Table of Content

    25 August 2004, Volume 19 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Life flow of the Yellow River
    LIU Xiao-yan
    2004, 19 (4):  409-417.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (158KB) ( )   Save
    All the rivers have anti-disturbing and self-restoring capacities with varying water flows.But if the flow is lower than a limit,the river system would be destroyed and the river's function would be lost.This flow should be called the life flow of the river.Then,how to understand,estimate and assure the life flow are still a very important issue.Due to the inadequate human intervention to the Yellow River water resources and sediments,the problems then caused such as river channel shrinkage,water quality degradation,wetland deterioration,etc,considerably affected the health of the lower Yellow River.This paper indicates that in order to restore the healthy life of the river,water demands for sediment transportation,pollution control and wetlands ecosystem have to be maintained.The paper also addresses that the river's life flow greatly depends on people's expected value and future water condition.To implement and assure the life flow is also an important issue.Therefore,further study should be carried out in the Yellow River in terms of river's life flow,water supply capacity and way of water utilization,because this kind of study is still in the preliminary stage.
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    Research into the effects of the middle route of China's south-to-north water transfer project on water bloom in the middle-down stream of Hanjiang River and the countermeasures Part Ⅰ:An analysis of the key factors generating water bloom in Hanj
    XIE Ping, XIA Jun,DOU Ming, ZHANG Wan-shun
    2004, 19 (4):  418-423.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (257KB) ( )   Save
    In order to evaluate the effects of the middle route of China's south-to-north water transfer project(MR-SNWTP)on water bloom in the middle-down stream of Hanjiang River, ba- sed on monitoring data,collected information and investigation work,the reasons and key factors for Hanjiang's water bloom are analyzed by applying hydrodynamic model and dynamic model of eutrophication.There are three major reasons accountable for the generation of Hanjiang water bloom.The first and main one is that there are more and more polluted drainage from the middle stream to the down stream of Hanjiang River and excessive nutrition material needed by algae such as nitrogen,phosphorus,etc.The second one is that the water velocity in Hanjiang slows down when Hanjiang River has low water level and Yangtze River has high water level,and Hanjiang River has the flow characteristics like lakes.The third one is higher temperature in spring.Under the nutrition condition needed for algae growth,the discharge and water velocity are the key factors to restrict water bloom in Hanjiang River.The effects of MR-SNWTP on the water bloom in the middle-down stream of Hanjiang River will embody mainly on hydrological factors.
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    Water issues in the Fuyang River Basin
    WANG Jin-xia, HUANG Ji-kun
    2004, 19 (4):  424-429.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (218KB) ( )   Save
    Based on case study in the Fuyang River Basin (FRB),the purpose of this paper is to identify effective policy and institutional arrangement to promote sustainable water resources and socio-economic development.Located to the south of Haihe River Basin,the FRB is one of the most serious water shortage regions in North China.In addition to increasing water shortage,the FRB is facing with some other water challenges:serious water pollution,water competition among sectors and between upstream and downstream users,non-matching between industrial structure and water resources condition,declining groundwater table and resulted environmental issues,from open to close river basin and limited water saving potential.Our research results show that the conflicts among various stakeholders and inability of implementing water policies contributed to water shortage and related various water issues.In addition,weakening financial support for water infrastructure investment and low water price are two other factors that add to the rising gap between water demand and supply in the basin.If these trends continue and the government does not respond these trends with proper policies in the future,water shortage could threaten economically and environmentally sustainable development.With these emerging issues,the cen-tral and local governments,farmers and other stakeholders have responded by some formal and informal institutional changes.The study on property right innovation suggests that the private and shareholding groundwater irrigation system can improve the efficiency of water management and adjustment of agricultural structure.The existing government fiscal and financial policies in irrigation investment need to be revised in order to encourage the development of this market oriented irrigation management system.The study calls for an urgent need for establishing effective policy and institutional framework for integrated and efficient water resources allocati-on,planning,and management in the context of comprehensive river basin management.
