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    25 February 2004, Volume 19 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    The farm household's choice of land use type and its effectiveness on land quality and environment in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    OUYANG Jin-liang, SONG Chun-mei, YU Zhen-rong, ZHANG Feng-rong
    2004, 19 (1):  1-11.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1425KB) ( )   Save
    Under the Household Responsibility System,farm households have become the basic and main micro-level decision making units on human activities in agriculture that affect s ustainable land use and environment in China since1978.Households affect s oil quality and environment via their resources consumption behavior,especiall y agricultural households,via their production decision in choice of land use t ype.The analysis of farm households’choice of land use type and its effectiven ess based on farm household classification could give a high light on the relat ionship between the land use behaviors of farm household and the sustainability of land use and be helpful for the sustainable land use at regional level and n ational level.With the variance analysis and the analysis of different farm ho usehold types,farm households’choice of land use type and its effectiveness we re studied based on the household survey.The spatial calculation of soil qualit y change was analyzed with soil quality data of79surveyed plots in1999(pa rt of data were collected in2000),the underground water table of179surv eyed wells in1999and the soil census data in1980.The household data of 172farms from46villages in2000were collected with classification isome tric sampling based on the ecoeconomic zones,and some other household data in 1995and1998were use d for analysis of household behaviors as well.Some conclusions can be distingu ished as following:Firstly,There were some differences in the choice of land use type amongst farm household types,because off-farm,income,land size,and education level of farm households were the key factors affecting farm household’s choice of land use type.The choice of land use type of the farmers with on-farm employment and low-income was multi-choice of land use type,while that of the farmers with off-farm employment,high-income and good education was the choice of land use type with high economi c benefit and of time-saving.Secondly,land use type choice of farm households at plot level was based on land quality,plot size,etc.Finally,different farm household types had different effectiveness on land quality and environment because of their d ifference s in the choice of land use type,fertilizer input,water resource use ,and treatment of straw.Farm’s behavior in the choice of land use is guided by multiple,often confiding,household objectives,subject to the available res ources,possible productive activities,and external economic and biophysical co nstraints.The government should have some policy to impel the farm households to choose the land use type of sustainability.
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    The progress and driving forces of change in arable land in intensive agricultural region during the past 50 years-A case study of Quzhou county in Hebei Province
    KONG Xiang-bin, ZHANG Feng-rong, XU Yan, QI Wei
    2004, 19 (1):  12-20.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (455KB) ( )   Save
    Human being survival and development base on the quantitative a ra ble land.Land use and land cover change (LUCC)has become one of the eight c ore fields among the global environmental change,which was affected by both nat ural factor and the socio-economic factor.With rapid economic development and heavy population press ure,China will lose a lot of arable land in the future.The research into the a rable land change and its driving force has been discussed in recently published papers.But the arable land change and its driving force in the intensive agri cultural region has not been reported.It is helpful to safeguard the food secu rity by analysing the arable land change and its driving forces.Quzhou county i s an intensive agricultural region in China,so it has been identified as the op timal study area for this purpose.Arable land change and socio-economic data were obtained from1949to1999from the county statistics bureau and land resource bureau,hence data of the arable land change of this p eriod was taken into account in the present study.The analysis presented in t his paper shows that the change of arable land experienced such phases as incre ase,dramatic decrease,slow decrease,rapid increase and relative stagnancy.Th e annual increase rate is0.43%from1949to1957,the annual decrease r ate is1.55%and0.47%respectively from1957to1961and from1961 to1974,the annual increase rate is0.63%from1974to1985and the a nnual decrease rate is0.02%from1985to1999.The arable land change w as driven by such factors as population change,climate change,technique change ,regional economic and policy change.The factors meationed above form a non li near and multi-feedback way system which drives the arable land change all the way through .Among which,the increase of population requires much more arable land immedia tely;the climate change is the basis for ameliorating saline-alkali land into arable land,but only with technical progress,can the saline be transformed in to arable land,the stable economic structure leads to the stablility of arable land which loses the chance to be converted into built-up land,at the same ti me,the government enacts relevant policies to change the quantity of arable l and responsive to land use.
