Table of Content

    25 December 2005, Volume 20 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    How to Harmonize the Contradiction between the Utilization of Natural Resources and the Sustainable Development of Economy
    TAN Rong, QU Fu-tian
    2005, 20 (6):  797-805.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (336KB) ( )   Save
    This paper analyzes the expense loss and the excessive loss of the utilization of natu-ral resources during the development of economy in theory,which the expense loss is caused by the need of the economy growth,while the excessive loss I is caused by the market failure and excessive loss II is caused by the government failure.It finds out that the reasonable utilization of natural resources should be below the expense loss.In order to measure the expense loss in an indirect way,this paper computes the excessive losses I and II,which illustrated separately by computing the forestry excessive loss I for the market failure in S city and computing the farmland conversion excessive loss II for government failure in China from 1989 to 1996 and 1999 to 2002 respectively.The method used to calculate the excessive loss I in the forestry case is a quantitative model for forestry management,which includes the social benefit due to carbon sequestration of forest,and the result shows the optimal harvesting age excluding social benefit is 19 years.When social benefit is included the optimal harvesting age increases from 19 to 31 years for a carbon price from 0 yuan/t to 1 000 yuan/t.The method used to calculate the excessive loss II in farmland conversion case is a production function including a new variable to measure the land market freedom affected by the government intervention.The result shows that the excessive loss II of farmland conversion in China is 596 548 ha in 1989-1996 and 1999-2002,which is 37.33% of the total conversion amount.The excessive loss in East region is more serious than that of Central and West,in which the former is 2.55 and 1.99 times to the latter respectively in the proportion,and 4.80 and 6.22 times respectively in the absolute amount.It then identifies the methods to compute the excessive loss of utilization of natural resources.Finally it discusses the ways to harmonize the contradiction between the utilization of natural resources and the sustainable development of economy,which require the reform of government administration to the resources and building up a complete market system.
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    Studies on Heat Resource Change in Shanghai since the 1990'S
    HE Fang-fang, GU Xu-dong, XU Jia-liang
    2005, 20 (6):  806-813.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (174KB) ( )   Save
    The global climate warming arosed change of heat resource in Shanghai.For understan-ding change rule of heat resource in Shanghai,based on the analysis of air temperature and ground temperature data of 11 meteorological stations during last 13 years(1991-2003) in Shanghai,and for the comparison of the mean values during past 30 years(1961-1990),the statistical change of characteristic climatic values in the person of heat resource(air temperature,ground temperature,accumulated temperature,critical temperature and frostless season etc.) since the 1990's was studied.The results showed the annual mean air temperature increased by 0.9℃,the annual mean ground temperature increased by 0.5℃,the annual mean accumulated effective temperature ≥3℃ by 219℃·d,the annual mean increased accumulated effective temperature ≥10℃ by 77℃·d,the average period of steady-up 0℃ extended 12.5d,the average period of steady-up 10℃ extended 5.7d and the annual average frostless season extended 9.4d.Generally speaking,the heat resource increased during last 13 years(1991-2003) in Shanghai.The global climate warming was the main cause for the temperature rise in Shanghai,the effect of urban heat island caused regional difference in the range of temperature rise and widened the difference in geographic distribution of temperature as well.But the annual mean daily range of temperature becomes smaller,which will exert adverse effect on growth and upgrowth of major crops.The result of the study can provide scientific basis for even more reasonable programming development pattern of industry and agriculture of the city of Shanghai.
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    Multiple Time Scales Analysis on Agroclimate ResourcesTaking Wheat and Maize in Zhengzhou City as a Example
    CHEN Huai-liang, HU Peng, ZHANG Xue-fen, DENG Wei
    2005, 20 (6):  814-821.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (426KB) ( )   Save
    The agroclimatic resources possess multple time scales features in time field apart from the apparent spatial variation characteristics,and the large time scales include the small ones.The different time scales conceal different variational rules,such as drought,flood,coldness and warmness etc.The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool because its local variational characte-ristics in time field can reveal the fine structure and the diverse rules containing in different time scales of climate series.Thus,the wavelet analysis method offers a new approach for analyzing the time scale structures and changing mechanism of agroclimatic resources.As an example,the multiple time scales characteristics and variational rules of agroclimatic resources for wheat and maize growth phases in Zhengzhou city were analyzed by means of Morlet wavelet transformation.The results showed that 1)the multiple time scales rules and changing charac-teristics of sunshine,temperature and precipitation series were different on interannual and interdecadal basis.The time variance of precipitation spectrum is the strongest and the most changeful,the temperature spectrum is next and the sunshine spectrum is the last.It is coincident with the fact that the variation of precipitation data is more intense than the ones of temperature and sunshine data.2)A concise and compact information of periodic components of the measurements in the scale-time domain was revealed by wavelet analysis.The results can be proved by other analysis schemes,such as power spectrum,trend analysis,M-K check,etc.3)A clear decreasing trend can be found in the sunshine series over wheat and maize growth period,but the temperature trend is inverse and no obvious trend in precipitation series.Comparing with the trend of global climate change,the consistent and the special local features of climate change existed in Zhengzhou city.