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    Water resources carrying capacity and emigration of mountain areas of southern Ningxia
    QIN Da-yong, PEI Yuan-sheng, YU Fu-liang, CHEN Yi-ming
    2004, 19 (4):  430-437.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (155KB) ( )   Save
    Through analysis of the pattern of water resources development and utilization in the mountain areas of southern Ningxia,the agricultural development model was established and local water resources carrying capacity and emigrant scale was put forward.Firstly,this paper discussed the theory and calculation method of water resources carrying capacity in an arid zone.Then,regarding 2000 as a base year,the population growth and food demand in the mountain areas of southern Ningxia were predicted to recommend agricultural development pattern adapting to the local conditions and estimate the agricultural production capacity.Finally, according to GDP and food production capacity,it was concluded that water resources carrying capacity in mountain areas of southern Ningxia might be increased from 2 300 000 people in the base year to 4 000 000 people in the target year 2020,and regarding a county as a unit,500 000 emigrants or less in accu-mulative total might be reasonable.As a result,the ecosystem might be restored and the envir-onment effectively protected.
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    The evolving process and related spatial mechanism of urban landuse in Shanghai region
    LI Xiao-wen, FANG Jing-yun, PIAO Shi-long
    2004, 19 (4):  438-446.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1182KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the muti-temporal remotely sensed data of TM,the evolvement,transformation modes and related spatial mechanism of Shanghai urban landuse in the past decade were analyzed by using map algebra and the methods of spatial analysis (i.e.,spatial correlation & nei-ghboring analysis).The results indicate that:1)Agricultural landuse acted as a key contributor to the overall urban landuse growth,but the transforming magnitude and distribution ratio of agricultural landuse in between the two urban landuse types differ much,and show obvious tendency to give the weights to the developing zones with the increment in total.2)"Shrubs & fallows"is a unique landuse type produced from the interface between the agricultural and urban landuse types.As an indicator to the urban landuse growth,its quantity,distribution and turnover rate can to some degree characterize the growth rate and spatial distribution of developing zones.3)Those landuse types with larger area and less transforming frequencies exhibited strong spatial pattern and spatial affiliation to the other landuse types,and formed the framework of regional urbanization, based on which the "multi-core expanding" around Shanghai central city and its sub-cities as well as the "point-axes expanding" around satellite towns and main transportation lines dominates the modes in process of urban growth and urban landuse expanding.4)Shanghai central city and its main sub-cities showed high efficiency and intensity in their urban landuse development.In contrast,other medium or small towns generally have experienced more frequ-encies and complicated process in landuse transformation,and presented low intensity in landuse,thus their urban landuse expanding process tends to be spatially scattered to some degree.
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    Optimization of land use structure in sandy desertification region in North China
    WANG Xiu-hong, SHEN Yuan-cun, ZHANG Yi-li, ZHANG Hong-ye, Lv Xiao-fang, LI Xiao-feng
    2004, 19 (4):  447-454.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (407KB) ( )   Save
    North China has been seriously influenced by sandy desertification,which is closely related to the land use structure.According to the county level detailed investigation data on land use,factor analysis was used to do integrated evaluation on land use structure for each evaluated unit (including county and county-level city).Based on the integrated score for each evaluated unit and the newly completed eco-geographical system of China,the evaluated units were united by using the GIS technique.Thus,the combined division method of from-top-to-bottom and from-bottom-to-top was successfully used.The sandy desertification affected North China was therefore divided into 12 regions.Typical regions with data of remote sensing investigation and evaluation of land resources were selected from the aforesaid 12 regions.The achievements of remote sensing investigation and evaluation of land resources in typical regions were reorganized to analyze the land quality and land suitability according to the need of ecological construction. Optimization of land use structure was established in typical regions and extended to the 12 divided regions.Directions for land use optimization were suggested based on the comparison between calculated optimization of land use structure and detailed investigation land use structure.The authors emphasize that returning cropland to shrubbery or grassland is more important and the optimization of land use structure should be carried out step by step.
