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    25 October 2006, Volume 21 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    The Status and Prospect of Forest Ecological Benefit Compensation
    LI Wen-hua, LI Fen, LI Shi-dong, LIU Mou-Cheng
    2006, 21 (5):  677-688.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (440KB) ( )   Save
    Forest is one of the most important terrestrial ecosystems on the earth.Besides supplying timber and other goods,forest has vital effect on environment and provides significant ecological services for people.However,a larger part of the value of those ecological services could not be realized via market transactions.This market-failure creates a need for seeking governmental intervention to solve the positive externality of forest ecological benefits.It is crucial to establish eco-compensation mechanism which has become one of the hot spots in the field of ecological economic studies.This is particularly important in China,which possesses limited forest resources and a large population.With rapid economic development,resources over-exploitation and environmental deterioration have become a bottleneck to the socio-economic development in China,and forest resources loss is believed to be closely associated with ecological and environmental degradations.Therefore,forest conservation has gained increasingly attention and the Chinese government has taken a series of actions to protect forest resources.Based on relevant literature review,this paper makes clear the conception of forest ecological benefit compensation and introduces the current domestic and international researches on this issue.Through the analysis of theories and practices of forest ecological benefits compensation abroad,some inspirations are drawn on establishing the forest ecological benefits compensation mechanism,for examples:governmental investment,beneficiaries pay,market transition and institutional framework.Meanwhile,it is claimed that there are still many insufficiencies in the forest ecological benefit compensation of China such as non-clear concept of eco-compensation,lack of scientific bases for accounting method and systems,limited institutional experience,inadequate legal framework or supporting institutions and lack of farmers' participation.Based on the above analysis,it is considered that further researches on ecological compensation should be carried out.Finally,the policy recommendations are presented in the paper,including increasing governmental support,diversifying financing channels,improving mechanisms management,establishing legal framework,strengthening scientific research on standard-making and raising public awareness on ecological compensation.
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    A Study on Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Jingjinji Region
    FENG Zhi-ming, LIU Deng-wei
    2006, 21 (5):  689-699.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1068KB) ( )   Save
    China is one of the countries facing the most serious water shortage crisis.In recent years,the water problem has become more and more projecting,especially for urban area where water shortage has been a common problem-water demand is mounting up rapidly due to population burgeon and improvement of living people's standards.The serious dearth of water has turned out to be a bottleneck in the region's social and economic development,which makes the research on water resource more pressing.In this paper,we mainly study the water resources carrying capacity(WRCC),as the groundwork of the study of water resources security stratagem,which plays an important role in the harmonious development of regional water-ecology-socio-economy complex system.Jingjinji region located in the Haihe River valley is chosen as a typical area to study the water shortage problem.This region includes Beijing,Tianjin and eight cities in Heibei province:Shijiazhuang,Tangshan,Qinhuangdao,Baoding,Zhangjiakou,Chengde,Cangzhou and Langfang,which is around Greater Beijing Economic Hub and is the core area of the Bohai Bay Trade Hub.Mean while it is severely short of water resources,the average water resources of which is only 370×108m3,1.3% less than the national average level,but it carries about 10% of the national population,food and GDP. A model of water resources is developed for analyzing the carrying capacity of water resources in different years in this region.The model for calculating WRCC is established by taking the "population capacity capacity" as its synthetic index and using the system optimizati-on method.And a formula of load factors is also used to compute the potential of water resources in different areas. The final results indicate that:1)There are still 684×108m3 of potential water resources which come from rain and flood in the region,and could be exploited.2)In the years of normal precipitation(p=50%),according to the "having enough to eat and wear" life standard,the population that water resources can carry is larger than that of nowadays;while,if according to the "better-off"life standard,the water resources cannot support today's population.3)In drought years,in developed area,the population can be carried by lowering the living standard,however,in underdeveloped areas,when having a long-term drought,the population cannot be supported.4)Although the water carrying capacity of Jingjinji region may be improved after completing the South to North Water Transfer Project,the living standard might not be improved,for it can be offset by the increasing population.So,the rudimentary method for solving the problem of water scarcity is stringent population control.