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    Reclamation of Coastal Wetlands and Sustainable Utilization of Wetland Resources:A Case Study from Wanggang,Jiangsu Province
    WANG Ai-jun, GAO Shu
    2005, 20 (6):  822-829.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (210KB) ( )   Save
    Wetlands are found in vegetated lowland areas,with depressions in landscape,between water and dry land along the edges of streams,rivers,lakes and coastlines.Coastal wetlands contain rich values in ecosystem goods and services they are habitats for many birds and unique halophyte flora,sustaining the productivity of estuarine and tidal flat ecosystems and representing important nutrient sinks.Both directly and indirectly,they support large,often rapidly growing,human populations in coastal hinterlands.As one of the most typical areas of coastal wetland evolution,the wetland area at Wanggang is being reduced and the ecological environment is degrading,in response to reclamation of the coastal wetlands.Some 74.1km2 of wetlands at Wanggang have been reclaimed since the 1970s,and the main type of salt marsh vegetation remained was Spartina alterniflora,which was introduced into the Wanggang coastal area in the early 1990s for the purpose of coastal protection and accretion.Field observations show that a large number of aves and gray-cranes were forced to migrate and some part of new dikes was subjected to erosion due to intense reclamation of salt marshes.In order to achieve sustainable utilization of the wetland resources,it is necessary to change the utilization pattern of the wetland resources,adopting a scientific strategy of development that favors a healthy ecological environment.For instance,development activities should be associated with reserve of scientific research,industry of flower and lawn production,eco-tourism of tidal wetlands,integrated silvopastoral system,integrated management of tidal salt marshes,and the establishment of a legislation system.
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    Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Grassland Change in West Jilin Province
    LI Jian-ping, ZHANG Bai, ZHANG Shu-qing
    2005, 20 (6):  830-835.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (272KB) ( )   Save
    Grassland had heavily degraded in west Jilin province during 1980-2000,and it is of great importance to the sustainable development of stockbreeding and eco-environment through study ing on spatio-temporal dynamic change of grassland in this region.By using three-period(1980,1995,2000)remote sensing images and with the support of RS and GIS,spatial information of grassland landscape in west Jilin province in the past 20 years is interpreted and extracted,dynamic spatio-temporal change of grassland landscape patterns of Jilin province is analyzed.The results show:(1)In the past 20 years,40.70% of the grassland decreased,and grassland degradation is serious,especially for high coverage grassland with a net decreasing rate of 51.96%.(2)From 1980 to 1995,the total dynamic degree of grassland is accordant with the dynamic degree of high coverage grassland,so high coverage grassland has a strong effect on change of the whole grassland.During 1995-2000,both dynamic degree of various grasslands and total dynamic degree are negative,the speed of low coverage grassland degradation is the fastest,the total dynamic degree approximates the dynamic degree of high coverage grassland and moderate coverage grassland,and the two types of grasslands heavily affect change of the whole grassland.(3)Grassland is mainly converted into cropland and saline-alkalized land,the converted area reaches 475 799.43hm2 and 303 182.06hm2 respectively.(4)In the last 20 years,the center of gravity of all kinds of grasslands moved towards northeast direction,and in different phases,the change of center of gravity of each kind of grassland is irregular and multi-directional.As far as grassland degradation in the study area is concerned,natural factor takes certain driving action,but human actions are the dominating driving power.
