Table of Content

    25 June 2004, Volume 19 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Research object of resources economics
    TANG Xian-zheng, WANG Juan
    2004, 19 (3):  273-278.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (324KB) ( )   Save
    The chief reason for why resources economics haven't come to be a mature subject is that scholars haven't reached a common opinion of their research object.There are mainly two problems:The first is no demarcation line has been drawn between resources economics,envir-onmental economics and ecological economics in terms of extension and intension of research ob- ject.The second is to turn resources economics into reasonable collocation of natural resources or utilization economics.According to the relations of population,natural resources,environmental resources,natural disasters and eco-systems,and the seven cross systems that they form separately with economics,this paper differentiates the research object of resources economics and six correlative economics.According to the special contradiction of scientific research object,this paper marks off resources economics,environmental economics and ecological economics.Again according to the general definition of economic activities being the research object of economics,the research objects of three kinds of economics are generally confined seperately.Also,resources economic activities are regarded as the unification of the essence,course and development of resources economy.
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    Relation of industrial water use and economic development: water use Kuznets Curve
    JIA Shao-feng, ZHANG Shi-feng, YANG Hong, XIA Jun
    2004, 19 (3):  279-284.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (404KB) ( )   Save
    Empirical data show that there exists a turning point of industrial water use from increasing to decreasing in most developed countries.So the evolution of industrial water use along with income rising can be displayed in the frame of Kuznets Curve.The per capita GDP threshold of industrial water use turning down is 3700-17000$ (PPP,base year of 1985).The accompanying secondary industrial share in total GDP (SISGDP) is 30%-50%.The turning down of industrial water use concurred with the rapid decrease of SISGDP and the dwindling of heavy sectors.The direct cause of industrial water use decrease is water use efficiency gains,which come from two sources:a gain in water use efficiency within sectors and the economic structural adjustment.It gives us a good signal that the industrial water use in developing countries will not increase continuously,hence providing very important clues to the better forecast of industrial water use in developing countries.
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    Studies on resources of wetland waterfowls in Hubei Province, China
    GE Ji-wen, CAI Qing-hua, HU Hong-xing, LIU Jian-kang, CAO Guo-bin, ZHU Zhao-quan, LIU Sheng-xiang, SHI Dao-liang
    2004, 19 (3):  285-292.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (530KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the field survey data obtained from May 1996 to June 2003,the resources of waterfowl in Hubei province of Central China,including species diversity,distribution and population number were studied with systematic sampling such as direct count,quadrat and special survey methods.There were 131 species of waterfowl in Hubei's wetlands,belonging to 58 genera of 19 families of 7 orders,in which 107 species were recorded in our studies,accounting for 81.68%.Four waterfowls (Egretta eulophotesjxobrychus minutus,Amaurornis akool and Char-adrius placidus)viere firstly recorded in Hubei.In terms of geographical distribution types,the Palaearctic,Cosmopolitan and Oriental species were 80,26 and 25,which accounted for 61.07%, 19.85% and 19.08% ,respectively.The Palaearctic species were dominant.According to the seasonal patterns,75 species were winter migrants,32 species were summer migrants,14 species were traveling birds and 10 species were resident birds.They took up 57.25% ,24.43% , 10.69% and 7.63% respectively .The Grallatores with 81 species were the dominant lifetypes,and 50 species were Natatores.About 159.396 9×104 individuals were estimated as the total number of waterfowl in Hubei province and the density was 101.96 individuals per km2.Among these waterfowls,the number of Fulica atra was the highest with 15.345×104 individuals,and there were 28 species whose population numbers were more than 1×104 individuals, in which 3 species such as Fulica atra,Egretta garzetta and Tachybaptus ruficollis were all above 10×104 individuals. Twenty-four species were not recorded within our investigation,indicated that they might have been extinct or be very endangered in Hubei wetlands.