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    The Analysis about Water Resource Utilization,Ecological and Environmental Problems in Northeast China
    LIU Zhuo, LIU Chang-ming
    2006, 21 (5):  700-708.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (179KB) ( )   Save
    Some ecological and environmental problems are caused due to water resources extensive utilization,which has affected water resources sustainable utilization and development.Northeast China,which includes three provinces Liaoning,Jilin,Heilongjiang and the east of Inner Mongolia is famous for its old industrial base.it is featured by better growing conditions and rich natural resources feature.The regional development is based on water resources exploitation.In the past 50 years,the exploitation and utilization of water resources have extended to a certain degree with industrial and agricultural development,causing a serious of water-related serious ecological and environmental problems:①Severe water pollution:the length of reaches satisfyingⅠ~Ⅲ water quality criteria was less than 40% of the total qualified reaches to be evaluated and the length of reaches below water quality criteria was over 60% in 2003;②land desertification: Land desertification has been aggravating in the western part of Wortheast China,river cut-off has happened in a number of watercourses;and ③groundwater overdraft and large-scale wetland shrinkage occurred in many places.To solve the above problems,several suggestions and countermeasures are put forward:firstly,ecological restoration and environmental protection must follow the law of nature;secondly,ecological and environmental water requirement should be satisfied;Finally,monitoring system should be strengthened to supply real-time data.Generally,ecological and environmental problems are correlated with water resources utilization of Northeast China.Water resources must be used with in the limit of the available amout and exploited according to the local conditions,and equal stress should be laid on economical and high-effecient utilization so as to realize sustainable development of Northeast China.
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    GIS Analysis of Rural Land Use Change in the Urbanization Process,and Countermeasures:A Case Study of Jiangxi Province
    DONG Suo-cheng, QI Xiao-ming, FAN Zhen-jun
    2006, 21 (5):  709-716.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (654KB) ( )   Save
    The process of urbanization causes the loss of farmland and has changed the pattern of land use type.In this article,based on the statistical data and using GIS technology,the authorsstudied the change of grain production and land use area of Jiangxi Province in Central China.After analyzing the changing process from farmland to urbanized land and their difference of spatial distribution in different stage,the following conclusions were drawn below.Firstly,the gross grain production variation of Jiangxi Province after 1978 can be divided into 3 stages,rising,stable and declining,and it was closely related with the total sown area;the area of farmland increased to 10.63×103ha in 1995 compared with that in 1980 and declined to 31.78×103ha in 2000 compared with that in 1995;the area of urban land increased 15.5×103ha in 1995 and 2.05×103ha in 2000 compared with that in 1980 and 1995 respectively,there is a tendency of continual rise but the speed of it declined a little;the conversion of farmland into urban land use widely happened,and mainly aggregated in the areas of the Boyanghu Plain and transportation lines;industrialization and urbanization speed the decrease tendency of farmland.Secondly,from now on,the changes of farmland into other forms of land use will speed up,and will occur apparently in the areas of the Boyanghu Plain and transportation lines.Thirdly,the suggestion for harmonizing the development of grain production and urbanization can be concluded as:protecting the basic farmland,making the policies that benefit the farmers most in order to stimulate their positivity of increasing the sown area,planting the crops with high quality and yield,accelerating the development of large or medium-sized cities,etc.
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    Theoretical Model and Its Application of Regional Per Capita Basic Farmland Area:A Case Study of Jiangsu Province
    ZHONG Tai-yang, HUANG Xian-jin, MA Qi-fang, LIU Yang
    2006, 21 (5):  717-726.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (383KB) ( )   Save
    For the purpose of calculating basic farmland to be protected in a specific region,this paper discussed the meaning of basic farmland,and defined regional per capita BFA farmland area(BFA).The paper believed that the regional per capita BFA was a function which included independent variables such as living standard,technology development level,per unit area yield,and natural calamity.Given that,the model to compute the regional per capita BFA was built.The model included parameters such as residents' consumption,multiple-cropping index,the sown acreage proportion of grain crops,per unit area yield,and urbanization level.The relations between these independent variables and the regional per capita BFA were also analyzed in this paper.This paper showed that the regional per capita BFA had positive correlations with residents'consumption level and degree of grain self-sufficency,and negative correlations with multiple-cropping index,the sown acreage proportion of grain crops,and per unit area yield.However the relation between the regional per capita BFA and urbanization level was up to the ratio of urban household's consumption to rural household's consumption.Taking Jiangsu Province as an example,this paper calculated the annual per capita grain consumption equivalent of Jiangsu Province from 1985 to 2004.For the purpose of increasing accuracy,the results from 1991-1998 were adjusted by the ratio of residents'food away-from-home expenditure to aggregate food expenditure,which would influence the residents' consumption of produce dependent on cultivated land.It is found out that the annual per capita grain consumption including direct and indirect consumption from 1985 to 2004 tended to be stable,and the average values of the annual per capita grain consumption equivalent of urban household and rural household were respectively 284kg and 356kg.The paper also found that the change of the annual grain consumption equivalent of Jiangsu Province from 1991 to 1998 adjusted by the rate of residents' food away-from-home expenditure was comparatively even,and the average values were respectively 361.46kg and 391.35kg.Furthermore,this paper calculated the value of per capita BFA in Jiangsu Province from 1985 to 2004,estimated the value of per capita BFA in Jiangsu Province from2005 to 2020,and analyzed the impact of multiple-cropping index and the sown acreage proportion of grain crops on the regional per capita BFA.The results show that the average value of per capita BFA of Jiangsu Province from 1985 to 2004 is 0.054 ha without consideration of the food consumption away-from-home,which is 0.059ha if the food consumption away-from-home is included,and 0.057 ha from2005 to 2020 when the influence of food consumption away-from-home is considered.
