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    25 April 2004, Volume 19 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Rabenau-Lin’s model of regional growth bound by the regional resources and investment environment
    LIN Zhen-shan
    2004, 19 (2):  137-142.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (153KB) ( )   Save
    The key problem of the regional growth dynamics is the economic growth.As economi-sts did not fully realize the impact of resources shortage on regional economic growth in the1950s and the1960s,the classical theory of regional growth did not consider the binding force and carrying capacity of environment and resource accordingly.They considerd that capital and labor resource are the most fundamental and important economic factors.A dynamic model of regional growth bound by the regional resources and investment environment ,Rabenau-Lin’s model,is set up in this paper.According to the dynamic models,two important regional growth principles are identified as following:Firstly,in the regional growth,the improvement of inve-stment environment should be the first growth factor,and the improvement of capital growth index should be the second growth factor,the improvement of labor growth index should be the third growth factor.Secondly,if the regional average interest rate is lower than the average level out of the region,to guarantee the stability of regional growth,the growth index number of capital should be less than1.
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    Analysis of potentials of water resources development and utilization in arid zone of Northwest China
    QIN Da-yong, LUO Xiang-yu, CHEN Xiao-jun, WANG Hao
    2004, 19 (2):  143-150.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (307KB) ( )   Save
    Potentials of water resources development and utilization in arid zone of Northwest China were studied in this paper.On the basis of analysis of approaches to water conservation in agricultural,industrial and urban domestic uses in arid zone in Northwest China,the potential of water conservation in2020target year,and,according to the situation of industrial and domestic water uses,wastewater reuse in the future were quantitatively estimated.By considering available water resources as the potential and actual capacity of regulating water resources by hydraulic engineering works as constraint,the water quantity that could be supplied from surface water and groundwater was calculated and predicted.The result of quantitative analysis showed that,for the sake of maintaining the ecological system and protecting the environment of the arid zone in Northwest China on the whole,and improving partial areas,it would be necessary for the West Route South-to-North Water Transfer Project to divert water to the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River for the economic development and the ecological restoration in the Hexi Corridor by means of replacing the original water uses with water transferred in a long-term plan.
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    Study on carrying capacity of water resources in inland arid zone of Northwest China
    WANG Hao, QIN Da-yong, WANG Jian-hua, LI Ling-yue
    2004, 19 (2):  151-159.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (342KB) ( )   Save
    The carrying capacity of water resources in key areas of the inland arid zone in Northwest China was quantitatively estimated based on the analysis of productivity of water resources.In accordance with the characteristics of the fragile ecological system in the inland arid zone,the main content,characteristics and influencing factors of carrying capacity of water resources were firstly discussed,then the index system,flow chart of calculation and boundary conditions of carrying capacity of water resources were proposed,and finally the productivity of the water resources was analyzed and calculated.The study result indicated that on condition that shortages of farm produce of the central Shaanxi plain and Qaidam Basin are compensated by surplus of farm produce of Xinjiang,Hexi and Ningxia and shortages of industrial products of Hexi and Ningxia are compensated by surplus of industrial products of Xinjiang,the central Shaanxi plain and Qaidam Basin,in the target year2020,an expected population of63.84million can be supported in the key areas of Northwest China,and a wealthy living condition of per capita400kg grain and RMB20000yuan income can be ensured.