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    Study on population density driving force of land use change in north-south transect of eastern China
    WANG Jing-ai, LAI Yan-bin, XU Wei, CHEN Jing
    2004, 19 (1):  21-28.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (979KB) ( )   Save
    To reflect the population distribution directly in north-south tr ansect of eastern China(NSTEC),five periods of population density maps coveri n g1953,1964,1982,1990and1997are compiled based on seven eigenvalues of5,10,50,100,200,400and800persons per km 2 .According to the analysis of the maps,we can see that the higher the den sity is,the faster the growth rate.Furthermore,correlation and regression ana lysis shows that density is related with plough and urban land use positively, with grassland and forest negatively,and the regression equation between densit y and land use is thus built.So,the regression equation between plough and for est can be also built to inverse LUCC in past times.The analysis of pattern cha nges of population density,which is regarded as an important driving force of land use and cover change in NSTEC,shows the force of population density to LU CC.The development of population density eigenvalues varies among several regi ons.The study of this paper shows the correlation to certain extent between l and use structure and contemporary population.Through the regression equation i n this paper,contemporary land use structure can be mapped based on population density.However,besides population density,there are many other forces acting on land use change,such as city development,technology,education and so on.
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    Scenario analysis of land use change in Horqin Desert and its surrounding area
    ZHANG Yong-min, ZHAO Shi-dong, P.H.Verburg
    2004, 19 (1):  29-37.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (370KB) ( )   Save
    Horqin desert and its surrounding area(41°17'~45°24' N,116°21'~123°30' E),loca-ted in the eastern part of agro-pas ture transitional zone in northern China,is an area sensitive to environmental change due to transitional location and the high potential for sandy desert-if ication.During the past decades,the rapid expansion of sandy desertification i n this area has greatly accelerated the processes of environmental change,leadi ng to deterioration of the eco-environmental conditions in northern China.Land-use and land-cover change is the center of the interests of the science of gl obal environmental change,and thus has aroused increasing attention of scientis ts worldwide.Based on the understanding to land use dynamics between1985and 2000,land use patterns in2000,and land use planning data for2010, a model,CLUE-S,was implemented for modeling land use change in the Horqin Des ert and its surrounding area.With the help of this CLUE-S model,two scenario s of land use change,one was based on Markov process and the other on land use planning of the government,were explored for the period from2000to2010 .Then,major land use changes were identified for each scenario by overlaying e ach simulated land use map of2010with land use map of2000.Some of the implications of each scenario were analyzed and presented in this paper.The mai n conclusions of the study are drawn as follows.Common land use changes in the period between2000and2010according to the two scenarios will take place along the line which starts from the central part of Jarud Banner turning south westwards,through Ar Horqin Banner,Bairin Left Banner,Bairin Right Banner, Linxi county till the eastern part of Hexigten Banner,then turning southwards t hrough the western part of Chifeng city and ending in the western part of Harqin Banner.The main types of potential land use change include the conversion from grassland to forestland,from cultivated land to forestland and from cultivated land to grassland.Apart from these results that are sim ilar to both scenarios,each scenario also has its own characteristics on land u se change from2000to2010.According to the Markov scenario,conversion f rom grassland to cultivated land will occur a-long the line from the southern part of Bairin Right Banner turning southwards through the east-ern part of Ch ifeng city and Harqin Banner till the eastern part of Ningcheng county.This ind i-cates that if land use change from1985to2000can be viewed as a Markov process and the changing trend will continue in the following10years,it is m ostly likely that some grassland on both sides of the above line will be cultiv ated.In addition,the same conversion will also occur in some local areas in the central and eastern parts of the study area.Furthermore,the cultivation o f grassland may be a potential disturbance to local en vironment and great atte ntion should be tak-en to by government.According to the scenario representing planned changes,three major land use changes:from un-sed land to forestland ,from cultivated land to forestland and from unused land to grassland,will tak e place in central and eastern parts of the study area.This shows that it will be necessary to plant trees or grass in some seriously degraded areas of Horq in Desert to complete the planned task of land use.It is difficult to implement this engineering project of revegetation from the view point of ecology.The study suggests that the land-use planning from1997to2010should be discu ssed again due to lack of ecological considerations.