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    Integrated water quality and quantity evaluation of the Yellow River
    XIA Xing-hui, ZHANG Xi, YANG Zhi-feng, SHEN Zhen-yao, LI Dong
    2004, 19 (3):  293-299.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (442KB) ( )   Save
    An integrated water quantity and quality evaluation method has been set up for drainage basins,and the integration concepts of water resources functional capacity and water resources functional deficit have been put forward.Based on the monthly data of water quality and water quantity as well as the withdrawals,an integration evaluation of water quantity and quality have been conducted for the Yellow River.The results indicate that the total water resources availabilities were 21.1,28.8 and 29.2 billion m3 occupying about 66.3%,65.6%,and 67.4% of the total runoffs in 1997,1998 andl999,respectively.From 1997 to 1999,the river could provide only 53% (on average)of the total water resources demand for the uses and discharge to the Bohai Sea.About 47% of the water resources deficiency resulted from water pollution,and 53% resulted from water quantity deficiency.Both water resources functional capacity and deficit were large; and the former was little higher than the latter,which suggests that actual water quality was better than the requirement of water resources function in most cases.
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    Rainwater harvesting for agriculture in rainfed area of the Loess Plateau
    YANG Xing-guo, ZHANG Xu-dong, YANG Qi-guo
    2004, 19 (3):  300-306.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (463KB) ( )   Save
    The result of the rainwater harvesting test on the ten runoff zones-with slopes of 5 degrees and 15 degrees and covered with three -in-one soil,compacted soil and natural soil respectively, shows that the runoff coefficient is determined by rainfall intensity,slope and so on. The runoff coefficient is 72%-77% on the plastic and cement runoff zones and 5%-18% on the other runoff zones.Moreover,based on the calculated and test result,the test scheme-called furrow-culture and ridge-covered was carried out and the amount of increase in production is very notable.Meanwhile,according to the dependable rainfall,mean runoff coefficient and wheat water requirement,the ratio of harvesting area to planting area is calculated for the four representative stations and the value is 0.5-0.8.
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    Spatio-temporal analysis of land use patterns in the development corridor of the Pearl River Delta in 1988~1997
    LI Xia
    2004, 19 (3):  307-315.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1061KB) ( )   Save
    In this study,remote sensing and GIS are used to analyze spatio-temporal patterns of land use in the development corridor of the Pearl River Delta, South China.The region is leading the nation in economic development and urbanization process.Tremendous land use changes have been witnessed since the economic reform.Methodology is developed to identify the inhomogeneous spatio-temporal patterns of land use in the region.It is found that land use restructuring has taken place in response to economic development.Internal structural changes of agricultural land use can be observed from classified remote sensing imagery.There was a significant decrease in the amounts of paddy fields and other types of agricultural land use in the early 1990s.Rapid urban expansion resulted in the loss of a large amount of agricultural land.Many paddy fields were also converted into other types of agricultural land use for better revenue under the influences of market mechanism.Most of the development sites are uncompleted and have been laid idle for years.Two indicators,compactness index and entropy,are proposed to measure the morphology of land development.The analyses reveal the spatio-temporal variations and restructuring of land use patterns,which reflect the dynamics and complexity of economic and physical factors in the region.It is obvious that the cities or towns of fast economic development are consuming more land resources.More rapid land use changes are mainly concentrated along the eastern development corridor between Guangzhou and Hong Kong.Within the corridor,the cities of Shenzhen and Dongguan have unusually high percentages of land use changes and agricultural land loss.The disparity of using land resources coincides with the findings of other studies that indicate the emerging regional polarization of economic development in the region.
