Table of Content

    25 April 2003, Volume 18 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Trend analysis of hydrological components in the Yellow River basin
    LIU Chang-ming, ZHENG Hong-xing
    2003, 18 (2):  129-135.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (320KB) ( )   Save
    This paper attempts to detect the trends of hydrologic cycle components in the concerned region.The hydrologic components are separated from monthly precipitation and natural runoff series based on the schemes proposed herein.Mann-Kendall method has been applied to detect the trends of the hydrologic components.For the Lanzhou station,only surface runoff(RS)showed a decreasing trend.As for the Huayuankou station,the results showed that RN,RS and RG have a strong decreasing trend,while the decreasing trend of the other components is not significant enough.Furthermore,impacts of human activities,climatic changes and annual runoff coefficient change on hydrologic cycle components have been discussed.The study suggests that increasing water resources development and utilization may be the most important factors for the frequent drying-up in the main course of the Yellow River.Moreover,the similarities of the trends in precipitation and natural runoff suggest a linkage exists between climatic change and hydrologic cycle change.With regard to intensified human activities and climatic change,knowledge about the regional hydrologic cycle change should be seen as the base for searching for an adaptation strategy in water resources use.The Yellow River basin,located in the semi-humid,semi-arid and arid climatic zones,is characterized by vertical hydrological cycle,which means a strong evapotranspiration.Thus,it is important to control that part of water consumption through adjustment of water utilization.Water-saving agriculture must be one of the most important ways to alleviate water resources deficit in the region.Therefore,industrial structure adjustment should also be under consideration for sustainable development in the basin.
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    The analysis of drought related climatic and vegetative features in the Yellow River basin
    YANG Sheng-tian, LIU Chang-ming, SUN Rui
    2003, 18 (2):  136-141.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (508KB) ( )   Save
    The Yellow River basin covers a large area,which occupies the most part of North China.The drought is ecological and environmental feature in Yellow River basin.Drought is classified into different types,usually including climatic drought,agricultural drought,hydrological drought and society drought.In this article,we employ the climatic and remote sensing methods to analyze the drought feature s in Yellow River basin on the aspects of climate and vegetation.Based on the precipitation and temperature data and NDVI data of AVHRR from1981to1998(1999),we calculate the value of drought index and NDVI mean deviation in Yellow River basin and use the linear regression slope ratio and correlation model to study the climatic and vegetative features of drought.After comparing the trend of climatic and vegetative features,we divide the drought in the Yellow River basin into four sub-regions and respectively analyze the temporal and spatial features of drought over the last18years.We conclude that the climatic features in the Yellow River basin is obvious during1982to1999and the region to the east of101°20'E,which occupies71%of the Yellow River basin,is threaten by drought;there is no drought trend in the headwater region to the west of101°20' E on the aspect of climate and vegetation;and the vegetation in the irrigated area is not influenced by climatic drought.
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    Multple time scales analysis and cause of runoff changes of the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River
    JIANG Xiao-hui, LIU Chang-ming, HUANG Qiang
    2003, 18 (2):  142-147.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (341KB) ( )   Save
    Because of the influence of climate change and human activities,runoff change has oc-curred.This paper analyzes the natural runoff series of the upper and middle reaches of the Yel-low River with the theory of wavelet transformation,reveals multi-time scale changes rule of runoff,and discusses the influencing factors of runoff multi-time scale changes.The results showed that climatic conditions such as precipitation mainly controlled river runoff variations.But varia-tions in drainage basin underlying surface and local climate factor brought by human activity af-fected natural annual runoff.The results are important to know runoff changes and to exploit wa-ter resources of the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River.