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    Comparison of Soil Moisture Dynamics Based on Sufer7.0 between Different Dry Farming Areas in the Yellow River Basin
    SHAO Xiao-mei, YAN Chang-rong
    2005, 20 (6):  843-850.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (297KB) ( )   Save
    Soil moisture is an important basis for sustainable use of land,planning and manage-ment of water resources and water-saving technique in agriculture,so soil moisture has become one of the focuses in the study of Global Climate Change.According to the soil moisture data at 43 national level agrometeorological stations and based on Sufer7.0 technology,the seasonal and vertical variations of soil water contents between different dry farming areas during the last 20 years are compared in this report.The results indicate that (1)Soil moisture increases gradually from dry semi-arid area to semi-arid area,dry semi-humid area and semi-humid area,and the dru-ness is more serious in dry semi-arid area and semi-arid area than that in dry semi-humid area and semi-humid area because of the long period of soil moisture loss and large quantity of water consumption.(2)In views of vertical changes of soil moisture,it is showed that the variation range of upper layers is greater than that of lower in the different dry farming areas in the Yellow River Basin.Moreover,the variation range from 0-5cm to 50-100cm reduces gradually from arid area,dry semi-arid area,semi-arid area,dry semi-humid area to semi-humid area.Moreover,the variation tendency of soil moisture from top to bottom can be divided into three types i.e.,increasing type,reducing type and fluctuating type.(3)The vertical changing range of soil moisture in the Yellow River Basin can be roughly divided into three layers;the active changing layer lying between 0-30cm,the slow changing layer between 30-100cm,and the relatively stable layer under surface soil of 100cm.Moreover,the thickness of active changing layer increased gradually from arid area to semi-humid area and changed from 0-5cm to 0-30cm.
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    Waterfront Resources Evaluation and Eco-sensitivity Analysis in Distributing Ports Along the Yangtze River Mainstream in Nanjing
    ZHU Hong-yun, YANG Gui-shan, WAN Rong-rong, MA Rong-hua, DUAN Xue-jun
    2005, 20 (6):  851-857.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.007
    Abstract ( )   Save
    As a land/water ecotone,waterfront of rivers is not only an important part of land re-sources with multifunction,such as port,water supply,recreation,landscape,urban image,biodiver-sity conservation,etc.,but also significant in protecting environment,so it is necessary to rationally exploit and utilize waterfront of rivers.The rational distribution of ports is the principal task because it can degrade environment more violently than other functions of waterfront.Taking the waterfront resources along the Yangtze River mainstream in Nanjing as an example,based on scientific and reasonable division of reverbank cell and evaluation index system with two primary evaluating factors such as stability of waterfront and water depth within 100 m from 0 m isobath,this paper,starting with the demands of ports distribution for waterfront resource condition,firstly evaluates waterfront resource condition and divides them into three grades.The first waterfront is steady or scoured slightly but not deposited with a water depth under 8 m,the expansive water route width and water-behind land width satisfied the need of the ships with a tonnage of ten thousand tons or more.The second waterfront is scoured or deposited slightly with a water depth of 5-8m,the expansive water route width and water-behind land width satisfied the need of the ships with a tonnage of one thousand tons or more.The third waterfront is scoured or deposited violently with a water depth above 5m,incommodious water route width or water-behind land width only satisfied the need of the ships with a tonnage of les than one thousand tons.Secondly,according to the extent of the significane of the waterfront functions and the magnitude of eco-sensitivity of waterfront resources to the distribution of ports,this paper classifies the waterfront resources into three different types;(1)the waterfront sensitive region,including waterfront from 500m upward from the water intake to 500 m downward from the water intake,the biodiversity waterfront,the waterfront for the use of controlling stability of river regime,the waterfront being located in the city and the landscape waterfront;(2)the waterfront less sensitive region,including waterfront within 0.5-2.5 km upward from the water intake,waterfront within 0.5-2.5 km downward from the water intake and 2 km waterfront upward from the biodiversity waterfront,2km waterfront downward from the biodiversity waterfront;(3)the waterfront non-sensitive region,including else waterfront.Finally,on the basis of taking waterfront resources condition and sensitivity of waterfront into account and giving priority to ecological protection,this paper puts forward orientation of distributing ports in waterfront of the Yangtze River mainstream in Nanjing,and the waterfront resources are classified into four kinds;(1)the waterfront for the use of preferential distribution of ports,which is the first grade or the second grade,non-sensitive region;(2)the waterfront for the use of conditional distribution of ports,which is the first grade or the second grade,less sensitive region;(3)waterfront for the use of potential distribution of ports,which is the third grade,non-sensitive region:and(4)the waterfront for the use of inhibitive dis-tribution of ports,which comprises both the third grade,less sensitive region and the sensitive region.