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    Prohibiting graze policy and its effect
    SONG Nai-ping, ZHANG Feng-rong, LI Bao-guo, CHEN Huan-wei, YAO Hui-min, CAO Liang-xiao
    2004, 19 (3):  316-323.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (639KB) ( )   Save
    With the increasing of knowledge of ecology and environmental protection,the means of improving fragile ecoenvironment is being gradually transformed from artificial reforestation to both depending on ecological rehabilitation and protection.The prohibiting graze policy is one of the strictest ecological restoration means.The Ejin Horo Banner is located in the interlocking area of pasturing and farming,where desertification is serious.For combating desertification,the prohibiting graze policy has being carried out there for several years.Based on the theories of grassland ecology and farming ecology,the study utilizes the original data before and after implementing the prohibiting graze policy which are obtained by visiting farmers' households, and field invegations as well as the statistical data on domestic economy to reveal the profit and loss of the enforcement of the prohibiting graze policy by means of comparative analysis and statistical analysis.The analytical result indicates that the complete prohibiting graze policy has great effect on the restoration of woodland and grassland that are most extensively distributed vegetation in the area.However,the prohibiting graze policy is also greatly contradicted with stockbreeding,which is the main source of family income for the local farmers' households.Hereby ,we suggest that the government should transform the complete prohibiting graze policy to the stretchy forbidden graze policy,and also,the farmers should change stockbreeding manner and select livestock breeds which are suitable to the land resources and favorable to environmental protection.Whereas an annual prohibiting graze policy is the means of environment restoration which has not only profitted regional ecological system but however,also caused the loss in farmer household income,therefore,it is only a transitional policy in the special periods.For the long -term positive succession of the vegetation,the seasonal prohibiting graze,especially the prohibiting graze during the period of germination of grazing in spring,should be continued to enforce for a longer period of time.
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    Estimation of the labor carrying capacity of land resources in the northwestern Shandong
    SHAO Xiao-mei, ZHANG Hong-ye
    2004, 19 (3):  324-330.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (333KB) ( )   Save
    Agricultural labor employment is an important social and economic problem in traditional farming regions.Problems related to surplus amount of labor and shortage of cultivated land are discussed by valuing the labor carrying capacity of land resources in this paper.The concepts of minimum per capita cultivated area required,index of growing area size pressure and labor carrying capacity of land resources are put forward,and the amounts of surplus labor are computed for various counties.Results indicate that the minimum per capita cultivated area required is 0.39 ha under practical income standard,while practical per capita cultivated area is 0.34 ha.About 53.3×104 agricultural labors should be transferred under practical income standard in northwestern Shandong Province,accounting for 14.9% of the total agricultural labors amount.The index of growing area size pressure K=1. 18 >1,which shows that cultivated land is under pressure.The result shows that operational size of farmland per capita is so small that it is difficult to improve production efficiency.Therefore,transfer of labor forces to non-agricultural sectors should be practiced to reduce the amount of agricultural labors.
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    The impact of global warming on vegetation resources in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    WANG Mou, LI Yong, BAI Xian-zhou, HUANG Run-qiu
    2004, 19 (3):  331-336.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (427KB) ( )   Save
    Global warming caused a dryer and warmer climate in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Does it cause any responses from the plants ecology,and how?Based on field works and statistical data collected in 2002 and 2003,we basically concluded warming trend of the climate is the major reason for the succession devolution of alpine plants in the central part of the plateau.In the study area,it is specially causing a devolution from alpine Kobresia meadow to Alpine Stipa steppe at a rate of 14.2km/10a.Accordingly,the total biomass of the area is declining.With contrast to some relative researches,we basically concluded a dryer and warmer climate should take the responsibility for vegetation devolution accompanied with biomass decline in the area.Changes of the surface vegetation will be the negative factors influencing the capability of the environment self-adjustment and the development of the local economy.