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    Study of Green Accounting for Forest in the Greater Hinggan Mountains in Heilongjiang of China
    ZHANG Ying
    2006, 21 (5):  727-737.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (405KB) ( )   Save
    This paper has calculated the physical value,monetary value and green GDP for forest and so on in the Greater Hinggan Mountains in Heilongjiang Province in China from 1997 to 2003 based on green accounting summary both at home and abroad.The accounting result indicates that the eaGDP(environmentally adjusted GDP)was 3.819 billion yuan in 1997 and 5.734 billion yuan in 2003,an annual increase of 7.01% annually from 1997 to 2003.At the same time,the eaNDP(environmentally adjusted NDP)was 2.570 billion yuan in 1997 and 3.925 billion yuan in 2003,an annual increase of 7.31% in the same period.In addition,the balance sheet and wealth table have been valuated in the Greater Hinggan Mountains.The result of valuation shows that there was a decreasing tendency for the values of forest land,the forest stocks and the forest social benefits,as well as an increasing tendency for the values of forest environment services from 1997 to 2003.All this reflects that forest land and the forest stocks have been over exploited and used in the sociaeconomic development in the Greater Hinggan Mountains in Heilongjiang.It also shows that the proportions of green GDP to GDP,and the forest resources to the wealth display the decreasing tendencies,indicating that the potential supports of forest resources to national economic development declined generally although the growth volume exceeded the consumption volume.This is an indication of sustainable management of forest resources after the implementation of natural forest protection project in the Greater Hinggan Mountains.Finally,this paper suggests that research on the policy of compensating ecology should be strengthened,and green wealth policy should be formulated so as to positively carry out the forest sustainable management countermeasures and to ensure the sustainable development and the green wealth growth in the Greater Hinggan Mountains in Heilongjiang in the future.
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    Study on the Pattern of Rural Distinctive Eco-economy Based on Land Resources:A Case Study of Suide County in Loess Hilly Areas
    LIU Yan-sui, JIN Xiao-yan, HU Ye-cui
    2006, 21 (5):  738-745.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (373KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the theory of regional human-land system in hilly & gully areas of the Loess Plateau,this paper analyzed the characteristic of agricultural resources and current status of social and economic development of Suide county in northern Shaanxi province,a typical case in Loess Plateau,and elucidated the interactive nature between explorations in ecological resources to aim at eco-environmental construction and the rural economic development.Results indicated that the factors restricting agricultural sustainable development in this study area are as follows:vulnerable ecological environment,serious soil and water erosion,shortage of water resources,poor economic condition,etc.Then based on the analysis of realistic social and environmental conditions,this paper discussed the effective ways to utilize ecological resources and develop eco-economy of Suide county in hilly & gully areas of the Loess Plateau.Driven by the western great development strategies during 2000-2004,the forest and orchard land in the study area increased by 7 178.5ha and 7 097.7ha,respectively.Furthermore,according to the characteristics of topography and rules of water and soil erosion,the typical optimal utilization technologies of land resources such as dry farming and saving irrigation technology,demonstration and popularization of tree planting practical technology,ecoagriculture for water protection technology,had been put forward.Finally,in order to guide the development of rural economy for building socialist new countryside in new stages,this paper also put forward three typical rural ecological economic patterns including Caragana korshinskii(Ningtiao) shelter industrialization model,three-dimensional soil and water protection agricultural model,and ecological resources development model in small watershed scale.
