Using a multiple-destination-based zonal travel cost method to evaluate the recreational benefits of Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve
2004, 19 (5):
TCM (travel cost method) is one of the classic methods to value the recreational benefits of outdoor recreational resources.Existing TCM include three basic models:ZTCM (Zonal TCM),ITCM (Individual TCM) and RUM (Random Utility Method).Although these three models have rather matured,none of them could offer perfect solutions to the widely existing multiple destination problem,which makes it a difficulty and hotspot in TCM studies.Analysts have approached this problem in a few different ways,yet multiple destination trips,especially long vacation trips,remain difficult to work into conventional models in a convincing way. Due to the the biforked structure of travel costs of Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve,the paper forwards a new method-MZTC (multiple-destination-based zonal travel cost method) which combines Mendelsohn et al.'s(1992) "portfolio of sites"model and travel cost separation methods,to value the recreational benefits of Jiuzhaigou in 2002.In this analysis,individuals are viewed as selecting a "portfolio of sites" for a trip,and each portfolio is viewed as a separate commodity with its own demand equation.Jiuzhaigou's share of travel cost in each portfolio is computed according to the entrance fee,and its share of consumer surplus calculated.The mean consumer surplus is 37.77,93.30,618.36 and 733.66 yuan per person respectively for'nearby-Jiuzhaigou','nearby-Jiuzhaigou & Huanglong','distant-Jiuzhaigou & Huanglong' and 'distant-Jiuzhaigou, Huanglong, Ermeishan and Leshan' subsamples.It can be seen that distance exerts an extraordinarily important effect on the estimates,and that for subsamples with similar distances,the consumer surplus goes up with the increase of the destinations in the'portfolio of sites'and decrease of Jiuzhaigou's comparative share of trip cost in each portfolio.Then all the shares of consumer surplus are added up,with an outcome of 471 million yuan for total tourists,or 375.92 yuan per person,which is rather similar to the mean sight-seeing value of Rosenberger and Loomis' (2001) up-to-date review on outdoor recreation valuations in America and Canada.The total value is then further calculated plus actual travel costs,with an outcome of 1 246.10 yuan per person.
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