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    Negative effects of water scarcity on agriculture in Beijing and countermeasures
    WANG Hong-rui, LIU Chang-ming, , MAO Guang-quan, LIU Jie 4
    2004, 19 (2):  160-169.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (396KB) ( )   Save
    Agricultural water resources is scarce in Beijing.Total amount of agricultural water usage has been reduced gradually since1980.The ratio of the amount of agricultural water to that of total city water is also declining,from61%in the early1980s to53%in1995,to45%in2001.But the ratio of the amount of groundwater usage to that of total agricultural water usage is increasing evidently,from38.5%in1980to65.8%in1995,and to75.6%in2001.Groundwater has become the main source for irrigation.It can also be seen that water scarcity is getting more and more serious from the shift of agricultural water source. This paper gives an all-sided and indepth analysis on agricultural water scarcity.The curr-ent water use policy of Beijing is,water distribution should be given priority to the needs of industry and domestic use because of the features of“large urban area,small suburb”in Beijing.Thus agricultural water can only be distributed in the precondition of ensuring domestic and industrial use.This policy will directly exert an adverse effect on the agricultural production.The findings reveal that Beijing’s water-policy will further aggravate the tension of agricultural water.Some countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to relax the tension.Based on the above analysis,the author gives the following suggestions:(1)Developing water-saving agriculture is the main countermeasure for solving the problem of agricultural water-scarcity.Water-saving agricultural technique includes:dry crop agricultural techniques(including zero tillage,land-membrane cropping,straw cover cultivation,etc.),drought-resistance and alkali-resistance cultivation breeding techniques,paddy rice drought-and alkali-resistence cultivation and open-plant techniques,etc.(2)Building water-saving irrigation projects.(3)Adjusting the crops structure,developing of feed and economic crops;developing stockbreeding,farm produce proces-sing,green ecological agriculture,and rural eco-tourism.(4)Properly developing sewage irrigation.(5)Establishing groundwater reserve source for meeting an emergency in the Yanqi River valley and Huaihe River valley of Huairou District.(6)Now there are many perfect technologies on storm flood utilization in the world.The storm flood leaving Beijing is7×10 8 m 3 (deduct passing water)annually.Exploitation the storm flood,increasing water resources which can be used,will be propitious to relax the tension of agricultural water shortage and water and soil conservation.(7)Artificial catalysis of the ice and snow crystals will raise the precipitation efficiency.So it is also a method of alleviating water scarcity to study the meteorological rule and realize artificial inducement of rainfall.(8)It is very important to strengthen macro and micro management of rural water resources,improve management system of rural water resources,and strengthen irrigating water management.It is also necessary to implement system of water use planning,water supplying quota and collecting water charge by measurement To sum up,in order to realize the sustainable development of agriculture and protect the farmers’economic profit,measures that can be put into practice must be given and implemented.
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    Evaluation of land health in Poyang lake area
    CHEN Mei-qiu, HUANG Liang, CAI Hai-sheng, LIU Xu, LIU Tao-ju
    2004, 19 (2):  170-175.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (261KB) ( )   Save
    Land health evaluation plays an important role in keeping land health and realizing sustainable land resource utilization.The Poyang lake area,situated to the north of Jiangxi province,includes11counties around Poyang lake and covers an area of about 19873.24km 2 .This region’s ecosystem plays a key role in Jiangxi province and middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River,however,the ecosystem has become unhealthy with lower stability and produc-tivity,and is more frequently hit by natural disasters.It is thus very necessary to evaluate the health situation for the sake of sustainable development of socio-economy in the region.This paper,taking Poyang lake area as a case,making use of some quantitative analytical methods including Delphi,AHP and clustering analysis,sets up land health evaluation model and applies it to11counties land health evaluation in this area.The land health conditions of11counties were divided into3classes:healthy zone,sub-healthy zone and unhealthy zone.The main health representation of each county was also analyzed so as to provide guidence for rational land resource utilization.
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    Assessment and quantitative acquirement of factors for evaluating bank resources of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu province
    MA Rong-hua, YANG Gui-shan, CHEN Wen, ZHU Hong-yun
    2004, 19 (2):  176-182.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1292KB) ( )   Save
    How to select and quantitate the corresponding factors is one of the important conten - ts to evaluate the waterfront resources of the Yangtze River.The factors in this study include riverbank stability,water-front depth,water-front breadth and water-behind land width.With the help of GIS,overlapping and grid technique are used to quantitate and analyze the water-front depth,water-front breadth and the water-behind land width.And the paper discusses the process on how to acquire all the above - mentioned parameters by applying the correlative technique in detail.In order to find out and quantitate the factors affecting the bank stability,the fractal theory is applied to compute the fractal dimensions of riverbank and islands of the Yangtze River,and on the basis of the mentioned above,multi-temporal satellite imageries and other factors are used to estimate the local bank stability.The integrative evaluation units are acquired from overlapping each of the mentioned evaluation units.Finally,the integrative evaluation is done on the basis of the evaluation units.
