balance of the Earth's surface,and is the component of the hydrologic cycle most directly influenced by land-use and climate change.On the other hand,evaporation(evapotran-spiration)consumes much of the water and energy that are available on the surface of the earth and therefore influence all hydrological and most meteorological processes.Basic knowledge for evaporation change over global or regional scale redounds to understand the law and causations of climate change.Up to now,studies on global climate change are,more and often,concerned with temperature and precipitation.Researches on the influence of climate change on evapora-tion(evapotranspirtation)are in small numbers.Based on observational data from1960~2000of123meteorological stations,near and in the Yellow River Basin,the spatial and temporal distri-butions of trends for pan evaporation are studied.The results show that,although the annual mean air temperature over the Yellow River Basin has,on average,increased0.6℃over the past40years,the rate of pan evaporation over the Yellow River Basin has,on average,steadily de-creased,especially in summer and spring.Compared with the1960s~1970s,the rate of annual pan evaporation of the1980s~1990s has decreased136mm or7.5%.Spatial distribution of the change rate shows that this trend is general but not universal,pan evaporation has significantly decreased over the upper and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin,and increased in a small degree over the middle reaches of it.
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    Ecosystem services and their valuation of terrestrial surface water system in China
    ZHAO Tong-qian, OUYANG Zhi -yun, WANG Xiao-ke, MIAO Hong, WEI Yan-chang
    2003, 18 (4):  443-452.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (394KB) ( )   Save
    As a special resource,water is essential for all the living things on earth.Chinese ter-restrial surface water ecosystems are classified into four types of rivers,reservoirs,lakes and marshes.According to their features,two kinds of aquatic ecosystem services are identified in this paper:prod uct supply,and environmental and life support services.The product supply and direct value were estimated and evaluated in terms of water supply for daily uses,industial and agricultural and other economic sectors,hydro-power generation,navigation,re creation and tourism,and aquatic products.The supporting services and their ecological economic values were assessed and evaluated in terms of flood control,river sedimentation transport,water resource storage,soil conservation,environmental purification,wild life habitat providing,C fixation,and biodiversity maintenance.The direct values of Chinese terrestrial surface water ecosystem services in2000were estimated as4263.91×108 yuan RMB,and indirect values were5546.92×108 yuan RMB.The total value was9810.83×108 yuan RMB,and was up to10.97%of the GDP of China in2000.Water ecological services play an even more important role in the society than its products.
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    A study on the sustainable development indicator system and its application for evaluation of regional agro-ecosystems
    WANG Fen, WU Jian-jun, LU Jian-bo, HAN Ming-chun, JIANG Ning
    2003, 18 (4):  453-458.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (350KB) ( )   Save
    It is significant for studies on sustainable development at regional level to establish a sustainable development indicator system for evaluation.Methods for establishing the indicator system and quantifying indicators were explored in the paper,based on the meaning of sustain-able development and a case study of Xiaoshan district in Hangzhou City.The fluctuation of sus-tainable development status of the Xiaoshan system during last decade was quantitatively de-scribed using the established indicator system and a model of the degree of sustainable develop-ment(D).D was defined as a function of development location(L),development potential(P)and harmonious degree(H).The results showed that L of the Xiaoshan system was increasing steadily;the status of the system,inferred from the trend of P,was more and more approaching the planned goal;the H of the system was gradually progressed,which meant that the coupling among the in-dicators was strengthened;and that D was increased in fluctuation.The economy was growing quickly in the past decade;the conditions of people's life,science and technology,and medical care were greatly improved;the increasing rate of population was also controlled.However,natu-ral resource conservation and construction of ecological environment ,due to increasing of popu-lation and development of industry,should be further strengthened although inputs were increased in recent years.Recommendations were also made for better development of the system in the fu-ture,and it is believed that the study would be a good model for studying other re gions.