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    Study on the Two Dimensional Division of Water Resources and Hydrologic Cycle in Manas River Valley of Xinjiang
    ZHANG Jun-min
    2005, 20 (6):  858-863.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (260KB) ( )   Save
    The Manas river valley has an integrated and independent hydrogeologic unit,topog-raphic composition,and ecologic differentiated structure,which form the typical movement rule and conversion law of water resources and water cycle in the interior drainage basins.The intensive and high-efficient exploitation of water resources has changed the course of water cycle and unity of ecologic service functions from the cycle course and cycle peculiarity,hence leading to the two dimensional division of oasis water resource,and hydrologic cycle.The growth and decline from the natural cycle to the human one change the time-space distribution and transformation conditions of water resources between the natural oasis,human oasis and the transitional zone.According to the existing distributive hydrologic cycle model and hydrologic monitoring statistical data,oasis used water resources didn't affect the mountain area over 2 000 m,but the man-made oasis has acquired the competitive advantage in the cycle of regeneration of water resources in the plain area.Based on extensive statistic data analysis,man-made water supply has occupied 73.5% of the total volume supplied,and man-made exploitation amount has occupied 41.78% of the total output.Hence the plain area hydrologic cycle has brought about two dimensional division dominated by the man-made hydrologic cycle.The ecologic entity between the man-made oasis,natural oasis and the transitional belt,and desert belt has taken on a no-sequence trend.The vertical hydrologic cycle of man-made oasis has been enhanced and evaporation and infiltration intensified.At the same time the horizontal discharge of natural oasis and the transitional belt has decreased and the available eco-water lessened.This change has resulted in an antagonistic tendency between oasis-desert ecosystem.Such a study can provide the scientific basis for the reasonable allocation and sustainable utilization of water resources in arid region.
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    Observed Trends of Pan Evaporation and Its Impact Factors Over the Yangtze River Basin between 1961 and 2000
    WANG Yan-jun, JIANG Tong, XU Chong-yu
    2005, 20 (6):  864-870.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (362KB) ( )   Save
    Applying Mann-Kendall trend test and IDW interpolation methods,trends of 20cm pan evaporation and its impact factors over the Yangtze River Basin were analyzed from 1961 to 2000.Significant negative trend of pan evaporation was detected in the upper,middle and lower reaches as well as the whole basin,but this trend is more significant in the middle and lower reaches(99% confidence level) than that in the upper reaches(95% confidence level),and more significant in summer(99% confidence level) than that in other seasons.Significant negative trends of annual mean solar net radiation and wind speed were found over the Yangtze River Basin.Significant positive trend of annual mean air temperature was detected,while slight decreasing trend of summer air temperature was observed in the middle and lower reaches.Slight increasing trend of annual mean precipitation was detected over the Yangtze River Basin,but significant increasing trend of summer precipitation was found in the middle and lower reaches.Therefore,the significant negative trends in solar net radiation and wind speed over the basin cause the decrease in pan evaporation after compensating the increase in air temperature,and the significant increasing of summer precipitation and slight decreasing of summer air temperature in the middle and lower reaches enhanced the confidence level of the decreasing trend of summer pan evaporation.
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    Change and Spatial Pattern of Eco-environment in the Farming-pastoral Ecotone of the Northern China
    JIANG Wei-guo, CHEN Yun-hao, LI Jing, LI Jia-hong, WU Yong-feng
    2005, 20 (6):  871-878.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (361KB) ( )   Save
    The farming-pastoral ecotone of the northern China is a typical and ideal zone for stu-dying eco-environment.The eco-environment is vulnerable in this area,which is attributed to the natural conditions and human activities.First,the study builds the diagnostic indicators of eco-en-vironment background condition,based on multi-subject spatial data to reflect the characters of the eco-environment.Then,the eco-environment is evaluated in 1989 and 1999 by using the digital grid model and the spatial analytical method.Next,the changes and spatial pattern of the eco-environment are analyzed.The results are as follows (1)The eco-environment background condition becomes worse from southeast to northwest in the farming-pastoral ecotone of the northern China.(2)The eco-environment background condition deteriorates from 1989 to 1999.(3)The contiguous areas of Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia-Ningxia-Gansu,Horqin sandy land and its outer area and the eastern Qinghai province witness the serious eco-environmental changes.(4)The eco-environment background condition of 12 counties is the worst in the 205 counties of the farming-pastoral ecotone of the northern China,they are Yanchi county of Ningxia,Wengniute banner of Inner Mongolia,Dingbian county of Shaanxi,Huanxian of Ganshu,Jianzha county of Qinghai,Fenxi county of Shanxi and so on,the affected area of every county is more than 60%.