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    The water and heat condition and the ecological rehabilitation in the hilly-gully catchment of Loess Plateau
    HUANG Yi-long, CHEN Li-ding, FU Bo-jie, HUANG Zhi-lin, GONG Jie, WU Xiang-lin
    2004, 19 (2):  183-189.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (290KB) ( )   Save
    Gully region is the most severe place of soil and water erosion in the catchment scale of Loess Plateau.Knowledge of water and heat condition is the base of harnessing soil and water erosion of gully.Based on fixed and consecutive measurements of soil moisture,sunshine,air humidity and temperature,wind speed in gully and hillslope,the changing characteristics of soil moisture and climate condition were analyzed.The results and advises were as following:(1)the shrubland of gully bed had the highest time-averaged soil moisture of0~100cm.The grassland and shrubland in the udbac and adret of gully slope were the middle.The time-averaged soil moisture of cropland in hillslope was the lowest.The difference in time-averaged soil moisture among the six types plot was significant (P<0.01).The time-averaged soil moisture in adret of gully slope was slight lower(P>0.05)than udbac of gully slope for the same vegetation types.The grassland had significant (P<0.01)higher time-averaged soil moisture than shrubland for the same slope aspect of gully.The time-averaged soil moisture of gully plots had insignificant seasonal characteristics compared with cropland in hillslope.(2)The profile-averaged soil moisture of cropland in hillslope and shrubland in udbac of gully was expressed as steady-type.The other four types were expressed as increasing-type.The different patterns of profile-averagedsoil moisture were similar to the0~100cm time-averaged soil moisture among the six types of plots.And the difference increased with the increasing of depth.(3)The wind speed of April and May were the highest during the measured period.Gully had lower wind speed and less sunshine than hillslope.Gully had higher air humidity and temperature than hillslope also.(4)We can adopt “upper dam and lower pond”etc engineering measure and vegetation measure to solve the eco-environment of gully region.
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    Change of water holding and conservation capacity of eight species of bryophytes under subalpine coniferous forests in Eastern Tibetan Plateau
    BAO Wei-kai, WANG Chun-ming, WU Ning
    2004, 19 (2):  190-194.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (224KB) ( )   Save
    The eight mosses,including Thuidium lepidoziaceum,Rhytidium rugosum,Dicranum a-ssamicum,Mnium sp.,Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus,Actinotiuidium hookeri,Polytrichum alpinum,Entodon concinnus and Hylocomium splendens,are all common in subalpine coniferous forest in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.The objective is to compare and detect their differences in water ho-lding capacity under5different habitats and desiccation process of two environmental condi-tions.Water contents in5different habitats were determined.Their changes of water retention capacity under two kinds of indoor environments were measured.The results indicated that water contents of all bryophytes were higher under virgin forest than under other four habitats.In eight species,P.alpinum has the lowest natural water content,while Mnium sp.has the highest under all five different habitats.There existed negative correlation between water holding and water retention capacities,and their water holding capacities tend to decrease temporally,an indication of the same tendency both in the process and the ratio of moisture loss under the same environment.However,there existed significant difference in retention capacity of different species,which was probably resulted from different adaptabilities to moisture stress and habitats change,and discrepancy of the mechanisms of physiological habituation and co-evolution to the environment changes of different species.The results also imply that water holding capacity in all eight species decreases significantly after a desiccation-hydration-redesiccation process.This is probably related to that cell damage induced by first time water stress in the desiccation process.All the parameters of water holding and retention capacities of eight species under different habitats showed that H.splendens,A.hookeri and P.alpinum are potential biological indicators on forest-floor environmental change resulted from forest depletion.