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    GIS-based evaluation,analysis and planning of tourism resources in Chongqing
    JIANG Yong-jun, KUANG Ming-sheng, QI Dai-hua, LI Lin-li, HUANG Guo-qing
    2004, 19 (1):  38-46.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (526KB) ( )   Save
    Although Chongqing is rich in tourism resources in China,its to ur ism development is not compatible with its resources.To provide science founda tion for protecting tourism resources and developing tourism resources and touri sm planning,and also to promote tourism development of Chongqing,tourism reso urces should be evaluated comprehensively;moreover,the outcome of comprehensi ve evaluation of tourism resources,especially the structure and spatial distrib ution of tourism resources should be analyzed.In this paper,the main tourism r esources of Chongqing were quantitatively evaluated and analyzed by Analytic Hie rarchy Process,and structural and spatial characters of tourism resources were analyzed based on GIS.The result of comprehensive evaluation and spatial analys is showed that the natural tourism resources play fundamental roles in the struc ture of tourism resources in Chongqing,and the cultural and social tourism reso urces are important parts;and in the spatial distribution,the tourism resourc es show the characters of“strap”and“circle”,and disequilibrium distribution in region.Also,based on the comprehensive evaluation and analysis,and using for reference of means and forms of the concept planning for city planning,th e concept planning of the tourism resources was made by means of GIS,and four structural regions were outlined.Finally,the resource structure of every regi on was analyzed;and the ideas for development and direction of every planning region were put forward.
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    Preliminary study on using 137Cs tracter method to estimate soil erosion of typical area:a case study on Xitiaoxi drainage area at up stream of Taihu Lake basin
    JIN Ping-hua, PU Li-jie, WANG Jin-lei, WANG Yu-fei, PAN Shao-ming
    2004, 19 (1):  47-55.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (365KB) ( )   Save
    The absolute erosion of soil at up streams of Taihu lake basin is small,however,the socio-economic and ecological impact caused by soil erosio n in this area can not be ignored.The research of the input of nutritive eleme nts in the upper Taihu lake basin and its environmental effects is very importan t.The substance migration resulted from soil erosion is the main carrier of the input of nutritive elements in this area.Using 137 Cs measurements,a preliminary study was carried out to investigate soil e rosion occurred within Xitiaoxi drainage area of Anji City,Zhejiang Province in this paper.The 137 Cs reference inventory was determinated to be2148.8Bq/m 2 . 137 Cs exhibits exponential vertical distribution in uncultivated soils,the ma ximum distribution depth of 137 Cs in soil section is about 20cm for uncultivated soils. 137 Cs is uniformly distributed within the plough layer,and decteases sharply in activity below the plough layer,the maximum distribution depth of 137 Cs in soil section is about 30cm for cultivated soils.Case study of typi cal sections shows that soil erosion rates in cultivated soils is usually highe r than that in uncultivated soils,soil erosion rates in the upper section is us ually higher than in the lower section,and the relationship between solpe (0 °~20°)and soil erosion rates is logarithms.The outcome of this paper has basic significance for further understanding the ecological impact on Taihu lak e basin,which can help to put forward some better comprehensive countermeasur es to reduce its harm to the possible maximum degree.