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    Effect of Improved Soil on Hippophae Rhamnodies Mixed Plantation in Gully Region of Loess Plateau
    HAN En-xian, HAN Gang
    2005, 20 (6):  879-884.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (133KB) ( )   Save
    The experiment applied national standard forest analysis method to study the effect of improved soil on Hippophae Rhamnodies mixed plantation.The result indicated that the Hippophae Rhamnodies mixed plantation intensified soil stability,improved soil physical and chemical properties,and increased soil decomposed degree.There is a good improving effect on soil.Compared with pure Chinese pine plantation the soil waterstable aggregate increased by 20.8% and the destroy percentage of soil surface layer aggregate stability reduced by 40.76%.The soil density,bulk density and stability were 5.9% and 15.1% lower,prosity and ventilation degree were 12.16% and 16.9% higher,water retaining content and moisture were 13.6% and 5.9% higher,organic matter,total N,P2O5,available P and K increased by 10.5%,22.6%,20.2%,25.4% and 12.6%respectively.Soil protease,sucrase,CAT and polyphenoloxidase activities increased by 17.5%,89.6%,2.9% and 39.1%.The effect of improved soil on Hippophae Rhamnodies and Chinese pine mixed plantation is better than that on Hippophae Rhamnodies and Platycladus Orientalis mixed plantation.The effect of improved soil on mixed plantation becomes better with ageing of trees.
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    Studies on the Effect of Grazing on Soil Microflora and Activities in Zhangjiajie Suoxiyu Scene
    TAN Zhou-jin, XIAO Qi-ming, YANG Hai-jun, LI Qian
    2005, 20 (6):  885-890.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (117KB) ( )   Save
    In order to probe into the effect of livestock farming,which happened simultaneously with recreational activities,on soil microbes and provide reasonable suggestions for keeping ecological balance,studies on microbial flora and microbial activity in soils from Zhangjiajie Suoxiyu Scene were conducted.The results showed that the number of bacteria,actinomycetes and fungi in 0-5cm layer soil was affected prominently by grazing.The number of bacteria and fungi in 0-5cm layer soil from control zone and buffer zone was much higher than that from active zone.The number of bacteria and fungi in 0-5cm layer soil from buffer zone differed not much from that from control zone prominently.And the number of actinomycetes in 0-5cm layer soil from control zone was much higher than that from active zone and buffer zone.The number of actinomycetes in 0-5cm layer soil from buffer zone differed not much from that from active zone.The number of bacteria and actinomycetes in 5-15cm and 15-25cm layer soils was not affected by grazing.The number of fungi in 5-15 cm and 15-25cm layer soils from active zone was much less than that from other two test zones.The number of bacteria in 5-15cm layer soil from active zone was much higher than that from the other two layer soils,but the number of actinomycetes and fungi decreased with the increase of the depth of soil layer.In control zone and buffer zone,the number of bacteria,actinomycetes and fungi in soil decreased with the increase of the depth of soil layer.At the same time,some special physiological microbes,such as aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria,aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria,denitrifying bacteria,nitrifying bacteria and anaerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria were affected prominently by the grazing activities.Microbial activities in 0-5cm and 5-15cm layer soils from active zone and buffer zone were much higher than those in control zone.Microbial activities in 15-25cm layer soil from active zone were much higher than those from control zone.All these results showed that it is necessary to take measures to protect Zhangjiajie National Forest Park from being destroyed.