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    Zonal characteristics of artificial forest effecting soil moisture on Loess Plateau
    CHEN Yun-ming, LIU Guo-bin, YANG Qin-ke
    2004, 19 (2):  195-200.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (167KB) ( )   Save
    Vegetation construction is one of the major measures to improve eco-environment of Loess Plateau.In order to improve the effectiveness of artificial vegetation construction,comp-arative analysis of the difference between artificial forest and natural vegetation was carried out using soil moisture data according to the distributive law of natural vegetation.The results showed there are different soil moisture deficit s and soil dry-layers under artificial forests of different vegetation zones,the order of serious degree is forest zone Related Articles | Metrics
    Soil desiccation and nitrogen consumption of artificial meadow in the Loess Plateau
    FAN Jun, HAO Ming-de, SHAO Ming-an
    2004, 19 (2):  201-206.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (256KB) ( )   Save
    According to a long term experiment in dry land of the Loess Plateau and field survey of wilderness,we studied the distribution of soil water and nitrogen content in the soil profiles.The results showed that artificial meadow could consume lots of soil water in deep layers of soil,and it also absorbed much of nitrogen.The mean soil water content of200cm~1000cm soil layers was12.6%,furthermore,the nitrate content of150cm~1000cm soil layers was less than1mg /kg.But soil water content of the wilderness was better than that of artificial meadow;the mean soil moisture was18.8%.In the arid area,the storage water in deep layers of soil can adjust water utilization of plants,but artificial alfalfa can absorb lots of water from deep layers and lead to soil desiccation.Because of in availability of enough water to adjust effects of arid weather on growth of plants,reasonable yield should be advised to control soil desiccation.Fertilizers application can not contribute to yield of grassland distinctly,but it can maintain output of artificial alfalfa to avoid the yield getting down in the short time.Unfortunately,fertilizers were not used in grassland by farmers,because it is difficult to profit from fertilizers application.
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    Study on the integrated pattern of controlling eco-environment of small watershed in hilly & gully area in the Loess Plateau:A case study of Jiuhuagou Watershed
    WANG Hai-ying, LIU Gui-huan, DONG Suo-cheng
    2004, 19 (2):  207-216.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (413KB) ( )   Save
    Hilly&gully area in the Loess Plateau has become the focus of Western Developme-nt and Poverty Alleviation of our country since its ecological environment was poor,water and soil erosion was serous,and people here could not get enough to eat and wear.Jiuhuagou Water-shed in Dingxi area of Gansu Province,facing such a dilemma of fragile eco-environment and economic poverty,took the way of integrating synthetic exploitation with synthetic amelioration of hills,water,farmland,woods and roads by taking small watershed as a cell,which proved to be a successful way to improve eco-environment and economy.The article introduces the composition content and distribution of synthetic amelioration of eco-environment of Jiuhuagou Watershed,as well as sums up economic,social and ecological benefits it brings.Experiences show that develo-pment of such regions as Jiuhuagou should base on construction of eco-environment,and economic development will provide support and impetus for it.To carry on synthetic exploitation and to develop ecological agriculture while ameliorating eco-environment are efficient ways to realize the goal of healthy recycle of ecological system and also efficient ways to cast off poverty and set out a way to prosperity.