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    The influence of land use on karst water quality of buried karst region——A case of conglin karst ridge-trough at Fuling Town
    JIA Ya-nan, DIAO Cheng-tai, YUAN Dao-xian
    2004, 19 (4):  455-461.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1001KB) ( )   Save
    Karst hydrosystem is likely to suffer damage from human improper activities not only in bare karst region or cover karst region but also in buried karst region because of its natural fragility and susceptible character.Study on the relationship of karst water quality and land use made by karst water quality analysis and land use survey at Conglin karst ridge-trough indicated that water quality changes and water quality spatial-temporal variations are closely linked with land use,and the karst water quality is deteriorating.Human activities,such as intensive farming, land enlargement through rock bombing and earth filling,doline sewage discharge,water level control of paddy fields,etc,have exerted great impact on hydrogeochemistry of the region.Facing such a situation,we should protect karst water via land arrangement and development of eco-agriculture.
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    The integrated wetland conservation and development in the context of city expansion
    CUI Bao-shan, YANG Zhi-feng, LI Ying-hua, ZHANG Ke-gang, ZHAO Xin-sheng
    2004, 19 (4):  462-471.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (389KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the previous theoretical framework,in this paper we discuss and develop the mode of integrated wetland conservation and development in the context of city expansion and ecological planning by considering Nansha Area in Guangzhou as an example. Using the remote sensing images,wetland distributing maps and the historical data,we divided the wetlands of Nansha Area into three classes,that is,coastal water and seashore wetlands, reservoir wetlands,and irrigation rice wetlands and hydrophyte wetlands.Conforming to the principle of ecological precedence,we select nine ones as the key wetlands from all kinds of wetlands.And then we evaluate and analyze the nine wetlands' conservation values and exploiting pr-ospects from two aspects of the use value and un-use value.The value evaluating results for the key wetlands conservation are in the following order:the 19th Channel>Shiziyang and Zhujiang Estuary Channel> Jiaomen Channel Series>the Eastern Bank of Longxue Island>Hongqili Channel>the Eastern Bank of Dahu Island>Baihuitian and Shenwan Reservoir>the Western Bank of Masha Island> the Western Part of the 15th Channel.Based upen which we testified the rare characteristics of the key wetlands.National,provincial,local,special,and time rarities are the main criteria for valuating the nine key wetlands.In which the 19th Channel and Shiziyang and Zhujiang Estuary Channel represent the highest rare degree.According to the definition for the domestic and overseas nature reserves and the analysis of managing objectives,we define the conservation nature of wetlands in the Nansha Area and identify that the planning direction of wetlands in the Nasha area should be wetland resources and landscape conservation area. Based on the similarity theory,we mainly made a replaceable and compensable feasibility analysis of the 19th Channel,the Eastern Bank of Dahu Island and the Eastern Bank of Longxue Island,the latter two areas are not suitable to replace the first one,but may be suitable to compensate each other to some extent.All the above reasons fully expounded the importance and urgency of building and developing the wetlands conservation area in the Nansha Area.After that,we partition the functional regions of the wetland conservation areas and put forward the action plan of wetland conservation preferentially.