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    A Positive Study of the Evaluation on the Development of Regional Agricultural Recycling Economy
    MA Qi-fang, HUANG Xian-jin, PENG Bu-zhuo, ZHAI Wen-xia, LIU Lin-wang
    2005, 20 (6):  891-899.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (397KB) ( )   Save
    At present,conventional agriculture is confronted with a series of problems,such as en-vironmental pollution,ecological damage,resources waste,etc.People begin to focus on the deve-lopment of regional agricultural recycling economy,for improving efficiency in use of resources and economic benefit.The index system for evaluating agricultural recycling economy was finished by BPEIR model and Delphi method.This paper studies the index system for evaluating the development about regional agricultural recycling economy,taking Jiangsu Province as a case.Based on the quantitative analysis by AHP method,it makes a comprehensive evaluation on the development of agricultural recycling economy in Jiangsu Province from 1985 to 2003.The result shows the development process of agricultural recycling economy in Jiangsu can be divided into three phrases.At first stage,the level of agricultural recycling economy improved slowly.Then,it developed quickly.Presently,the development of agricultural recycling economy in Jiangsu Province is in a steady situation.As a whole,the level of agricultural recycling economy in Jiangsu Province goes up continuously.The indexes of evaluation fasten on the section from 1 to 1.5.Secondly,he limiting factors to the development of agricultural recycling economy are disclosed in 2003.The primary obstacle was the reduction of resources input.The proportions of the obstacle to resources input,reduction recycling use of resources,development of economy and society,safety of resources and environment are respectively 57%,19%,13% and 11%.In order to improve the level of agricultural recycling economy of Jiangsu Province,some advices are put forward,such as the reduction of resources input,construction of eco-agriculture and organic agriculture,development of agricultural industrializa-tion.
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    Research on the Rule of Sulfur Resources Flow Based on Fertilizer Manufacturing
    WANG Li, ZHANG Wei-feng, MA Wen-qi, GAO Xiang-zhao, ZHANG Fu-suo, QI Yan
    2005, 20 (6):  900-908.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (203KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of analyzing the exploitation and utilization of sulfur resources,the acti-vation and production of sulfur,the process of different kinds of chemical fertilizer,and the rules of sulfur resources flow were quantitatively studied in this paper according to the theory of natural resources flow.The results showed that the amount of sulfur resources consumed in China was 11 660 000 tons in 2002,among which the amount of sulfur consumed for chemical fertilizer production was 7 960 000 tons or 70% of the total consumption.From the rate of sulfur changed into the sulfur fertilizer,the total conversion ratio of sulfur resource based on chemical fertilizer production was only 57.6%.About 3 220 000 tons of sulfur were flowed into the phosphogypsum.However,most of them were lost in terms of agricultural applications.The conversion ratio among the variety of chemical fertilizers differed significantly,the conversion ratio of these fertilizers such as Diammonium Phosphate(DAP),Monoammonium Phosphate(MAP)and Triple Superphosphate(TSP) of high concentration phosphorus fertilizer was lower than 7%,while the ratio of NPK compound fertilizer was 38%.All the conversion ratios of the Single Superphosphate(SSP),Potassium Sulfate(SOP) and Ammonium Sulfate(CAS) were almost 100%.Regarding sulfur resource which was consumed by phosphorus fertilizer as the subject of study,the SSP was the main consumer of sulfur resources which accounted for 45% of the total consumption of chemical fertilizer.It was also the main storage carrier of sulfur resources,accounting for 78% of the total storage.So,the production of SSP is the main factor for improving the sulfur resource conversion ratio.The consumption of the phosphorus fertilizer(including DAD,MAP,TSP and NPK compound fertilizer) with high density accounts for more than 50% of the total consumption of chemical fertilizer,but the storage occupied less than 15% of the total storage.Most sulfur resources were flowed into the phosphogypsum without effective use.So,the production of high concentration phosphorus fertilizer is the main factor reducing the sulfur resource conversion ratio.The output of high concentration phosphorus fertilizer presents with remarkably negative concentration conversion ratios of sulfur,and the proportion of high/low concentration phosphorus fertilizer shows an extremely notably negative correlation with the conversion ratio of sulfur.From 1990 to 2002,the total conversion ratio of the sulfur was decreased from 95.8% to 57.6%.In 2002,the conversion ratio of sulfur in provinces having an annual output of more than 20 000 tons P2O5 ranged from 12.9% to 99.7%.The structure of varieties of chemical fertilizer plays a decisive role to the sulfur resource conversion ratio in China.Reasonale utilization of sulfur resources should be considered in working out the program for regulating structure and varieties of chemical fertilizer in China.