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    Changes of maximum and minimum temperature and their impacts in northern China over the second half of the 20th century
    WANG Ling, XIE Xian-qun, SU Wen, GUO Xue-bing
    2004, 19 (3):  337-343.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (465KB) ( )   Save
    Since the second half of the 20th century,many researchers at home and abroad have studied global temperatures rising and its impacts on crops and environment.But most of the studies have been only limited to the change of mean temperature.For the terrestrial ecosystem, the daily maximum temperature is the important factor determining the normal photosynthetic mechanism control,fruit quality and glaciers melting.Moreover,the minimum temperature at night is important for crop respiration,dry material accumulation,and crops overwintering.Therefore, changes of the maximum and minimum temperatures are more important than the mean temperature in terms of their impacts on environment and physiological activities of plants.In terms of the seasons,the rising rate of temperature in winter is higher than that in summer.In terms of regions,the rising rate of temperature in the northern part of northern China is higher than that in the southern part of northern China.The maximum temperature in summer tends to decline in Huang-Huai-Hai plain.In terms of the temperature types,the rising rate of the minimum temperature is higher than that of the maximum temperature.A sudden change test was made for the maximum and minimum temperature of northern China by using Mann-Kendall climate sudden change statistics check method.The results show that the sudden change point of annual mean maximum temperature was in 1992,and the temperature evident rising occurred in 1994.The evident rising of annual mean minimum temperature occurred in 1981,and the time of the occurrence in sudden change point of minimum temperature is far prior to that of maximum temperature.These facts indicate that the change of the minimum temperature is more sensitive than that of the maximum temperature.It is concluded that the main contributor of climate warming in northern China is the rising of the minimum temperature.Meanwhile,since the occurrence of global evident warming in the 1980s, the growing area of thermophilic crops in northern China has been expanded and the north limit of crops cultivation has been shifted northward.
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    Impacts of re-vegetation on water cycle in a small watershed of the Loess Plateau
    WANG Hong-shan, HUANG Ming-bin, ZHANG Lu
    2004, 19 (3):  344-350.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (350KB) ( )   Save
    Soil erosion results in soil degradation, pollutes water resource, blocks riverways and ditches, and imperils eco-environmental construction in Northwest China, especially in the gully region of the Loess Plateau.Re-vegetation is an effective method to reduce soil and water loss and improve eco-environment in the Loess Plateau.Therefore,the impacts of re-vegetation on water cycle have been one of the key issues in eco-environmental study in the loess region.Using a paired watershed approach,the impacts of re -vegetation on water cycle was studied in a watershed on the Loess Plateau during the period of 1956 to 2000.Deciduous trees,including locust (locusta L.),apricot (praecox L.)and elm (ulmus L.),were planted on a watershed with treated area exceeding 80% ,while a natural grassland watershed remained unchanged.The cumulative runoff yield in the treated watershed was reduced by 37% as a result of afforestation in 44 years.During the first 15-20 years,annual runoff reduction increased with the increase of the age of the trees planted and it didn't change much during the next 24-30 years. Reduction in monthly runoff occurred mainly from June to September.Compared with the natural grassland watershed,cumulative reduction of volumetric water content was about 222mm as a result of afforestation at a rate of 5mm per year.The cumulative evapotranspiration in treated watershed comparatively increased by 620mm at a rate of 14mm per year,which will cause soil desiccation.
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    Water retention capacity evaluation of main forest vegetation types in the upper Yangtze basin
    SHI Pei-li, WU Bo, CHENG Gen-wei, LUO Ji
    2004, 19 (3):  351-360.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (694KB) ( )   Save
    The upper Yangtze basin,with abundant forest resources, is an important water sources area,which functions as water tower for the territory of eastern China.Evaluation of water retention capacity of forest ecosystems can provide important references for ecosystem function assessment and ecological construction.We collected data of water retention information of forest canopy,litter and soil function layers to evaluate rainfall interception and comprehensive capacity of water retention by 14 forest vegetation types according to mountain climate zones and growth form classification of forest.Among comprehensive water retention capacity,water retentions in soil and litter layer account for the most proportion.Soil non-capillary porosity plays the key role in the determination of water retention capacity of ecosystem.The water retention capacity of litter and whole ecosystem can be evaluated by phytomass of litter and soil non-capillary por-osity.Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest,evergreen and deciduous mixed broad-leaved fore-st,hemlock,maple and birch mixed forest,spruce and fir forest and sclcrophyllous evergreen broad-leaved forest have more water retention capacities among the forest ecosystems in the upper Yangtze River and have wide distribution in the high mountain and dissected gorge area. These ecosystems are important for water retention and soil conservation throughout the basin. Therefore,it is of great significance to implement ecological engineering programs such as natural forest protection and convertsion of farmland to forest in the upper Yangtze basin.