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    Analysis to forest resource product flow and its dynamics in China during 1981~2000
    SU Yun , CHENG Sheng-kui
    2004, 19 (4):  472-479.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (375KB) ( )   Save
    To study the characteristics of resource flow and its dynamics in socio-economic syst-em is of great help for us both to compare the changes of demands of natural resources in different development periods and to understand the relationship between resource flow and environment.Based on statistical data of forest resource and its products including the data of their imports and exports,this paper analyzed,using the method of MFA(material flow analysis) and the uniform physical unit-timber volume equivalent(cubic meter),the flowing characteristics of the forest resource and its products in China's economic system during 1981~2000.The results showed that the annual consumption amount of forest resources in the Sixth,in the Seventh,in the Eighth and in the Ninth Five-Year Plan period is 10 230×104m3,11 678×104m3,13 444×104m3, and 16 962×104m3 respectively.The accelerated increasing trend of resource flow is obvious,as well as that of imports.During 1981~1985,about 19.1% of total consumed resources are imported from various countries and regions,and the percentage has risen to 49.3 in the Ninth Five-Year Plan period.The main import commodities include log,paper pulp,paper and veneer.These comm-odities come mainly from North America (USA and Canada),Russia,Southeast Asia (Malaysia,Indonesia,Philippines and Myanmar) and East Asia (Japan,South Korea,Hong Kong and Taiwan).In 1981~1985,the forest resources mainly flowed to the industries of manufactured log, saw-wood and so on.With the improvement of resource flow,more and more resources flowed to the industries of manufactured paper pulp,veneer and so on.Otherwise,the paper pulp and the forest consumption by manufacturing paper had been mainly depended upon import of forest resources.Therefore,the authors suggest that China has to increase the utilization efficiency of forest resources and the input to paper production for higher economic benefit for the purpose of cont-rolling the exhaustion of forest resource and making it sustainable.
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    Forest ecosystem services and their valuation in China
    ZHAO Tong-qian, OUYANG Zhi-yun, ZHENG Hua, WANG Xiao-ke, MIAO Hong
    2004, 19 (4):  480-491.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (509KB) ( )   Save
    Forest ecosystem plays a special role in maintaining the structure,function and ecologi-cal process of natural ecosystems.At present,a series of ecological problems are becoming more and more serious because of forest damage in some regions.The accurate valuation of forest ecosystem services is very important to the reserve and rational development of forest resources in China.Forest ecosystem services are divided into four groups:provisioning services,regulating services,cultural services,and supporting services in this paper.On the basis of the service mechanism analyses,an index system for the assessment of forest ecosystem services has been established,which consists of 13 service indexes such as timber and other products,weather regulation,C fixation,water storage,erosion control,air quality purifying,nutrients cycle,windbreaks,cultural diversity,recreation and ecotourism,O2 release,and provisioning of habitat.Then,10 services of China forest have been assessed and evaluated by taking the year of 2000 as the base year.Including timber and other products provision,C fixation,water storage,erosion control,air quality purifying,nutrients cycle,recreation and ecotourism,O2 release,and provisioning of habitat.As a result,the economic values of these services are 2 325.14×108,1 626.76×108,2 134.7×108,136.46×108,41.85×108,372.37×108,194.31×108,6732.48×108,and 495.94×108 yuan,respectively.The total value is estimated as 14 060.05×108 yuan with indirect values being 11 540.60×108 yuan,4.6 times that of the direct values.The results show that forest ecosystems provide huge indirect values to human being besides the direct value of goods,and that the indirect values are egually important as the direct values.The focuses of forest ecosystem services and their valuation in the future should be the service mechanism and the coupling and the application of different scales data.
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    The application of ecological planning in the environmental integrative renovation of Wuqiangxi valley in Chun'an county of Hangzhou city
    SHEN Gang, YAN Li-jiao
    2004, 19 (4):  492-498.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (470KB) ( )   Save
    Ecological planning has aroused people's attention since it was raised in the 1960s, and got rapid popularization and development.It is a bridge that links town and country planning with environmental planning.This paper firstly analyzes the meaning of the ecological planning and its development at home and aboard.Then,starting from the analysis of the regional backgrounds and the available data on the local conditions,the author evaluates the ecological sensitivity and the ecological adaptable degree of Wuqiangxi Valley.Based upon which the ecological planning of the whole region that aims to set up the ecological protective areas,to make scale use of land,to set up rational allocation of industry in the light of local conditions and to build an artificial swamp urban sewage treatment system has been made. Finally,the paper analyses the advantages of ecological planning over environmental planning during the integrative renovation of the environment by indicating the ecological planning is more favorable to maintain the benign cycle of the whole environmental system.At the same time,the author identifies some deficiencies of the ecological planning at present,which mainly includes that the analytical method of ecological sensitivity is not perfected and the evaluation of ecological adaptable degree has some shortcomings.