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    A Rough Estimate of Water Footprint of Gansu Province in 2003
    WANG Xin-hua, XU Zhong-min, LI Ying-hai
    2005, 20 (6):  909-915.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (273KB) ( )   Save
    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people.The water footprint of a country/region is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country/region.Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept.Virtual water is defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service.There are two ways to calculate the water footprint.Firstly,the water footprint of a country/region can be assessed by taking the use of domestic water resources,subtract the virtual water flow that leaves the country/region and add the virtual water flow that enters the country/region.Secondly,the water footprint can be calculated by multiplying the amount of production of goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country/region with the virtual water content of the corresponding products which often expressed in terms of cubic meters of water per ton of the product(=litres/kg),add the amount of domestic living water use.In this paper,we put forward the concept of water footprint and the ways to calculation.Then we compute the water footprint of gansu province in 2003.The result-water footprint of Gansu province in 2003 is 226.67×108m3,per capita 878m3 available.Water self-sufficiency is 99.52%,this is not good for Gansu province because in arid region water is very scarce.This paper also analyses the ways to solve the problem of water scarcity and the structure of water footprint in some typical provinces,and bring forward some ways to reduce the water footprint in order to alleviate water scarcity.
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    Study on Resource-saving Development Based on Ecological Footprint-Taking Hangzhou City as an Instance
    YU Wan-jun, WU Ci-fang, YIN Qi, FANG Bin
    2005, 20 (6):  916-924.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (405KB) ( )   Save
    This paper,taking ecological footprint as its theoretic base,studied the resource use stat-us of Hangzhou.At the same time,the world,China and other places in different development phases were selected as a comparison for comprehensively understanding the relationship between resource use and economic development.The result suggested that (1)from 1991 to 2002,the ecological footprint consumption of the selected areas(except the world) showed an increasing trend in general.For Hangzhou,it increased from 1.063 2 global hm2 per capita in 1991 to 1.818 1 global hm2 per capita in 2000,and then decreased to 1.770 9 global hm2 per capita in 2002.(2)From 1991 to 2002,the ecological capacity of all selected areas showed a decreasing trend.For Hangzhou,it decreased from 0.725 6 global hm2 per capita in 1991 to 0.6130 global hm2 per capita in 2002.(3)Because the ecological footprint consumption went beyond the ecological capacity,all the selected areas appeared ecological deficit,Hangzhou's ecological deficit increased from 0.337 6 global hm2 per capita in 1991 to 1.157 9 global hm2 per capita in 2002.(4)For all the selected areas,the energy footprint made a big share of the ecological footprint consumption.For Hangzhou,the share is 59.48%.(5)At the aspect of resource use efficiency,Hangzhou created 4 140 U.S.dollars of GDP per global hm2,which is 39.96% of the country's income and 67.49% of the global's.By contrasting,the general conclusion between resource use and economic development can be drawn under the current resource use model,the more the economy developed,the more the resource consumed,the more intensive the resource used and the more investment needed to compensate the eco-system.So,the selection of the resource-saving development model is the only way for Hangzhou to resolve the resource bottle-neck problem of the social and economic development.Finally,this paper,aiming at the development trend between the socio-economic development and resource use and combining with the sustainable assessment equation of ImPACTS,put forward some policies concerning resource-saving development in Hangzhou.
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    Regional Differentiation of Grain Production of Commodity Grain Bases in the Northeast China
    CHENG Ye-qing, ZHANG Ping-yu
    2005, 20 (6):  925-931.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (335KB) ( )   Save
    As one of the most important commodity grain base in China,110 commodity grain bases have been established in Northeast China since 1983,which is 13.2% of the total.In 2000,the percentage of population of the bases is 52.8% of the region's total population,and cultivated land is 77.86%,and sown area is 68.76%,but the percentage of grain yield is 81.5%.And those commodity grain bases can provide 300×108 kg to 350×108 kg of commodity grains each year,being about 33.3% of the total in China.In this article,taking the bases as an example,by the methods of statistics and spatial analysis of GIS,the characteristics of regional differentiation of grain yield are revealed;(1)Bases below average yield are in domination,which are about 63.64% in number,but is about 35.26% in grain yield:(2) disparities of grain yield among bases are less than varietal crops of each base,especially,regional difference of rice yield is greater than corn and soybean;(3) in provincial scale,bases above average yield are concentratedly distributed in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces,which shows obvious trend of specialization and regionalization of grain yield;and(4) in regional scale,grain yield concentrates in plain areas such as the black soil region of central Songnen Plain,Liaohe Plain and Sanjiang Plain,presenting a decreasing trend from middle plains to adjacent mountainous regions.Varying of sown areas are the primary factor resulting in regional differentiation of grain yield,but modernization of agriculture also has important effect on it.To intensify construction of commodity grain bases and optimiz spatial distribution is a tactic way to make Northeast China a grain security base of the country,which requires us to increase capital investment in reconstructing middle and low yield farmlands,to improve comprehensive capacity of grain production by increasing per unit area yield,and to accelerate specialization,regionalization and scalization of grain production.