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    Studies on the characteristics of soil seed banks under different forest restoration types in hilly red soil region, Southern China
    ZHENG Hua, OUYANG Zhi-yun, WANG Xiao-ke, PENG Ting-bai, LI Zhen-xin, ZHAO Tong-qian, LI Xi-quan
    2004, 19 (3):  361-368.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (531KB) ( )   Save
    Soil seed bank is one of the most important sources of forest restoration.It is very important to study the characteristics of soil seed banks under different forest restoration types for assessing the ecological benefits of different forest restoration types and guiding the restoration practice of degraded ecosystem.There exist 4 forest restoration types,i.e.,pine artificial forestation (13 years),fir artificial forestation (13 years),oil-tea camellia artificial forestation (22 years) and natural secondary forest (closing the land for reforestation, 12 years) in the hilly red soil region of Hunan.Through the method of field sampling and indoor germination,the comparative studies of soil seed banks of four forest restoration types was carried out in the region.The results showed that: (1)Herb is the dominant proportion in both the species composition (61.9%-86.67%) and the number (49.82-87.27%) of seeds among these four forest types in soil seed banks.The sequence of seed density in soil seed banks was as following:fir artificial forestation >pine artificial forestation >oil-tea camellia artificial forestation >natural secondary forest. (2)Both the number and the species of shrub and tree in natural secondary forest are more than those in artificial forestation. (3)The artificial fostering leads to seeds to be more deeply imbedded in soil in pine artificial forestation and fir artificial forestation.Within these two artificial forestations,33.09% and 26.64% of seeds can be contained respectively in the soil depth of 820cm. (4)In the soil seed banks the species diversity of natural secondary forest was richer than that of artificial forestation.When comparing between artificial forestations,the species diversity of oil-tea camellia artificial forestation with less disturbance was richer than that of pine artificial forestation and fir artificial forestation with more disturbance.The natural secondary forest was most beneficial to maintaining and protecting the species diversity in the region. (5)The species composition of seed banks was consistent with that of the above ground community in the pine artificial forestation,fir artificial forestation,and seed bank and above-ground species compositions differed in oil-tea camellia artificial forestation and natural secondary forest.The research results showed:due to the species richness and the complexity of community structure,the natural recovery was the best approach to recovery vegetation in the hilly red soil region,Southern China.However,when considering the fostering approaches of artificial forestation,the method to foster the overall area will increase the loss of soil seed banks and won't be beneficial to the restoration of vegetation.
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    Study on process model of net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems
    FENG Xian-feng, LIU Gao-huan, CHEN Shu-peng, ZHOU Wen-zuo
    2004, 19 (3):  369-378.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (676KB) ( )   Save
    The simulation of net primary productivity (NPP) in terrestrial ecosystem comes into a stage of process-based simulation from statistics-based simulation.We review the history of study on NPP in China;it has made a rapid progress.However,we should pay more attention to study on NPP modeling.Process models for estimating NPP simulate a series of plant physiological processes.Process models have the advantages of: (1) being theoretically grounded, (2) the ability to handle interactions and feedbacks of different processes, (3) the flexibility to describe details of biological processes under a variety of conditions, and (4) the verifiability of explicit hypotheses regarding plant physiological processes.Furthermore,process models based remote sensing will simulate and monitor dynamically NPP of terrestrial ecosystem timely,macroscopically,exactly from multi-scale,though the NPP temporal-spatial change pattern will be shown well.We expound every kind of process -based model from leaf scale,canopy scale and region scale.Because of complexity and heterogeneousness of ecosystem,it is an important question to scale in NPP modeling.We could complete scaling by mathematic method.And remote sensing and GIS provide a new way to scaling.