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    Effect of Urban Heat Island on the Air Temperature and Precipitation in Beijing Region
    ZHANG Ling, XU Zong-xue, RUAN Ben-qing
    2006, 21 (5):  746-755.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (865KB) ( )   Save
    The effect of urban heat island has received much attention in climate studies.On the basis of the temperature and precipitation database collected from twenty meteorological stations in Beijing from 1961 to 2004,the effect of urban heat island on temperature and precipitation was analyzed in this paper.The Mann-Kendall test was applied to annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation time series.The Mann-Kendall statistic test is a rank-based,nonparametric approach and has been widely used to estimate the significance of long-term trends in hydrometeorological time series such as water quality,streamflow,temperature,and precipitation.The results show that on the temporal aspect,(1)the annual mean temperature exhibited an increasing trend during the past 44 years.The year of 1980 is a remarkable jump point after which the increasing trend was stronger than before.On the contrary,the mean annual precipitation exhibited a decreasing trend;(2)the value of 5-year moving mean temperature in urban area was higher than that in suburban areas,especially after the year of 1980.The temperature in urban and suburban areas exhibited an increasing trend and the slope was 0.447℃/10a and 0.231℃/10a,respectively.The differences of annual mean precipitation between urban and suburban was not obvious and the slope of urban and suburban was-1.35mm/a and-1.65mm/a,respectively.In special aspect,(1)there exists an obvious rising center in urban area,among which Haidian station has showed the greatest increasing amplitude and the slope is 0.776mm/10a for the temperature.Besides that,there was a warm center in urban area in January,April,July and October,respectively;(2)there also exists a rising center for precipitation in January,April,July and October,respectively.This phenomenon maybe related to the effect of urban heat island.
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    Carbon Dioxide Exchange and Water Use Efficiency of Alpine Meadow Ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau
    YAN wei, ZHANG Xian-zhou, SHI Pei-li, YANG Zhen-lin, HE Yong-tao, XU Ling-ling
    2006, 21 (5):  756-767.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (356KB) ( )   Save
    In order to study the diurnal and seasonal variations of CO2 fluxes and water use efficiency(WUE),the open-path eddy covariance systems were employed to continuously measure carbon and energy fluxes of the Alpine meadow during the three growing seasons(from May to October) of 2003-2005,respectively.The results showed that:(1)The maximum global solar radiations were 1 563W/m2 and 1 640W/m2 in 2004 and 2005(mean value of 30 minutes),respectively,greater than the solar constant;while the maximum net radiations were 896W/m2 and 925W/m2,and the maximum latent heat fluxes densities were 592 W/m2 and 597W/m2,respectively.As for the six selected days from May to October in 2004,the ratios of latent heat flux to net radiation were 0.355%,0.916%,0.738%,0.818%,0.609% and 0.456%,respectively.(2)The latent heat had an obvious diurnal variation.During the daytime of growing season,the latent heat fluxes density increased with radiation,and declined after reaching its maximum at 15:00p.m;CO2 flux reached its maximum at about 10:30a.m.and WUE presented a falling trend from morning to afternoon.The maximum CO2 fluxes and WUE(mean value of 30 minutes) were similar to 2004 and 2005,with values being 0.3 mg CO2·m-2·s-1 and 8g CO2/kg H2O,respectively.(3)The CO2 fluxes and WUE(mean value of the daytime) varied obviously at the seasonal and yearly scales.The carbon fluxes(mean value of the daytime) represented as a carbon sink from early June in 2004,but from late June in 2005;WUE(mean value of the daytime) became positive also from early June in 2004,but from late June in 2005;in addition,the overall values of carbon fluxes and WUE(mean value of the daytime) of 2004 were greater than 2005.The maximum carbon fluxes were 0.15mg CO2·m-2·s-1 and 0.13mg CO2·m-2·s-1 in 2004 and 2005,respectively.And the maximum values of WUE(mean value of the daytime) were 3.2g CO2/kg H2O and 2.7g CO2/kg H2O,respectively.(4)The total net CO2 absorption of the growing season(from May to October) in 2004 and 2005 were 0.257kg CO2·m-2 and 0.153kg CO2·m-2,respectively.The water use efficiency throughout the growing season in 2004 and 2005 were 0.496g CO2/kg H2O and 0.365g CO2/kg H2O,respectively,being positively correlated with seasonal precipitation.