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    Effect of horizontal resolution of raster DEM on drainage basin characteristics
    WU Xian-feng, LIU Chang-ming, WANG Zhong-gen
    2003, 18 (2):  148-154.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (502KB) ( )   Save
    The use of digital elevation models(DEMs)has made it possible to extract drainage network,calculate and store geomorphic parameters for hydrological modeling at different scales.Raster DEMs are the main data source used in hydrology.The effects of different grid cell sizes of raster DEMs on drainage basin characteristics were evaluated.Eight basins ranging approximately from102 km2 to104km2 with elevations from129m to2618m in Xiaolangdi and Huayuankou section at the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin were examined in this study.Using DEMs with6different horizontal resolutions with grid cell sizes varying from100m to1000m,basin parameters included those commonly used in hydrology and geomorphology such as area,elevation,slope,channel length,drainage network are extracted and derived.According to the result,grid size affects the accuracy of derived drainage network,especially the case in the flat areas.Slope is more sensitive to the resolution of DEM than the area,the length and the shape is.Because of the different parameters derived from DEMs of different resolutions,the concentration time and lag time thus calculated vary more apparently in the same basin.
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    Estimation of evapotranspiration in the Yellow River basin using integrated NDVI
    SUN Rui, LIU Chang-ming, LI Xiao-wen
    2003, 18 (2):  155-160.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (625KB) ( )   Save
    It is important to estimate surface evapotranspiration(ET)precisely in the process of basin water resources evaluation,drought monitoring and crop production simulation.In this paper,a relationship between annual evapotranspiration,integrated NDVI and relative moisture index was firstly established.Based on the relationship,the spatial distribution and dynamic change of annual ET in the Yellow River basin in recent 20years were estimated and analysed by using integrated AVHRR NDVI data,monthly mean air temperature and precipitation.In order to validate the model,the observed runoff data from hydrological station were also used.The results show that the mean annual ET of the Yellow River basin is389mm with great interannual variations.ET is the highest in southeast and the lowest in Erdos Plateau.
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    A comparative study on models for estimating evapotranspiration
    LIU Shao-min, SUN Zhong-ping, LI Xiao-wen, LIU Chang-ming
    2003, 18 (2):  161-167.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (337KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the observational data of eddy correlation method,we validate some methods for estimating latent heat flux,which include Bowen-ratio method,aerodynamics method,Penman-Monteith model and Shuttleworth-Wallace model.Analysis of the performance and sensitivity of these models shows that Penman -Monteith model and Bowen -ratio method are the best in performance,while Shuttleworth-Wallace model and aerodynamics method are the worst.Penman-Monteith model is not sensitive to the uncertainty in these model parameters.The measured precision ofΔe andΔT affect the performance of Bowen -ratio method greatly,while the observation height of wind,temperature,humidity and heterogeneous surfaces affect the performance of aerodynamics method greatly.Shuttleworth-Wallace model is sensitive to surface resistances.
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    A review of the studies on distributed hydrological model based on DEM
    WANG Zhong-gen, LIU Chang-ming, WU Xian-feng
    2003, 18 (2):  168-173.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (320KB) ( )   Save
    Recent advances in remote sensing,geographic information systems,and computer technology make significant innovation in hydrological simulations.The distributed hydrological model based on DEM has become an attractive tool to studying hydrological processes and evolution laws of water resources under changing environment in a new era of digital information.This paper reviews the development of DEM based on distributed hydrological model and discusses its characteristics.To response the spatial changes of hydrological processes,a watershed must be subdivided in to distributed hydrological model.The three common techniques based on DEM to discretize a watershed are summarized.A basic model structure and the ways to construct model parameters are put forward.A brief comment on the current distributed hydrological model research is given in the conclusion.
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    Analysis of land use change in Horqin Sandy Land and its surrounding area during the past15years
    ZHANG Yong-min, ZHAO Shi-dong
    2003, 18 (2):  174-181.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (645KB) ( )   Save
    Based on2times spatial data of Horqin Sandy Land and its surrounding area,land use change was analysed with the transformation matrix and the spatial layout of9important land use change forms from1985to2000.It was found out that the increase of cultivated land was one of the most important changes,which was mainly transformed from grassland,forestland,unused land,and water bodies as well.Especially,the area of grass land that was transformed to cultivated land was the largest,being4932.0km2 or63.85%of the total transformed area,with the characteristic of expanding outwards from the rim of Horqin Sandy Land.In addition,water surface decreased by7.72%,which was crucial to the evolution of environment in the study area and more attention should be given in the future.Finally,after correlation evaluation and document investigation,it was clarified that the rapid growth of population and the economic development for survival were the main driving forces of land use change in Horqin Sandy Land and its surrounding area during the past15years.Furthermore,macro-policies such as land exploitation and ecological protection were also important human driving forces of land use change.