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    Analysis on ecological use of water of Changchuan watershed in the Soft Rock Area of Middle Yellow River
    GAO Qing-zhu, YANG Jie, SONG Bing-yu, JIANG Yuan
    2004, 19 (4):  499-507.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (474KB) ( )   Save
    The Changchuan watershed,Inner Mongolia,belongs to the typical region of the Soft Rock Area of Middle Yellow River.Based on experimental research data of the ecological use of water,this paper applies the GIS and scenarios analysis methods to analyse the ecological use of water of the Changchuan watershed and different scenarios of ecological construction in the water-shed.The vegetation evapotranspiration and ecological use of water at Changchuan watershed averaged 274.3mm and 370.7mm respectively.This indicates that though evapotranspiration of vegetation was quite high on the regional scale,yet the rainfall can still meet the requirement of evapotranspiration of vegetation. Generally speaking, the ecological use of water was moderate in this region.In terms of ecological use of water under different scenarios of ecological consreuction,4 land use patterns,B2RL1,namely restoring all bare land and sandy land at Changchuan watershed into woodland,brush-land or grassland,B2RL2,namely no bare land and turning cultivated land on above 5° slopes back into woodland or grassland at Changchuan watershed,B2RL3,namely no bare land and turning cultivated land on above 15° slopes back into woodland or grassland,and B2RL4,namely no bare land and turning cultivated land on above 25° slopes back into woodland or grassland can stand the water stress for a short term,but the vegetation can not grow and develop very well under the water regime of the watershed in the long run.
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    Indexes and scale-related fields in ecotourism resources evaluation- Taking Jiangsu coast as an example
    QI De-li, LI Jia-lin, GE Yun-jian,YU Rong, ZHANG Ren-shun
    2004, 19 (4):  508-518.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (643KB) ( )   Save
    Ecotourism can contribute to both conservation and development.Evaluation of touris-m resources is one of the main fields in seashore tourism research,to which the selection of scale and indexes is very important.The attraction of tourism resources depends on the regional basic conditions.The potentiality for tourism development is restricted by inside and outside status.To estimate the general value of tourism resource,both of the items should be considered.Taking Jiangsu coast as an example,the paper presents the indexes system including size,richness,peculi-arity,integrated degree,diversification,health,capacity,recreational value and so on,to characterize the style,environment,expectation,marine-culture and developing actuality of tourism resources.Meanwhile,each index is considered in different scales.The space-time scale,nature/culture scale and statistical scale are also discussed in the paper.Based on the above mentioned items,the value of tourism resources in Jiangsu coast is evaluated using the method of AHP(Analytic Hierarchical Process). The development strategies of ecotourism in Jiangsu coast are brought for-ward as well.