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    Study on the effects of land use change on ecosystem service values of Jilin Province
    WANG Zong-ming, ZHANG Bai, ZHANG Shu-qing
    2004, 19 (1):  55-61.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.007
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    It is of significance to study the effect of land use change on ec osystem service values.This paper aimed to provide decision support for sustain able use of resources and protection of eco-environment by assessing land use change and its consequent changes in ecosystem service values of Jilin Province .We obtained land use data by interpreting remote sensing images.Based on dyna mic data of land use in Jinlin,this paper analyzed changes in land use and ecos ystem service values using the ecosystem service value coefficients put forward by Costanza et al.In addition,coefficients of sensitivity were introduced to test the rationality of ecological value coefficients.Results show that from1 980to2000,area of rangeland,water bodies and wetlands decreased and oth er categories of land use increased.Due to comparatively small valuation coeffi cients(VC)of cultivated land and comparatively big VC of wetland and water bod ies,the increment in cultivated land could not offset the total decrement in regional ecosystem service values because of decrease in area of wetlands and wa ter bodies.Meanwhile,city sprawl has also led to loss of ecological values.T he total ecosystem service values of the study area reduced dramatically,from U SD12365.14×10 6 to USD10700.38×10 6 in period1980-2000.There was a13.46%net decline in annual va lue of ecosystem services in study area(i.e.USD1664.76×10 6 net decline in total ecosystem service values)and a0.72%decline per ye ar.In recent five years,the degradation of woodland,wetland and rangeland sl owed down because of enhancement of eco-environment protection.There was an 0.54%decline per year in ecosystem service values from1995to2000,w hile there was an0.78decline per year from1980to1995,which shows t hat the decline in ecosystem service values has been lessened in recent five ye ars.
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    Influence of hydrological characteristic change of Baiyangdian on the ecological environment in wetland
    LI Ying-hua, CUI Bao-shan, YANG Zhi-feng
    2004, 19 (1):  62-68.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (376KB) ( )   Save
    With the dramatic development ofeconomies,the degree ofpeople e xp loiting naturalresour-ces are enhancing.Under the influence of two aspects of natural and artificial factors,great changes in wetland hydrological character istics have taken place.The effects of hydrology on wetland are shown to be pri marily on the chemical and physical aspects of the wetlands such as water qualit y etc,which,in turn,influence the biotic components and the structure and fun ction of the wetland ecosystem.The wetland ecosystem,in turn,has a feedback e ffecton hydrology.Based on the above analysis,this paper chooses Baiyangdian w etland as an example and studies the impactofwetland hydrologicalcharacteristic changes on ecosystem.During the recent half a century,the wetland hydrological characteristic in Baiyangdian have seen significant changes due to change in n aturalclimate and development in agriculture,industry and urbanization.The cha nges are reflected on such facets as reduction in basin precipitation and in-flows amounts,the increasing severity of the water resource resulted from e vapotranspiration and seepage,and the changing quantity of silt deposit,etc.H ydrological characteristic changes directly or indirectly lead to a series of ec ological environmental problems which include the decreasing of water quality,r eduction of the amount and species of water biotic resources and deterioration ofwetland function,etc.Aiming atabove problems,the author discusses the strat egies to the sustainable wetland development in Baiyangdian for the purpose ofh armoniousdevelopment ofecology,society and economy.
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    Discussion on eco-environmental water demand in Weihe River Basin of Shaanxi Province
    WANG Yan-lin, WANGWen-ke, YANG Ze-yuan
    2004, 19 (1):  69-78.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (402KB) ( )   Save
    Weihe River Basin of Shaanxi province is not only one of the maj or birthplaces of the Chine-se nation,the core region of socio-economic develop ment of Shaanxi Province,but also one of the important regions of western de velopment.However,as Weihe River Basin is located in semi-arid land,there ar e many characteristics of nature,such as heterogeneity of temporal and spatial distribution of water resources,higher frequency of natural hazard,etc.In rec ent years,with rapid economic development and sharp expansion of population, contradiction between water resources utilization and eco-environmental protect ion has led to some eco-environmental problems such as the shortening of runo ff courses of many rivers,deteriorating river water quality,etc.In this paper ,the authors,from the point of view of realizing sustainable socio-economic development in Weihe River Basin,aiming at sustainable development of eco-en vironment,thematically analyze the major contents and critical threshold of eco-environmental water demand,discuss outside and inside priorities of eco-envi ronmental water demand and for the first time systematically point out study contents of eco-environmental water demand of Weihe River Basin of Shaanxi Prov ince,including eco-environmental water demand of natural water environment,ve getation construction,river system,urban green land,groundwater resumption,u rban lake sight,reservoir surface,and wetland.Based on the above analysis,th e calculation methods of eco-environmental water demand are given to calculate eco-environmental water demand of Weihe River Basin of Shaanxi Province in20 00,2010and2020.The research not only enriches the theory of eco-env ironmental water demand,but also provides a scientific basis for eco-environm ental construction and water resources exploitation and utilization.