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    A Preliminary Study on the Evaluation of Urban Ecosystem Carrying Capacity-A Case Study from Wujiang City,Jiangsu Province
    MENG Ai-yun, PU Li-jie
    2006, 21 (5):  768-774.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (308KB) ( )   Save
    The urban ecosystem is a social-economic-natural comprehensive system.the meaning of its carrying capacity is different from that of the resource and environment capacity.Scholars at home and abroad have studied the academic and practical aspects of ecosystem capacity and have acquired numerous research results.At present,the foci of the study are changing from the natural ecosystem to the complicated man-made ecosystem.In this paper,the theory of carrying capacity is reviewed and extended to the urban ecosystem.Based on the study of the urban ecosystem carrying capacity and the relationship between each subsystem,we built the quantitative model to evaluate the extent to which the urban ecosystem carrying capacity has reached from.The indexes of the model include carrying index,consisting of resource supply capacity(RS),environmental carrying capacity(EC),ecosystem reliance capacity(ER) and social-economic envelopment(SE) and pressure index which is consist of resource expenditure(RE) and surrounding pollution(SP).A case study in Wujiang city is described.Building the index system and employing the evaluation model,the complex carrying capacity of Wujiang city during 1990-2004 was evaluated.The result indicated that relationship between the ecosystem carrying capacity and the development of socio-economic system evolved from unbalanced to relatively balanced.Among each selected indicators,the average percentage of environmental carrying capacity(EC) index reached 38.68%.This indicator is the important factor which enhances the urban ecosystem carrying capacity and restrains the growth of the ecosystem pressure.The average percentage of resource expenditure(RE) index reached 54.45%,indicating that resource expenditure resulted from of socio-economic development is still the main cause of the ecosystem pressure.
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    Changes of Fish Community Structure in the Coastal Zone of the Northern Part of East China Sea in Summer
    CHENG Jia-hua, DING Feng-yuan, LI Sheng-fa, YAN Li-ping, LI Jian-sheng, LING Zhen-lin
    2006, 21 (5):  775-781.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.011
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    The coastal zone of the northern part of East China Sea was the spawning and feeding grounds for many species of fishes,and was one of the important marine fishing regions in China.But with fishing activity intensifying and overfishing,and seawater pollution deteriorating,the fish community structure changed consequentially in the last half century.Based on the data collected from bottom trawl surveys conducted in June of 1964,1982,1999 and 2005,the temporal changes of fish community structure in the coastal zone of the northern part of East China Sea(29°00'~31°30'N,123°00'~125°00'E)in summer were analyzed.The result showed that the similarity index of species composition decreased both in mean biomass and mean number in 2005,while the time intervals increased compared to the other three surveys.Though the fish mean biomass did not change significantly,the fish individual number increased during 1982 to 1999.Though the fish individual number was high,the small individuals increased during 1999 to 2005.The fish species number which appeared in June of 1964,1982,1999,and 2005 was 64,78,64,and 47,respectively.The dominant species were Trichiurus japonicus,Synagrops japonicus and Argyrosomus argentatus in June 1964;T.japonicus,Scomber japonicus,A.argentatus,Acropoma japonicum,Pampus cinereus,Apogon lineatus,Thamnaconus septentrionalis and Muraenesox cinereus in June 1982;T.japonicus,Sc.japonicus,A.lineatus,Engraulis japonicus,Larimichthys polyactis,Trachurus japonicus and Trachip-terus trachypterus in June 1999;and T.japonicus,Psenopsis anomala and L.polyactis in June 2005,respectively.The most dominant species was T.japonicus in these four surveys,but its stock was declining.The other dominant species changed from the high-valued demersal fishes in the 1960s to the pleagic fishes in the 1980s,and then changed to the present less demersal and pleagic fishes with simple fish community structure.The biodiversity index of fishes increased during the period of 1964 to 1982,but then decreased gradually.This change can be explained with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.The fishing was in the moderate and full status in the surveyed area before the 1980s,then it was in over-fishing status,and this status was deteriorating year by year.The fish individual number with integrated community size spectra ≥20cm was decreasing from 1964 to 2005.The maximum and the minimum fish individual number with integrated community size spectra <20cm were in 1999 and 2005,respectively.These changes in integrated community size spectra indicated an increasing tendency in the number of small-sized species or small size individuals and a declining tendency in the number of large size individuals as well as a diminishing length range in the coastal zone of the northern part of East China Sea during 1964 to 2005.