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    The ecological restoration and management of degraded wetland ecosystem—A case study of Hackensack Meadowlands in America
    CHEN Fang-qing, Jean Marie Hartman
    2004, 19 (2):  217-223.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (767KB) ( )   Save
    Influenced by human and natural disturbance,such as industrialization,urbanization and earth greenhouse effect,Hackensack Meadows,a wetland locating at the Northeast New Jersey,is facing many ecological stresses.Wetland area has shrunk two thirds in recent centuries. Landscape was fractured into12by roads,city and industrial zone.And the composition and structure of ecosystems became simple.At the same time,water contamination is becoming serious.Foreign species have been dominating more and more native wetland vegetation,and many native species disappeared.The wetland ecosystem had degraded sharply.In order to enhance the wetlands,conserve biodiversity and improve the environmental condition in this area,the New Jersey Wetland Commission and three other organizations in America set up a project(the special district management)to save the rest wetlands.The ecological restoration and management projects of Harrier meadow,Mill Creek marsh and Skeetill Creek marsh,a part of the project,were supported by the New Jersey Commission and had been finished in1998.Goal of the projects was to restore its original ecosystem,including ecological environment and biome.And the restoration engineering included rebuilding complex landscape,transplanting native plant,transporting substrates,restoring tidal pattern,reconstructing mitigating and nesting habitats for bird etc.And our research group conducted the management of their ecological restoration process.Growth of vegetation,control of foreign species and restora-tions of ecosystem biodiversity were chosen by us as the bioassays to indicate restoration trend of ecosystem function and sampled in the three restoration sites every season.Then database was set up and analyzed.Restoration process was evaluated two times every year for further management.The management of vegetation included investigation of composition and structure of vegetation,analyses of factors affecting restoration process and application of corresponding technology.The management of foreign species focused on mechanism of their population spread and methods to control the invaders.In the aspect of biodiversity,the enhancement of animal species and relati-onship between vegetation and animal biodiversity were studied especially.It was shown that the primary restoration on the three sites followed the restoration design on the whole.But the vegetation in Harrier meadow restored faster than other two sites due to the rich biodiversity surrounding the restoration site.The animal biodiversity in Mill Creek and Skeetkill Creek restored slowly as their vegetation was dominated by foreign species Phragmites australis and Solidago sempervirens.Restoring tidal pattern in restoration sites,harvesting overground parts and cleaning seedling could effectively control the spread of Phragmites and facilitate the growth of native plant species.
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    Ecological footprint of tourism consumption—A case study of Beijing foreign tourist arrivals
    XI Jian-chao, GE Quan-sheng, CHENG Sheng-kui, LU Chun-xia
    2004, 19 (2):  224-229.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (129KB) ( )   Save
    The ecological footprint had been considered as an important approach to measure re-gional sustainable development.From current reviews on ecological footprint,most of those mainly focused on the“static”consumption of the citizens living in certain region and neglected the influence of“dynamic”consumption caused by population flowing since it was introduced.The tourism activity is the largest scale population flowing between different regions in the world.The tourism consumption is a typical way of cross-region consumption.In this paper,the structure of tourism consumption ecological footprint is analyzed and the calculating model is also brought forward.Taking Beijing foreign tourist arrivals as a case,the ecological footprint of tourism consumption was evaluated.The results showed that tourism consumption ecological footprints of per capita foreign tourist arrivals is0.09587km 2 ,which accounts for5%of per capita current Beijing citizens’annual level.The tourism consumptions have a profound effect on the regional ecological footprint ,which is not only the leading factor of the regional ecological deficit,but also an important deviation of regional ecological footprint.Furthermore,probing into the ecological footprint structure of tourism consumption indicated that the“transport”energy consumption s account for98%,while“food”and“accommodation”energy consumptions only occupy2%.