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    Thoughts and views about the three north shelterbelt program
    ZHU Jin-zhao, ZHOU Xin-cheng, HU Jian-zhong
    2004, 19 (1):  79-85.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (122KB) ( )   Save
    Noted as a great splendid program,the three north shelterbelt p rogram is not only a pi-oneering work in China’s eco-construction,but also the important part of national eco-construction.Started in1978,the survival area of the program is accumu lated to be22.0372million hectares in23years,and the forest coverage h as been increased from5.05%in the beginning to9%up to now.The protection forest system in some key areas have been set up so stably that its ecological ,economic and social benefits have been improved greatly.The program has a bre akthrough from the traditional model into a multiple one,that is,the combinati on of belt,patch and net,the combination of artificial afforestation,aerial-sowing afforestation and closing hill and sand dune to facilitate afforestat ion,and combination of silviculture,prohibiting and managing,and thus enriche s the scientific connotation of the protection forest system construction.The f ormer50years of the21st century will be a decisive period for the program.S cientific achievements must be paid great attention to the program in order to s trengthen the construction pace and consolidate the program with suitable measur es.
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    Riverbasin management organization:an international comparison and suggestions on China
    SHEN Da-jun, WANG Hao, JIANG Yun-zhong
    2004, 19 (1):  86-95.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.011
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    Riverbasin management is a popular way to manage water resource s all over the world.The2002Water Law defines the China’s institution of com bination of riverbasin manage-ment and jurisdictional management.The developm ent of riverbasin management organizations(RMO)is out of riverbasin/region development requirements or resources pressures.These RMOs are grouped into three types:water resources council,riverbasin commission and riverbasin water authority,with functions of data collection and processing,planning,resource management and en-vironmental management,operation and maintenance,and moni toring.However,under different so-cial and economic development circumstanc es,particularly different water resources issues,the setting of RMOs may var y significantly.But for an effective and efficient RMO,it must have a clear definition of functions and roles.China is a country with riverbasins in natura l and econom-ic varieties,and various water issues under traditional strong ju risdictional management.In devel-oping its RMOs,it should coordinate the func tions and roles between jurisdictional management agencies,clarify the RMO fun ctions,and reform current internal structure in current RMOs.
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    A comparative-study on the interactive relations between economic development and resource-environment in China's eastern coastal areas
    FAN Jie, QIAN Qing-lan
    2004, 19 (1):  96-105.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.012
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    The paper analyzes the main problems related to resource and env ir onment in the ar-eas of The Bohai Sea Rimland,Yangtze River Delta and Pearl R iver Delta through a com parative method.The regional differentiation character s that the water resource shortage is getting more se-rious from south to north ,the farm resource waste is getting worse from north to south and envi-ronment al pollution is increasing together with the development of regional economy i n the east-ern coastal areas in China are put forward.Then,the interactive r elationship between the regional economic development and resource-environment especially in the industrialization period is dis-cussed and the interaction mode between the two parts has been revised and sum med up.Finally,according to the specific reality in our country,it proposes some countermeasures on ho w to har-monize the relationship between the economic development and resource environment as follows.One is to set up an industrial system which is benefic ial to the environment.The other is to strengthen the resource-environment ma nagement regulation.