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    Study on Ecological Comprehensive Index and it's Utilization in Ecological Status Evaluation
    LI Shi-dong, ZHANG Da-hong, ZHAI Hong-bo
    2006, 21 (5):  782-789.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (310KB) ( )   Save
    Through analysis on the theory and method which are used in evaluating the ecological status at home and broad synthetically,the quantitative method-Ecological Comprehensive Index(ECI)-for evaluating the ecological status according to China's actual conditions is put forward.The method can be used to judge quantitatively and comprehensively in which stage China's ecological restoration and destruction is.Combining the actual condition of Chinese ecological restoration,this paper built an indicator system for ECI considering the hierarchy,systematicness,realism and importance.The indicators of ECI include eight aspects:the status of forest,desert,soil erosion,biodiversity,wetland,grassland,cropland and urban ecological conditions.The calculation of ECI is divided into general index formula,first level index formula and second level index formula,which belongs to the Analytic Hierarchy Process method with well arranged hierarchy and giving prominence to the key points.The ECI has three domains of ECI<1,ECI=1(±0.05),and ECI>1.Through calculating,the ECI of China is 1.02,which is in the domain of ECI=1(±0.05),and the ecological status in ecological restoration and destruction is at a stalemate.Therefore,China must carry on large-scale ecological restoration to benign development of system.The application of ECI to the judgement of the ecological status of China is of great significance in guiding the country's ecological restoration in theory and practice.
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    Simulating Net Primary Production of Agricultural Vegetation in China(Ⅰ):Model Establishment and Sensitivity Analysis
    HUANG Yao, WANG Yu, ZHANG Wen, YU Yong-qiang, WANG Ping
    2006, 21 (5):  790-801.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.013
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    Plant net primary production(NPP) of agriculture vegetation represents the capacity of sequestrating atmospheric CO2 in agro-ecosystem,and plays an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling.In comparison with natural ecosystems of forest and grassland,agro-ecosystem is much complex due to human activities.To better understand the contribution of agro-ecosystem to regional carbon budget,the simulation models of crop NPP have been developed well since the 1970s.However,few models are successfully put into practice in the agro-ecosystem of China,being mainly due to the unavailability of model inputs and the verification of reliability in different regions of China.The objectives of this paper are to establish a crop NPP model that could be put into practice in the agro-ecosystem of China and to make sensitivity analysis of the model. In light of a preliminary model established by the authors that simulates NPP of rice and wheat crops,a model named as Crop-C was developed.Crop-C is dedicated to the simulation of NPP of those crops of rice,wheat,maize,cotton,rapeseed and soybean planted in approximately two-thirds of agricultural soils in China.The model includes two main functional modules:photosynthesis and respiration,and nitrogen transport within soil-plant system.The processes of photosynthesis and respiration are mainly driven by environmental variables of temperature,solar radiation,precipitation,atmospheric CO2 concentration and crop tissue nitrogen.The transportation of nitrogen within soil-plant system is determined by simulating the processes of crop nitrogen uptake,soil nitrogen mineralization and synthetic nitrogen release. Model sensitivity analysis suggests that the sensitive significance of Crop-C to input parameters is in descending order of temperature,PAR,atmospheric CO2 concentration,soil nitrogen concentration,rate of nitrogen application and precipitation when the input parameters vary at-10% and 10%,respectively.In addition,global warming would have a negative effect on NPP of agricultural vegetation in China based on the model sensitivity analysis.
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    The Spatio-temporal Variations of the Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region(LRGR) Precipitation in Recent 100 Years in Southeast China
    ZHANG Wan-cheng, WAN Yun-xia, XIAO Zi-niu1
    2006, 21 (5):  802-809.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.014
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    Located in north-south directed mountains and valleys in Southwest China,mainly in Yunnan Province,the Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region(LRGR) is a very important ecological corridor between South China and Southeast Asia.Ecological changes in this region directly influence Chinese trans-boundary ecological security and resources security.In this paper,the spatio-temporal variations of annual precipitation and precipitation in winter and summer over the LRGR are studied using many statistical methods with 1901-2002 precipitation data at 13 stations scattered in LRGR.The results show that the first type of principal distribution pattern of the precipitation is consistently high or consistently low.The distribution of both annual and summer precipitation shows meridionality while longitudinal for winter precipitation.Because of the "corridor-barrier" and orographic lifting function,it is higher in the west of the LRGR while lower in the east of the LRGR for annual and summer precipitation,bounded by Yuanjiang-Honghe river.The center of the distribution is located on the Lancang River for annual and summer precipitation,while that on the Nujiang River for winter precipitation.It is higher(lower)in the northwest of the LRGR while lower(higher) in the southeast of the LRGR for the second type of principal distribution pattern of annual precipitation and precipitation in summer and winter.The variation of the precipitation in the LRGR is characteristic by interannual scale,interdecadal scale and the climate base state for both annual and summer precipitation.For the winter case,the variation of the precipitation in the LRGR is characteristic by interannual scale and interdecadal scale.The significant variation of precipitation concentrates in a high frequency band less than a 3.5-yr period.The climate base state of the time series of the second principal component of annual precipitation is significant and the next is the second principal component of summer precipitation.