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    New thought and pattern under the eco-environmental restriction in the Yellow River Delta
    MAO Han-ying, ZHAO Qian-jun, GAO Qun
    2003, 18 (4):  459-466.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (314KB) ( )   Save
    The Yellow River Delta is a region abundant in land resources,oil,natural gas,water and sand and ocean resources.But because of large scale exploitation in recent 20years,a series of ecologically environmental problems appear,such as soil salinization-alkalization,vegetation system degradation,seacoast eroding,biodiversity destruction.Based on the thought of old"extension exploitation"model and the request of sustainable development,the paper brings forward a new thought in order to harmonize the relationship between the exploitation of resources and ecological protection in the Yellow River Delta.The new thought is that the exploitation should be moderate and the ecologically environmental protection should be the first.The goal is to construct the ecological economic region in the Yellow River Delta.Based on the high effective utility of resources,this region should develop a new pattern.The pattern is characterized by circulation economy and chain economy.And then the paper discusses the main exploitation patterns of natural resources,such as water,land,energy sources and ocean bio-resources in the Yellow River Delta.
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    The current water pollution of Taihu drainage basin and the new management proposals
    LIU Zhao-de, YU Xiao-gan, WANG Zhi-xian
    2003, 18 (4):  467-474.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (351KB) ( )   Save
    Taihu drainage basin is one of the most developed areas in China.With rapid social and economic development,the gross economy of the lake basin occupies an important position in the whole country.Because of mainly dependent on the input of resources and labour forces,and on the excess consumption of resources and the destruction of the eco-environment for the re-gion's economic development,the eco -environment has been drastically deteriorated,especially water body pollution and eutrophication are becoming increasingly serious.Through analyzing the field samples of the main lakes and channels in the Taihu drainage basin,we acquire the latest situation of water quality of the lakes and rivers in the Taihu drainage basin,the spatial distribution of eutrophication of the lakes and rivers,and the relationship between drainage net-work and rivers and lakes.Our research shows that the rich alimentation of lakes and rivers in Taihu drainage basin is still serious,the water quality coming out of the lakes is better than that of coming into the lakes.Lack of pollution prevention measures,the"zero action"of Taihu hav-ing not improved the water quality essentially is the fundamental reason for water pollution in the Taihu drainage basin.Suggestions on the establishment of the new networks of rivers and lakes in the Taihu drainage basin,integrated management of the lakes and rivers and intensifi-cation of the improvement and rectification of the water environment of the Taihu drainage basin are put forward.
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    Relationship of ground biomass and plant diversity at different desertification stages in Horqin sandy grassland
    CHANG Xue-li, LU Chun-xia, GAO Yu-bao
    2003, 18 (4):  475-482.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (215KB) ( )   Save
    This paper mainly studied the relationship of the species biodiversity and the ground biomass at different desertification stages in Horqin sandy grassland in terms of species richness and function diversity.Correlative analysis suggested that the relationship of ground biomass and plant diversity was related to the basic unit of calculated biodiversity indices.Further research drew the following conclusions:(1)the function diversity,based on the life form classification of annuals,perennials and shrubs,had a close relationship with ground biomass at the fixed dune,semi-fixed dune and mobile dune stages.The correlative coefficients were-0.534,-0.574,and-0.431respectively.Functional diversity,based on the classification of legume,C3 and C4 plant species,had a good correlativity with the ground biomass at semi-fixed dune stage and the correlative coefficient was0.722.(2)The life form diversity had a negative relationship with ground biomass at the different desertification stages,which indicated that the lower evenness of life form composition of sandy land vegetation should increase ground biomass.(3)According to the species richness change traits of the different life form categories at the different desertification stages,the annuals had highest occupation frequency,perennials and shrubs in turn and the richness reached to9(±6.0),3(±2.6)and1.8(±1.0)respectively.Meanwhile,the average important values of life form showed that C4 plant had the best fitness among C4 ,C3 and legume plant and the value were48(±12.3),39.7(±3.6)and12.3(±14.3)respectively.
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    Probe into program of eco-environmental construction in Ngari region of Tibet
    DENG Kun-mei, YANG Ru-rong, ZHANG Ming-tao
    2003, 18 (4):  483-491.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (391KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper,the present situation,course of evolution of eco-environment in Ngari prefecture in Tibet were thoroughly analyzed.And the regional eco-environmental problems such as air temperature rise,precipitation decline,grassland degradation,vegetation vanishing,fre-quent occurrence of natural disasters,malmanagement of eco-environment were also explored.On the basis of the results,the important issues existing in the development were discussed and the following items for sustainable development were projected:1)The sand control engineering pro-ject of Shiquanhe drainage basin and its surrounding region;2)construction of nature protected areas;3)making use of biological engineering measures to scientifically eradicate rats,protect and extend livestock food chain project;4)to set up grassland eco-environmental monitoring and early-warning system;5)to enhance eco-environmental construction of small towns;6)to develop multi-function shelter forest systems dominated by fuel forest and timber forest;7)to carry out farmland ecosystem construction;and8)to build project for controlling contaminations of mining and livestock products processing activities.And the following countermeasures are identified as:(a)Ngari region want to establish and perfect eco-environmental management and supervision or-ganization;(b)to launch investigation of the general situation of nature protected area;(c)to in-tensify law enforcement,and protect and harness the eco-environment according to law;(d)to in-crease scientific and technical input,develop green property and guarantee the environment safe-ty;and(e)to economize fuel forest,and pursue contract system of wood and grass properties,and promote the eco-environment to take the road towards sustainable development.