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    Research on dynamics characteristics of soil moisture in the Sophara viciifolia Hance shrub plot of the hilly and gully area on the Loess Plateau
    BU Chong-feng, CAI Qiang-guo, CUI Yan
    2004, 19 (3):  379-385.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (428KB) ( )   Save
    Based on measurement of the monthly soil moisture content in 2002 by choosing the different age's S.viciifolia Hance plots in the hilly and gully area of northern Shaanxi province, and(making fallow land and Caraganar land as a contrast,the following conclusions can be drawn from this paper: 1)The annual evapotranspiration of the 5. viciifolia Hance shrub in the sufficiently deep layer of the plots is 590mm and the mean water consumption of individual plant is about 85mm;water consumption is intense from May to July,soil moisture is the least in August and increases in September. 2)The soil moisture in the profile between 0-2.5m is active, the intensity of soil moisture consumption weakens with the increase of soil depth. 3)The depth of the "dry soil profile" is more than 10m that is deeper than the Caraganar's, but it didn't develop further during the two years.
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    Relational analysis of the features of resources and functions of lakes
    JIANG Jia-hu, DOU Hong-shen, HUANG Qun
    2004, 19 (3):  386-391.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (347KB) ( )   Save
    The lake resource that formed under the actions of endogenic and exogenic forces such as geology,landforms,meteorology,hydrology,chemistry and living things is one of the natural resources which plays an important role in the economic,environmental and social benefits of the sustainable development of national economy.The structure of the lake system is revealed by various kinds of resources endowed in it and the inter-relationships derive multiple functions of the lake as well.Therefore,the lake resource which is directly perceived is the carrier of its functions which are often ignored for their abstractness.This is also the reason why people got to know the lakes experiencing a gradual development process from resources-oriented to functions-oriented.Humans are the unusually lucky persons who have the habit of living by water,and begin to know lakes from the dependence for the natural resources and the mysterious feelings to the nature.Lakes are the important component of territorial resources,which have powerful ecological service functions and distinct unique features,and play the important role in the creation of human civilization just as the same as forest,lands,river and sea.In this article the features and problems existing in the use of the lake resources and the functions maintained through ecological structure composing of different types of the lake resources are discussed.
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    Research on index system and method of project evaluation for decision-making in land consolidation
    XUE Ji-bin, WU Ci-fang, XU Bao-gen, PENG Qun
    2004, 19 (3):  392-400.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (384KB) ( )   Save
    Decision-making for approving a project of land consolidation plays an important role in scientific investment decision-making and choosing consolidation project properly.According to the actuality of land consolidation industry in China,such factors were deeply researched as society, economy, technology,ecology,organization of management and so on,which had tightly relations to decision-making for approving a project in land consolidation.And the framework of evaluation index system was initially formed for project decision-making in land consolidation. Then using the matter-element theory and superiority evaluation method,the paper designs the matter-element of comprehensive evaluation for decision-making in land consolidation,and puts forward the extension evaluation method based on correlation function.Finally taking some projects from in preparative projects database of the Consolidation & Rehabilitation Center in Ministry of Land and Resources as examples,verification was carried out.The output of the model completely accords with the results made by specialists of the project evaluation.The conclusion can provide scientific basis of decision-making for approving a project in land consolidation.
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    Study on integrated development layout and mode of coal resources in China
    LIU Hai-bin, WANG Li-jie
    2004, 19 (3):  401-407.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (382KB) ( )   Save
    Coal is the basic energy in China.Based on analysis of distribution features of coal resources and state of coal production and consumption in China,in accordance with development layout of three developing regions which include seven planning areas from east to west totally, according to guaranteeing ability of coal resources and present layout of coal production,the development scheme of coal resources and the thought of large-scale enterprise group in the future were presented.Aiming at simple product structure of coal enterprises,the integrated development mode of coal resources,which can lengthen property chain properly,increase additional value of product and realize sustainable development of mining area,was explored,and several alternative types of mode were given.Finally,some key problems including construction of energy base,improvement of coal transport and exploration of coal resources were discussed.
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