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    Valuation of fragile agriculture ecosystem services in loess hilly-gully region:a case study of Ansai county
    GAO Wang-sheng, DONG Xiao-bin
    2003, 18 (2):  182-188.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (301KB) ( )   Save
    Much research work has been done since the introduction of the conception of the eco-system services.However most of the work has been focused on macroscopic(global or national)scale which could hardly touched upon the fragile agroecosystem disturbed by human,especially the aggravated eco-environmental problem in Loess Plateau because of severe soil erosion and bad natural condition.The present study tries to provide some new references for rehabilitating e-cological environment and improving productivity of the agroecosystem.Using different methods such as market value,substitution engineering,shadow price,opportunity cost,this article calcu-lated the value of agriculture ecosystem services including conserving soil (Es )and water (Ew),fixation of CO2 and release of O2(Ea ),maintaining nutrient circling(En)and decontaminating en-vironment(Ee )in Ansai county of loess hilly-gully region.The results showed that the gross value of ecosystem service was31698.70million yuan,or170times of production value(Ep).This implied even the fragile ecosystem displayed an important service function though it had been disregarded in a long period of time.In Ansai county agriculture ecosystem provided great eco-logical services for economic productivity.Various services values respectively were En2848141.82ten thousand yuan(89.85%),Ew139136.26ten thousand yuan(4.39%),Ea 132511.32ten thousand yuan(4.18%),Vp18505.66ten thousand yuan(0.58%),Es 25824.60ten thou-sand yuan(0.81%),and Ee 5750.80ten thousand yuan(0.18%).On the other hand,this also showed that there was imbalance between ecological productivity and economic productivity in the study area,which was a general problem throughout the Loess Plateau region.So the effec-tive way in rehabilitating ecological environment is to enlarge grassland and forest area so as to improve soil and water conservation function.
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    Ecological assets valuation of the Tibetan Plateau
    XIE Gao-di, LU Chun-xia, LENG Yun-fa, ZHENG Du, LI Shuang-cheng
    2003, 18 (2):  189-196.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (316KB) ( )   Save
    Based on a series of1∶1000000maps of natural resources of China,6categories of ecological assets were divided,which included forest,grassland,farmland,wetland,water body and desert.By means of GIS,the1∶4000000Ecological Assets Map of Tibetan Plateau was compiled and the relative data were calculated.According to partial global ecosystem services value evaluation results obtained by Costanza et al.(1997)along with responses of ecological questionnaire s from specialists of China,this paper established the ecosystem services value unit area of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems.We used the ecological assets value table as a basis and also adjusted price value by biomass and then,the ecological assets value of the Tibetan Plateau was estimated.The results indicated that ecosystem services value of Tibetan Plateau is some 9363.9×108 yuan annually,accounting for17.68%of annual ecosystem services value of China and0.61%of the world.The value of soil formation and disposition provided by ecosys-tem s is the highest,which occupies19.3%of the total ecosystem services value and then,the value of waste treatment takes up16.8%,water conservation value,16.5%and biodiversity,16%.The forest and the grassland ecosystem s offered the main ecosystem services value,being31.3%and48.3%of the total value provided by different ecosystem types,respectively.