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    Some Issues in the Study on Land Use/Cover Change
    NI Shao-xiang
    2005, 20 (6):  932-937.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (235KB) ( )   Save
    Land use/cover change has become one of the most active fields in the current inter-national study on global changes,and many results have been obtained in recent years especially in relevant theories and methodologies in this field.However,quite many problems in the study of land use/cover change have to be more deeply explored because of its complexity.In this paper the following issues in the study of land use/cover change are explored. 1.Classification of land use/cover changes.More attention should be paid to the classifica-tion of land use/cover changes from the point of view of dynamic process.According to this idea,both land use change and land cover change could be divided into three types,i.e.,'conversion','modification' and 'maintenance'.Among them 'modification' has received more attention from researchers in this field at present. 2.Driving force of land use/cover changes.The driving force of land use/cover changes should be divided into two categories,i.e.,the biophysical driving forces and the socio-economic ones.In most cases,the former will cause changes of land cover instead of land use.On the contrary,the latter usually has direct impacts on the changes of land use through human's decision on land use.In addition,due to its increasingly notable and profound roles of human socio-economic activities in land use/cover changes,the socio-economic driving force of land use/cover changes could be further divided into 'general driving force'(indirect driving force) and 'direct driving force'. 3.Modeling of land use/cover changes.Different kinds of models used in the study of land use/cover changes have been worked out in recent years.However,these models all have their own advantages and limitations.Besides,those models which are capable to simulate dynamically the competition between different types of land use are nearly absent and,therefore,should be created.In addition,any model worked out and can be used in simulating the land use/cover changes must have a reliability in terms of theoretical background. 4.The issue of scale in the study of land use/cover changes.Scale,including spatial scale and temporal one,is a significant concept in the study of land use/cover changes.In classification of land use/cover change and in the studies on driving forces of land use/cover change and analysis on their impacts the scale sense have to be always kept in mind.In addition,the optimum spatial and temporal scales should be selected and determined in the study of land use/cover changes.
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    Biotechnology and Comprehensive Utilizations of Plant-fiber Waste Resources
    XUE Jin-ai, MAO Xue, LI Run-zhi
    2005, 20 (6):  938-944.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2005.06.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (149KB) ( )   Save
    Agricultural wastes such as straw of cereal crops,cottonseed hulls,coconut husks,su-garcane bagasse,pineapple and banana leaves are the major renewable and re-useable resources of plant fibers.These agro-based biofibers are the important raw materials for bioproduct deve-lopment and various industrial utilizations in food,medicine,textile,paper,composite and fine chemicals and so on.Approximately 2×1011tons of agro-based biofibers are produced in the world every year.Annual production of cereal straw and stalks,sugarcane bagasse and oil crop straw are around 6×108,2×107and 3×107 tons in China.Traditionally,most of the agricultural byproducts are used as a source of fuel or animal feed and therefore,are of limited value at present though this kind of plant fiber resource is annually renewable and available in abundance.Biotechnology greatly accelerated the exploitation and comprehensive applications of the agro-based biofibers,resulting in the developments of numerous"green"industries with environmental benefits.Firstly,the present paper analyses the physical and chemical characters of biofibers from agricultural wastes and the various ways for their industrial applications.Secondly,the main investigations of this paper are focused on the advances in bio-developments of plant fiber resources for the value-added commercial products including single cell protein,cellulolytic enzymes,lactic acid,xylitol,fuel ethanol,bio-electricity,biodegradable polymers and other biocomposites.Thirdly,the paper also discusses the current shortages and challenges for bio-development of agro-based biofibers.It is believable and bright that biotechnology will make the biofiber-based products competitive with current petroleum-based products and at the same time has the benefits of reducing dependence on nonrenewable energy sources,enhancing national security,improving the environment,creating new opportunities for the agricultural economy and promoting sustainable development.
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