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    Analysis of the impacts of human activities on landscape patterns in inland river basin of arid zone:Taking the middle reaches of Hetian River as an example
    PENG Ru-yan, LIU Lian-you, ZHANG Hong
    2003, 18 (4):  492-498.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (617KB) ( )   Save
    Inland river basin in arid zone is a main residence,but its ecological environment is very vulnerable.The impacts of human activities on local landscape patterns are severe.It is of practical significance to the eco-environmental protection and social development through study-ing the impacts of human activities on landscape patterns in inland river basin of arid zone.Taking a typical locality as an example,the landscape pattern maps in1959and2000of the middle reaches of Hetian River are compiled using RS and GIS,and the landscape patterns are measured.Based on the maps and measured data,the impacts of human activities on landscape patterns in inland river basin of arid zone are discussed.The analytic results indicate that macro-landscape patterns in inland river basin of arid zone do not change obviously.On a small scale,human built reservoirs and artificial ditches,regulated and controlled spatial reassignment of local waters impact the eco-function of water during landscape development,hence the local landscape pattern.The existence and increase of artificial landscapes affect more and more the development of local landscape pattern,such as artificial ditches,artificial reservoirs,farmland,and residential area.These denote that human activities are not a dominant factor of local land-scape pattern development,but its forces and incidence of impact on landscape patterns in in-land river basin of arid zone are enhancing increasingly.Landscape patterns in inland river basin of arid zone are affected by natural and artificial factors,the dynamic change is rapid,and its chain domino effects are dramatic,so human activities in inland river basin of arid zone should be cautious.
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    Study on the ecological characteristic of soil animal resources in Yunshan National Forest Park
    TANG Ben-an, TANG Guo, TANG Min, LI Cui-e
    2003, 18 (4):  499-504.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (189KB) ( )   Save
    From1998to2001,we studied the ecological characteristics of soil animal resources in the Yunshan National Forest Park of China.Of the9769total soil animals,the invertebrates include31genera in13classes and6phyla.Almost all subtropical soil animals are found to be distributed in Yunshan National Forest Park.Among them,Acarina,Collembola and Nematoda are dominant species;Hymenoptera,Diplura,Protura,Enchytraeidae and Diptera are common species;and the rest is rare species.Analysis and comparison of the community ecosystem of soil animals indicate that affected by terrestrial biodiversities,there are abundant soil animal species with complete primitive community structure,apparent zonal transitivity of faunal composition and mountaintop Arthropoda of individual partial heavy ecological characteristic.The research results show that the Yunshan National Forest Park situated in Nanling,Xuefengshan and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau,the three different kinds of mountain system of China,is not only a surface bio-ecological gene pool with rich resources but also an extremely precious underground bio-ecologi-cal gene pool.
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    Simulation of winter wheat growth by using ALMANAC crop growth model
    GAO Xiao-fei, XIE Yun
    2003, 18 (4):  505-510.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.04.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (149KB) ( )   Save
    Winter wheat is the main crop in Huang-Huai-Hai region.Producers can benefit from accurate simulation of winter wheat.Based on experimental data,we adjusted several param eters of ALMANAC crop growth model,and simulated the growth of winter wheat.The result shows that ALMANAC crop growth model can accurately simulate leaf area index(LAI )and the yield of winter wheat.The average ratio of simulated LAI and measured LAI is1.0552,and R 2 is0.7021,the maximum error of simulated biomass is-6.01%,and maximum error of simulated yield is-5.41%,the model can also reveal the reason s that affect the growth of winter wheat.
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