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    The analysis of ecological footprints of Macao in2001
    LEI Kam-peng, WANG Zhi-shi
    2003, 18 (2):  197-203.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (303KB) ( )   Save
    Because human beings consume the products and services of nature,every one has an impact on the earth in some ways.Does the human load stay within the earth's carrying capaci-ty?The ecological footprint concept has been designed to answer this question and estimate peo-ple's impact on nature.The ecological footprint of any defined population(from a single individ-ual to a whole city or country)is the total area of ecologically productive land and water occu-pied exclusively to produce all the resources consumed and to assimilate all the wastes generated by people.The ecological footprint method presents a simple framework for natural capital calcu-lation.The concept and its calculation method of ecological footprint set up by Wackernagel M are used in this paper.The article calculates and analyses the ecological footprint of Macao in2001.The ecological footprint ledger is composed of three main sections:1)biotic resources;2)energy consumption;and3)trade balance.Based on the ecological footprint concept and analytical framework,human consumption can be compared with natural capital production at the regional level using existing data.Macao is situated on the southern coast of China.The total land area,currently25.4sq km,con sists of Macao Peninsula,and the islands of Taipa(linked to the city by two bridges)and Coloane(linked to Taipa by a causeway and reclaiming land from the sea on either side of the causeway).The population of Macao is493000,the highest density in the world.Macao is de-pendent on Chinese mainland for fuel,water and most of its food.The ecological footprint of Macao is2.993hm2 per capita in2001.It is lower than that in Hong Kong and other developed countries.The reason may be1)the manufacturing industry has moved to mainland China in re-cently years;2)more and more residents go to Zhuhai for consumption;and3)high density of the living area can save more energy.The bio-capacity of land is only0.011hm2 .Tourism is the most important economic industry in Macao,which is efficient and profitable,accounting for about 60.7%of GDP.Ecologically,footprint indicates the relation between con-sumption and the natural resources.In Macao,the average output of1hm2 footprint is US$4202,3.8times the average output of the world,and the tourist output of1hm2 footprint is US$15258,almost13.8times that of the world.The distribution of Macao footprint is89.5%in the Macao Peninsula,about 1554times compared to its real area.The analysis shows that the ecological pressure and density is tremendously high in the Macao Peninsula.
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    The underground root biomass and C storage in different forest ecosystems of Changbai Mountains in China
    YANG Li-yun, LI Wen-hua
    2003, 18 (2):  204-209.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (261KB) ( )   Save
    Based on available information,this study deals with the fine root biomass in different forest ecosystem s along different altitudes and the total root biomass in some forest ecosystems.The correlation analysis is used between the natural conditions and the tree root biomass.From high altitude to low altitude(the sequence of forest ecosystem from high to low:betula ermanii forest,moss-betula ermanii dark-conifer forest,the transition belt of dark-conifer forest,moss-pi -nus koraiensis dark-conifer forest,and pinus koraiensis mixed broad-leaf tree forest),the fine root biomass is458.92gm-2 ,537.42gm-2 ,390.35gm-2 ,397.25gm-2 and660.21gm-2 ,respective-ly.The corresponding total root biomass is2578.00gm-2 ,2794.00gm-2 ,2680.00gm-2 ,3459.25gm-2 and5155.00gm-2 .The total root biomass is correlated with precipitation and active accumu-lated temperature along different altitude.But the fine root biomass is not correlated with these factors.The study also measures the carbon and nitrogen contents of the tree root and the soil in different forest ecosystems.At the same time,the study gathers the data about fallen wood and litterfall.On these basic,the study estimates the underground carbon storage in different forest e-cosystems along different altitudes.It is15493.88gm-2 ,21005.74gm-2 ,19819.24gm-2 ,14232.51gm-2 and7344.02gm-2 from high altitude to low altitude,respectively.
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    Discussion on future energy development strategy in China judged by oil & gas resources status
    ZHOU Zong-ying, TANG Yue-gang
    2003, 18 (2):  210-214.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (107KB) ( )   Save
    It is estimated that the recovery resources of oil&gas are about 14billion tons and9.3trillion cubic meters respectively in China.But comparing with the world average,it is rela-tively poor in oil&gas resources in China.At present,the exploration maturity in oil resources is rather high,the increasing potential of oil reserves and output is limited in the future,the pro-portion of oil in the primary energy consumption can only increase slightly,keeping at25%~26%.But the maturity in gas resources exploration is quite low,it is in the high speed develop-ment stage,the proportion of gas in the primary energy consumption is expected to increase rather rapidly,hopefully from 2.5%in2000to9.4%in2015.Correspondingly,the proportion of coal in the energy mixture is to reduce a bit,but it still maintains its foremost status in the pri-mary energy consumption.Therefore,according to the features of oil&gas resources,energy consumption and energy requirement in China,the following six suggestions concerning energy development strategy are put forward:to economize energy and to reduce consumption,enhance efficiency of energy utilization,carry out sustainable development strategy;to develop vigorously the technology of clean coal;to make great effort in oil&gas exploration and production relying on science and technology progress,so as to optimize energy structure;to implement the"going abroad"strategy and to participate actively in the international oil&gas resources market;and to exploit new kind energy vigorously,and to realize diversification of energy supply.