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    Discussion on the nature and position of natural resources science
    ZHANG Wen-ju
    2004, 19 (1):  106-109.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.013
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    The natural resources science belongs to applied science,which is constructed theore-tically based on earth science,biology and astronomy.Natu ral resources science,environment scie-nce and ecology are the disciplines at same level.The natural resources economics is establis-hed on the basis of n atural resources science and theoretical economics.
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    The review and prospect on land use and land cover change research in Yellow River Delta
    WANG Hong, GONG Peng, LIU Gao-huan
    2004, 19 (1):  110-118.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.014
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    Land use/land cover change is one of the three core subjects o f global environmental change.The Yellow River Delta is one of the quickest land-creation areas in China and the world.With the increase of population,develo pment of economy and exploitation of oil,the land use and land cover changes rapidly.In the mean time,it brings on a series of environmental problems,incl uding soil salinization,severe water pollution,and menace of wetland resources protection.This paper regards the Yellow River Delta as a typical region to st udy the global environment change,and provides one of the evidences to constru ct global land use/land cover change model.Firstly,this paper introduces the general situation of this area;secondly,it contrasts and concludes the monito ring methods and results of land use/land cover change;thirdly,reviews the drivers of land use/land cover change and simulation models;afterwards,prese nts the development of study and mutual responses on land use/land cover and environment change;then,summarizes the achievements and shortcomings;finally ,discusses future research direction.
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    Causes and drivers of desertification,soil erosion and salinization in China:a meta-analysis
    GUO Ran, WANG Xiao-ke, OUYANG Zhi-yun, LIU Guo-hua, DUAN Xiao-nan
    2004, 19 (1):  119-127.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.015
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    Since the proposition of meta-analysis by psychologists,it has b een considered as a ve-ry useful method for synthesizing the research results and recently it has also been widely used in ecologic study.This paper consists of245cases,of which102cases on desertification,79cases on soil loss a nd64cases on salinization.Using meta-analysis method,four clusters of prox imate causes(namely,agricultural expansion,resource utilization,infrastructu re extension and natural factors)and five sorts of driving forces(namely,econ omic,policy&institutional,technolog-ical,cultural and demographic factors) are identified to be accountable for the three environment-al problems .As a result,the paper found out that most of the three problems were caused by mul tiple factors.At the proximate level,the most frequent causes were agricultu ral expansion for desertification(92%),resource utilization for soil loss (90%),and natural factors for salinization(86%),respectively.At th e underlying level,the most frequent factor was economic factor for all the th ree problems,the frequency was86%,81%and89%.On the whole,multiple f actors were omnipresent in the environmentally degraded area of China,with eco nomic factor being the most frequent factor(85%),following with technolog ical factor(69%)and demographic factor(62%).
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    Ecological footprint of Huailai County,Hebei Province for sustainability
    ZHAO Yun-long, TANG Hai-ping, LI Xin-yu, ZHANG Xin-shi
    2004, 19 (1):  128-135.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.01.016
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    Ecological footprint (EF)is a set of quantitative indicators b as ed on land areas.It evaluates human activity effect on the global ecosystem by quantifying the biologically productive areas necessary to maintain human surviv al.It is a method to measuring sustainability.In this paper,we use the model to calculate and interpret EF of Huailai County,Hebei Province in2001.Bas ed on the calculation,balance of supply and demand,the structure of supply and demand,and the efficiency of biological resources usage are analyzed respectiv ely.The results show:⑴The per capita EF deficit of Huailai County in2001i s0.7245hm 2/pers.,which means the EF of the present region in terms of human activ ities has already exceeded the benchmark of system ecological carrying capacity .The structure and functions of regional eco-economic system must be adjusted.⑵The structure of EF supply and demand of Huailai County is obviously dissymmetry.The main supply is arable land,and th e main demand is fossil energy land.The ecological space types for human consum ption are more single.⑶The per capita ecological deficit reveals that the rela tionship between man and land is more intense.And the regional comparison of EF demand of ten thousand yuan GDP puts forward that the efficiency of biological resources usage of Huailai county is lower.
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