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    Evaluation of the stability of the oasis at the regional scale
    LUO Ge-ping, ZHOU Cheng-hu, CHEN Xi, ZHOU Ke-fa
    2004, 19 (4):  519-524.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.014
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    This paper discusses the meaning of the oasis stability at the regional scale,and taking oasis of Sangong River Watershed as an example,analyzes the oasis stability from its geographic location and reciprocity between the oasis and its surrounding deserts and mountain systems.The results show that: (1)As long as the oasis moisture keeps stable and its efficiency gradually improves (at least no decline),which will result in continuous increase in primary productivity,and nonobviously decline (at least keeping relatively stable)of natural primary productivity,we can consider that oasis is stable and sustainable at the regional scale. (2)The main geomorphologic locations at which the oases can develop include alluvial-diluvial-fan,alluvial-plain and lake-shore delta or dry delta.From the capability of the oasis water capturing,the oasis in alluvial-diluvial-fan type is most powerful and its stability is the highest, next is the oasis in alluvial-plain type which stands below the overflow belt of groundwater,and the lowest is the oasis in the lake-shore delta type or dry delta type. (3)The cold-island effect and vegetation index of the oasis may be used to represent the in-teraction between the oasis and its surrounding deserts and mountain systems as well as the time change in the stability of the oasis.Enlargement of the oasis and increase of the moisture and vegetation in the oasis will certainly enhance the cold-island effect of the oasis,which is advantageous to increase the stability of the oasis.Conversely,the stability of the oasis will be redu-ced.When NDVI of the oasis increases,which indicates the increase of plant cover density and the primary productivity in the oasis,the stability of the oasis will enhance.Conversely,the stability of the oasis will be reduced.
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    Studies on modern energy ecosystem development:A theoretical approach
    ZHANG Lei, XIE Hui,CHEN Wen-yan, JIANG Wei, WU Ying-mei
    2004, 19 (4):  525-530.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.015
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    In modern society,the great polarization impacts resulted from energy resources utiliz-ation propose more and more serious challenge on sustainable development.To satisfy increasing consumption requirement on energy resources and alleviate great destruction to environment,the establishment of an effective and reasonable modern energy ecosystem should be the common choice for all countries in the world.The paper tries to explore the primary framework of modern energy ecosystem from following aspects-its basic conceptions,structure of ecosystem,spatial organization and feasibility,thus lay a solid theoretical basis for further research.
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    A method for calculating the climatic yield of grain under climate change
    WANG Yuan, FANG Xiu-qi, XU Tan
    2004, 19 (4):  531-536.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.016
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    The impact of climate change on grain production has become one of the hotspots in the research on global change.The impact of past climate change on crop yield is an effective approach for this research,however,it is difficult to separate the contribution of climate changes and human activities in such studies.Traditionally,the real yield is separated into trend yield that fits the real crop yield by a trend line depended on time only,and the fluctuant yield which is the residual yield between the real yield and the trend.The fluctuant yield is regarded as the climatic yield.But the main disadvantage of the traditional method is that it could not show the actual contribution of trend of climate change to yield of grain.In this paper a new method is put forward to calculate climate yield,which may overcome the disadvantage of traditional method. Climate influence coefficient that is the ratio of climate yield to trend yield is given to express the influence on the yield by meteorological factors.In the new method,a referenced period that satisfies the hypothesis of traditional method is selected to construct a function on the main meteorological factor and climate influence coefficient by regression.This function can be used to calculate climate yields beyond the referenced period.As a case,this method is used to calculate the climate yield of rice in Heilongjiang Province.Traditional methods,such as exponential function,polynomial function and moving average,are used to fit the per-unit-area rice yield for comparison.The comparative result shows that the contribution by climate warming can be revealed more accurately by using the new method.
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    Study on spatialization technology of terrestrial eco-information in China (Ⅰ): The approach of spatialization in meteorology/climate information
    YU Gui-rui, HE Hong-lin, LIU Xin-an, NIU Dong
    2004, 19 (4):  537-544.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.04.017
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    The study brings forward the basic conception of spatial information system for Chinese terrestrial ecosystem.Based on reviews of recent spatialization technology research of meteorology and climate information at home and abroad,we appraised virtue of methods in existence and discussed the model of spatial distribution of meteorology and climate information.Meanwhile,we summarized our preliminary achievement and set forth prospective applications.The developments of ecological,resources and environmental sciences imperiously call for spatia-lization technology research and data product exploitation of Chinese terrestrial eco-information.However,establishing a favorable spatial database of terrestrial eco-information which provides fine spatial-temporal resolution fitting in with diverse disciplines requirements demands long-ter-m study and disciplinary cooperation;simultaneously,it needs a lot of social funds devotion.
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