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    Studies on the methods of mangrove inventory based on RS,GPS and GIS
    LI Chun-gan, TAN Bi-zeng
    2003, 18 (2):  215-221.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (308KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper,the method of mangrove inventory combined"3S"with ground invento-ry was studied.Through adopting a series of technological methods including image processing,visual interpretation and mangrove mapping,in-situ checking and correcting the boundary line of the sub-compartment of the map,woods condition factor inventory and GIS space analysis,a number of technological problems have been solved effectively and a kind of scientific method for mangrove inventory has been advanced.These technological problems include that the low area precision and inadequate accuracy of the spatial position localization of the general method,low classification precision of remote sensing,and the low efficiency and the great labor intensity of the method of GPS.
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    Land use change dynamics spatial pattern in ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry and its driving force analysis
    ZOU Ya-rong, ZHANG Zeng-xiang, ZHOU Quan-bin, ZHAO Xiao-li
    2003, 18 (2):  222-227.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (362KB) ( )   Save
    Human interventions in natural systems have resulted in large changes in vegetation composition and distribution pattern.The Land Use Change and Climate Change(LUCC)study under the International Geosphere Biosphere Program(IGBP)is a major initiative in this regard.Ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry is a special ecological fragile zone in China,especially in northern China.Study on this zone will enable us to find a solution to this problem.Using Landsat TM,all TM images are processed with the aid of geometric correction and project images,getting the landuse dynamic coverage under MGE environment by contrasting the1980s and2000TM images.From the core of ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry,this paper calculates the distribution of ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in China by combining expert knowledge with practice based on RS&GIS.Then it analyses the farmland and grassland dynamic change spatial pattern in ecotone between agriculture and animal hus-bandry during recent ten years.The farmland is mainly converted into forest and grassland with the greatest farmland dynamic change in central and western parts of Inner Mongolia.The grass-land is mainly converted into farmland and land for urban construction,distributing in contigu-ous zones of Inner Mongolia with Heilongjiang,Jilin and Liaoning provinces.Finally,this paper discusses the cause of land use dynamic change.Economic development,population growth and agriculture restructuring are the main causes for farmland conversion.Human activities and na-ture are the driving forces for grassland dynamics change,but human activities play the leading role,obviously due to overgrazing.How is the land use dynamic change in ecotone between agri-culture and animal husbandry related with environmental impact and what does the grassland re-duction limit the regional development are further studied.The main driving force is human eco-nomic activities,which pave the way for us to make best use of land.
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    Analysis on the development mode and its benefits of the efficient eco-agriculture in different regions in Three Gorges Area
    FANG Chuang-lin, FENG Ren-guo, HUANG Jin-chuan
    2003, 18 (2):  228-234.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (358KB) ( )   Save
    Because of the complicated physiognomy and fragile eco-environment in Three Gorges Area,industrialization of the efficient eco-agriculture should be advocated as the main direction of the future economic development,and the most effective development mode of the efficient e-co-agriculture should be adjusted according to the local conditions,so that Three Gorges Area can be constructed as a new industrial intensive economic zone and a new efficient eco-agricul-tural zone,where the development is comprehensive and the emigration reallocation is at a high level.Therefore,five types of development mode on efficient eco-agriculture are put forward:the efficient eco-agricultural development mode of the cycle type between water and land along the river valley which can be described as"fruit-grain-vegetable-pig-firedamp-fishery"(GLCZZY);the efficient eco-agricultural development mode of the mutualism type in the low mountain hilly area which can be described as"orange-grain-economic crop-livestock-mulberry-firedamp "(JLJXSZ);the efficient eco-agricultural development mode of the soil and water conservation type in the low mountainous area which can be described as"forest-grain-oil plants-potato-grass-livestock"(LLYSCX);the efficient eco-agricultural development mode of the famous special local type in the middle-high mountainous area which can be described as"dried fruit-herb-tea-to-bacco-vegetable-grass"(GYCYCC);the efficient eco-agricultural development mode of the mini cycle type in the courtyard which can be described as"fruit -vegetable -flower -poultry -firedamp -fishery"(TGCHQZ).These efficient eco-agricultural development modes have had a good application effect,so they will improve the eco-environment,increase the benefit of the in-tegrated agricultural development and industrialization,and promote the sustainable development of the economy and eco-environment in Three Gorges Area.