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    Changing Process and Mechanism of Wetland Resources in Ruoergai Plateau,China
    LIU Hong-yu, BAI Yun-fang
    2006, 21 (5):  810-818.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.015
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    As a particular type of natural resource in China,wetland resources in Ruoergai(Zoige)Plateau has peculiar resource quantity and quality characteristics in geographical distribution and spatial structure.Changes in wetland resources were mainly due to human activities driven by development of animal husbandry,which induced wetland shrinkage in area and degradation of ecosystem in the Plateau.This phenomenon has resulted in many negative effects on eco-environment,attracting attention of local government and many scientific research groups. Each type of natural resource has close relationship with others in a region.Wetlands and pastures have formed a whole "resources-link" system in Ruoergai Plateau due to their dominant position in area and spatial patterns.By overlaying DEM and information of each type of natural resource in the Plateau,we found that marsh wetlands are distributed in hilly areas with elevations ranging between 3 380-3 465m,accounting for 28.9% of the plateau's total area;meadow wetlands are distributed on terraces between 3 465-3 550m,accounting for 22.3%;and pastures are distributed on hill slopes between 3 550-4 000m,accounting for 40.1%.But,with the economic development and population growth,wetland resources changed greatly both in quantity and quality due to overgrazing in the past years.About 62% of the wetland resources has shrunk 62% since the 1960s,and most of them were converted into pastures.As a result,wetland ecosystems were degraded,biodiversity was changed and some environmental problems such as land desertification and dry climate have occurred in the Plateau.Many factors are attributable to these problems,but drainage of wetland and peatland reclamation induced water condition variation is the major factor resulting in wetland ecosystem succession and species changes.However,overgrazing has speeded up wetland ecosystem degradation by changing plant species composition and constant increasing in rodent animal numbers.So,suggestions for wetland conservation and sustainable utilization were summarized finally.
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    Multiple Time-scale Characteristics of Flow Variations in the Middle Huolin River and Corresponding Effects Analysis
    LU Xiao-ning, DENG Wei, ZHANG Shu-qing, ZHAI Jincliang
    2006, 21 (5):  819-826.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (206KB) ( )   Save
    Huolin River is one of the most important water supply sources for the Xianghai,Kerqin,and Chaganhu wetlands in the west Songnen Plain.A multiple time-scale analysis was used to analyze an annual flow series of 46 years of the Baiyunhushuo hydrologic station,which is located at the middle reaches of Huolin River.Our main objective was to discuss the periodic characteristics of the flow series,and examine the temporal patterns of the Huolin River recharging into floodplain wetlands in its lower reaches,and its corresponding effects exerted on downstream floodplain wetlands environmental evolutions.Wavelet analysis showed that the annual flow of Baiyunhushuo hydrologic station varied mainly in three time scales.The intensity of periodical signals of different time scales was strongly partially distributed in its time-frequency domain.More than 30 years interdecadal variation played a leading role in the temporal pattern,and showed a scale increasing tendency.At this scale,the flow of Baiyunhushuo hydrologic station in the Huolin river presented an alternative fluctuation of rain,draught and rain.Accordingly,the landscape of floodplain wetlands in downstream area presented a periodic feature,it is especially prominent before the 1990s.Compared with intense human activities,the periodic flow patterns of middle and small scales with relative low energy,have unobvious effects on wetlands environmental evolvement,it is especially distinctive after the 1990s.It should be noted that the dual actions of flow evolution of natural factors and human disturbances exerted influences of different degrees on flow signals in different periods.A further discussion should be made regarding the influencing factors,including precipitations,evaporations and human disturbances,for figuring out the reason and role of floodplain wetland landscape evolutions,thereby bringing forward scientific and feasible measures for the protection and restoration of wetland ecosystems.Rationally allocating and managing water resources,reducing river regulation and abstraction actions would be in favor of the protection of the existing wetlands ecosystem and the restoration of degeneration ones in the basin.