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    Measuring the economic value of restoring ecosystem services in Zhangye city of Heihe river basin—Comparison and application of continuous and discrete contingent valuation survey
    ZHANG Zhi-qiang, XU Zhong-min, LONG Ai-hua, GONG Zeng-tai
    2004, 19 (2):  230-239.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (414KB) ( )   Save
    The Contingent Valuation Method(CVM)is a direct interview approach that uses si - mulated(hypothetical)markets to identify values similar to actual markets.CVM is a promising technique that could potentially help public decision-making.CVM has two major question formats,the continuous and discrete contingent valuation(CV).Lots of empirical studies conducted in various contexts show that the approach is well-accepted by the general public.Based on the result of payment card format,one of the continuous CV,in this paper,we take the dichotomous choice(single-ended and double-ended)question format which belongs to the discrete CV as a tool to analyze the economic benefits of restoring ecosystem service in an impaired river basin,Heihe river basin.In our survey we use a well-designed questionnaire with maps,pictures and figures depicting the reason why the ecosystem of Heihe river basin and Zhangye city has been deteriorating,the measures by which ecosystem services could be restoring from their current level,and the benefits the households in the area could get from restoring ecosystem services.Results from400in-person interviews for single-ended and double-ended dichotomous format respectively indicate that90.2%of the households in Heihe river basin would like to pay for restoring the ecosystem services of Zhangye city.The result shows that the maximum average willingness to pay(WTP)is162.82and182.38RMB yuan per household per year for single-ended and double-ended dichotomous formats respectively.The annual aggregate benefits of restoring ecosystem services of Zhangye city are at least7094.36×10 4 and7946.66×10 4 RMB yuan for single-ended and double-ended dichotomous formats respectively,calculated by the number of the households in1999in the Heihe river basin.This result is a conservative estimate for the economic value of restoring the ecosystem services of Zhangye city because of the positive externalities of restoring the ecosystem services on the outside of Heihe river basin.It has been found that double-bounded format has a tighter confidence interval for the esti-mate of mean WTP than single-bounded format,and is more closely approximate to the true WTP of respondents.Therefore,we suggested that the estimation results of double-bounded format as the total economic value of restoring Zhangye city ecosystem services.The aggregate benefit(pre-sent value)of restoring Zhangye city ecosystem to residents of the Heihe basin is3.7478×10 8 RMB Yuan in the next5years.
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    Analysis on the change of landscape spatial pattern in lake-land ecotone:A case study on Dongting Lake area
    WANG Zhao-hui, WANG Ke-lin, LI Ren-dong, XIONG Yan, XU Lian-fang
    2004, 19 (2):  240-247.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (321KB) ( )   Save
    Landscape spatial pattern mainly refers to the distribution of patches,which are diffe-rent in size and shape in space owing to the interaction of various ecological activities.The study on landscape spatial pattern provides valuable information for rational management of the environmental resources,and it has been one of the key study fields in landscape ecology as a whole.By using three-period aerial photo s as basic information resource and with the support of Arc /Info,a space information storehouse is built up.Dongting Lake area,located in the middle of Yangtze River valley,lies between27°55'~30°23'N and110°50'~113°45'E,and consists of17counties with an area of28737km 2 .Because of unreasonable anthropogenic exploitation and utilization,the landscape pattern has changed re-markably.Based on the trial of models of landscape fragmentation,dominance,diversity index,evenness index,etc.,the dynamic changes of landscape patterns of Dongting Lake area are presented.The results show that it is remarkable to interchange between different landscapes,especially frequently between cultivated land and water area.The cultivated land decreased sharply by30608ha,while the water area increased48978ha.During the two decades landscape fragmentation has turned worse and diversity increased,while dominance has decreased in the whole region.Fragmentation and separation of the cultivated land,lawn and construction land show an increase process from1980to1990,and it is on the contrary in the last decade,which indicates that wetland preserves and the policy“returning farmland to lake and forest,and resett-lements”have taken effects.Because of sediment deposition and the engineering measures of“returning farmland to lake”,the distribution centroid of water area patches has moved2.31km towards southeast in the last two decades.