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    Study of response of northern pediment plain of Qinling Mountains to global warming and its impacts on fruit development
    DING min, HUANG Chun-chang
    2003, 18 (2):  235-239.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (295KB) ( )   Save
    All countries in the world are paying more and more attention to global change.Glo-bal change has regional diversities.In order to find out it's regional characteristics,statistical,regressive and trend analysis are used in this paper.Based on climate data on the northern pediment plain of Qinling Mountains from1959to1999,the study indicated that climate in the region become warmer and dryer during the last41years.Sunshine hours have been decreasing due to air pollution.Climate evaluation for apple plantation indicates that climate becomes unsuitable for apple growth in this area.High temperature in summer,higher relative humidity and the shorter sunshine hours will affect apple growth,resulting in further decline of apple quality and the aggravation of apple diseases and insect pests.Therefore the other types of fruits such as grapes,peaches and persimmons can be developed and the acreage of apple can be reduced.
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    A theoretical discussion of ecological and environmental water requirements of river course
    WANG Xi-qin, ZHANG Yuan, LIU Chang-ming
    2003, 18 (2):  240-246.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (302KB) ( )   Save
    For solving the problems occurred in the process of surface water utilization,the the-ories of ecological and environmental water requirements of river course are studied in this pa-per.The following conclusions are mainly drawn:(1)Based on the analyses of the old concept s of ecological and environmental water requirements,definitions of ecological water requirement and environmental requirement are given.(2)The ecological water requirements and environ-mental water requirement of river course are expounded especially theoretically.Firstly,the con-cepts related to the research of ecological and environmental water requirements of river course have been reviewed.Secondly,the mechanism and composition of ecological and environmental water requirements of river course are discussed according to the balance of river water quantity.Thirdly,according to the impacting intensity of human being on surface water,the exploitation and utilization of water resources are divided into four stages,and the characteristic of river e-cosystem of each stage is described.The impacts of river flow reduction on the whole river e-cosystem are analyzed.Finally,the concepts of ecological water requirement and environmental water requirement of river course are given on the basis of the above analyses.The research of this article can provide some theoretical foundation and basis for the study of ecological and en-vironmental water requirements of river course.
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    The value and characteristics of the Microula Benth
    WANG Qin, REN Ji-zhou, GUO Zhao-xia, AN Hai-mei
    2003, 18 (2):  247-251.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (225KB) ( )   Save
    Microula Benth is a special plant distributed on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the eastern periphery of it.The seed oil of the plant is rich in linolenic acid and linolic acid,the content of unsaturated fatty acid reaches over85%.The seeds contain18kinds of amino acid,of which the human body needed amino acid content occupies39.74%.There are abundant mineral nutrient elements and the crude protein contained in the residues is as high as23.96%.It possesses multiple application purposes as medicine,food and fodder.Therefore,the multilevel exploitation and utilization of Microula Benth resources serve as an important measure for improving productivity of the grassland ecosystems.
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    The practice of circulation type society and eco-city in Japan
    LI Hai-feng, LI Jiang-hua
    2003, 18 (2):  252-256.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.020
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    This paper introduces the practice in construction of the circulation type society and eco-city in Japan in recent years,and tries to explore the development direction of the eco-city construction in future China.
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