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    A Study on the Evolution of Water Resource Carrying Capacity in Karst Area Based on Component Analysis and Entropy
    ZHOU Liang-guang, LIANG Hong
    2006, 21 (5):  827-833.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (150KB) ( )   Save
    The water level is very low in karst area and the water resources leakage is serious,so it is difficult to accumulate water resources and its development level and utilization rate is low too.In addition,the soil layer is not consecutive,the vegetation structure is simple and the environment is fragile.All these factors lead to the water resource carrying capacity in karst area is low relatively.With the development of economy,science and technology,the water resource carrying capacity in karst area displays its own evolved rules.And there are many factors that affect the evolution of water resource carrying capacity.Taking Guiyang city as an example,this article selects three components from 15 indexes through component analysis method.And then using entropy value method to bestow weights to the three components,the scores of Guiyang's water resource carrying capacity from 1998 to 2003 can be obtained.From the scores it is known that although the two main pressures(population and economic development)of water resource carrying capacity increase year by year,on the whole Guiyang's water resource carrying capacity evolved to a good direction in the six years except 2002.In 2002,the amount of water resources is very large,however,the water resource carrying capacity(especially the unit water resource carrying capacity)dropped viewing from the indexes.Affected by karst,the water resource carrying capacity is limited greatly.With the development of the technology and the improvement of waterresources development level and utilization rate,there is still surplus water resource carrying capacity in the karst area.
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    Valuation of Natural Resources and Environment:Contingent Valuation Method and Its Application Principles in China
    ZHAO Jun, YANG Kai
    2006, 21 (5):  834-843.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (447KB) ( )   Save
    Valuation of natural resources and environment has for years been the focus of environmental economics for its significance to sustainable development.During the past 40 years especially since 1984 when Haneman brought Random Utility Maximization theory into the contingent valuation method(CVM),this method has been rapidly developed and became a more and more state-of-the-art technique in the community of environment and resources valuation.However,CVM has introduced into China for only few years,and due to the lack of a complete principle framework,the domestic empirical studies are inevitably confronted with many puzzles and issues,and so developed slowly.This paper firstly chronologically reviews the main progress in the CVM study including both theoretical and empirical respects,the most famed international case studies were singled out and their importance are also pointed out one by one.Then,the domestic CVM cases up to date are summarized in three ways like natural resources protection,environmental quality improvement,and environmental pollution assessment.Based upon the principles for CVM constituted by some notable researchers and institutes,and according to some specific problems in the domestic environmental valuation practices,nine propositional principles are put forward for China CVM as follows,basic questionnaire design rules,socio-economic variables setting,valuation question format,payment vehicle and unit,sample size,pretest and survey process,data analysis and lastly cost benefit analysis,and special attention was taken for the valuation question,which is the core of the whole CVM study,we hold that single-bounded referendum question format should be accepted,in which ten bid amounts should be set with the maximum and minimum meeting the requirement that nearly 90% of all respondents accept or refuse the given amount.According to the above principles,some basic techniques used in the main steps in the China CVM empirical studies are discussed and criticized,and the findings reveal that some drawbacks especially like poor questionnaire design and pretest do exist in those studies,and methodical improvements must be made in the future.It is emphasized that the principles constituted in this paper may not meet the requirements of all studies and some revises must be made for a successful CVM study as this environmental and resources valuation method continuously develops in China.
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    On concept,Significance and Strategic Framework for Water Resources Constraint Force
    BAO Chao, FANG Chuang-lin
    2006, 21 (5):  844-852.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (333KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis of the water shortage situation in the process of rapid urbanization throughout the world and China,the concept for Water Resources Constraint Force(WRCF) is presented.It refers to the friction which water resources system gives to the socio-economic system.In other words,when the urban and economic scale approaches to or exceeds the water resources carrying capacity,or the utilization of water resources approaches or exceeds the eco-utmost of natural water resources,water resources system will be highly stressed by socio-economic system.Then water resources system will slow down the socio-economic development.Therefore,the connotation and study significance for WRCF are discussed in detail,and a strategic framework is preliminarily analyzed.It is considered that the strategic framework should mainly include the basic theory,the quantitative method,the case study and the integrated study,and research on WRCF is one of the important contents of water security in the 21st century in the world and China.It aims at resolving the difficult water problems in the real world,and also can enrich the framework and the system info of water resources sciences.Through the study of water resources carrying capacity,water resources stress and WRCF,the interaction and relationship between water resources system and socio-economic system can be exactly explained.At present,the system info of WRCF,including the basic theory,the quantitative method and its case study,should be constructed and perfected.Especially,its birth mechanism,influencing factors,influencing mechanism,variation law and its control should be taken as the key studies.Besides,the integrated study between WRCF and other domains in water resources sciences should also be emphasized.
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