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    Analysis on the characteristic and the change trend of urban expansion restricted by water resources in the arid area of Northwest China—A case study of the cities in the Western Long Hai-Lan Xin Economic Zone
    FANG Chuang-lin, BAO Chao, SHEN Yu-ming
    2004, 19 (2):  248-256.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (517KB) ( )   Save
    Cities along the Western Long Hai-Lan Xin Economic Zone are key regions during the great development of west China,while the development of these cities is seriously restricted by the shortage of water resources.So urban water resources utilization and shortage in the Western Long Hai-Lan Xin Economic Zone are analyzed.It is considered that most of those cities are short of water resources,yet many water resources are wasted.Restricted by water resources,the urbanization level of the Western Long Hai-Lan Xin Economic Zone is much lower than that of east China,and also lower than that of the whole country.But it is higher than that of west China,and much higher than that of Northwest China.The gross expansion is the main comprehensive characteristic of the urban expansion.The input and output benefit of water resources and land resources is very low.The development of those cities mainly depends on resources exploitation,so the quality of the urban expansion should be quickly improved.In the next20years,also restricted by the shortage of water resources,the speed of the urban expansion will become slow,and the extent of the urban expansion will be very small.The urban non-agricultural population will increase6310000.The urbanization level will increase7.21%and reach35.97%.The megalopolis along the Western Long Hai-Lan Xin Economic Zone still include Xi ’an,Lanzhou and Urumqi.Baoji,Xianyang,Tongchuan,Tianshui,Shihezi and Korle will become metropolises.The quantity of middle scale cities will become 14in2020instead of10in2000.The quantity of small scale cities will decrease.In order to realize the ordinal urban expansion along the Western Long Hai-Lan Xin Economic Zone,it is suggested that human should be taken as the foundation,water resources should be taken as the lifeline and urban planning should be taken as the legal base during the city construction.
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    Analyses on evolution of household energy consumption structure based on information entropy
    GENG Hai-qing, GU Shu-zhong, GUO Dong-mei
    2004, 19 (2):  257-262.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (269KB) ( )   Save
    The evolvement of energy structure is generally towards the cleaner and more efficie-nt direction.To a concrete region,the energy structure is not only determined by the energy situation in local area,but also correlated to the economic development level.So the energy structure and its evolvement are quite complex.Since the energies are various and also the dimensions are different,it is difficult to describe it by a definite quantity,and it is also a difficulty to contrast energy structure between two different regions.Finally we found a key to solve this problem,it is the informational entropy,a status function that can be used to describe the complexity and chaos of any system that consists of many factors,so we can quote this concept to study the energy consumption system.In this paper,we take Wuxi City as a case,use information entropy as well as equilibrium and dominant degree to describe the evolvement character of household energy consumption structure.The result of data analysis is satisfactory.Besides the informational entropy,some other laws in dissipation system are also suitable.The evolvement characters of information entropy are completely different before and after1994in Wuxi City.The evolvement trend is consistent with the average real discretionary income and total energy consumption for per-urban resident.Based on the profound analysis of evolvement character and its reason,this paper gives a primary prospect of the energy structure for urban resident in Wuxi City.With the implementation of“Moving West Gas East Project”,the household energy consumption structure will have a drastic change.Electric power and natural gas will became the two main energies in household energy structure.
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    The eco-environment deterioration and its counter-measures in the Loess Plateau
    WANG Li, LI Yu-yuan, LI Yang-yang
    2004, 19 (2):  263-271.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.02.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (354KB) ( )   Save
    The deterioration of eco-environment has become a serious and urgent problem in the Loess Plateau.How to deal with the relationship between environment and development in China’s western development has been put to agenda.Due to all kinds of factors,fragility eco-e-nvironment is getting worse and worse,disasters such as soil and water loss,desertification,drought,sand storm dust and so on happened frequently.Therefore,it is necessary to consider both natural factors and human impacts to fully understand environmental deterioration.A thorough comprehensive study of historical changes especially will enhance our capability to predict future environment dynamics and devise more effective environment management strategies.In our study,we put our focus on the historical changes of forests,drought and flood disasters,soil erosion,duststorm and population in the Loess Plateau,which have very close relationship with the eco-environment.By the analysis of historical materials,we think the development of eco-environment is seriously challengeable and unsustainable in the Loess Plateau.The objective is by no means pessimistic,but is to correctly recognize the evolution his tory of eco-environm ent in a wise way,to make local government pay more attention to the environmental crisis and the sustainable development,build up public awareness of local farmers to the concerned aspects and to implement the reasonable measures of eco-environment improvement and sustainable development of the Loess Plateau so as to provide scientific basis for the realization of eco-environment security and sustainable socio-economic development of the Loess Plateau.
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