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    25 April 2006, Volume 21 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Spatial Pattern of Land Use/Land Cover in the Yellow River Delta
    WANG Xiaoqin, WANG Qinmin, LIU Gaohuan, LI HuiGuo
    2006, 21 (2):  165-171,333-334.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1012KB) ( )   Save
    The Yellow River Delta(YRD) extends continually into the sea with the high sedi,ment contents of the Yellow River(YR).The land use/land cover in YRD changes rapidly.With remote sensing data,the information of land use/land cover can be acquired more conveniently and economically.In this paper,a scheme of images process for YRD was proposed and the land uses of YRD in 1984,1986,1991,1996 and 2001 were extracted from multi,temporal remote sen,sing data.The spatial pattern of land use and its change characters from 1984 when Dongying city was founded are analyzed. YRD is divided into four regions,which are the Current YRD plain(region I),the Modern YRD plain(region Ⅱ),the YR alluvial plain(region Ⅲ) and the YR alluvial,diluvial plain of pre,mount of the Central Mountains(region Ⅳ).The spatial distribution of land use and land cover in the four regions is different.Inland water like reservoirs and aquacultures mainly lies in regions I and Ⅱ,arable land mainly in regions Ⅱ and Ⅲ,residential area mainly in regions Ⅲ and Ⅱ,vegetation area and tidal flat mainly in region I,and waste land mainly in region Ⅱ. In region I,the land use/land cover types became more various.In 1984,the main land use/land cover types were arable land,tidal flat and vegetation area,while in 2001,the main types became arable land,tidal flat,waste land,vegetation area and inland water.The area proportion of each land use and land cover was very close.Annual land use and land cover changed rapidly in region I.In region Ⅱ,the main land use and land cover types are waste land and arable land.From 1984 to 2001,the area of arable land decreased,while the area of inland water increased.The area of waste land changed little.Land use/land cover changed most rapidly. In region Ⅲ,about two third of the land are arable land,which are much larger than other land use/land cover types.From 1984 to 2001,the waste land stepped down,while the residential area and inland waters stepped up,especially the residential area increased more rapidly.The velocity of land use/land cover change was moderate.In region Ⅳ,the land use and land cover types are very simple.The main land use/land cover type was arable land.The area of arable land and residential area accupied about 95%.From 1984 to 2001,the area of arable land decreased because of residential area extension.The land use/land cover was most stable and changed slowly.
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    A Study on Land Use Changes Based on Theory of Economic Development Phases-A Case Study of Jiangzhou County in Guangxi
    ZHAO Cuiwei, PU Lijie, MENG Aiyun, HUANG Xianjin, ZHOU Yinkang
    2006, 21 (2):  172-179.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (334KB) ( )   Save
    The characteristics of land use are different in each phase of economic development.As one of the developing areas in West China,economic development in Jiangzhou is below the nation's average level and still belongs to the initial stage of industrialization.With a leading agriculture and low industrialization level,Jiangzhou shows the typical characteristics of land use in this economic stage,which are:the competition between farmland and land for environment purpose constitute the main contents of land changes;slow enhancement of construction land in constrast to the greater proportion of rural settlements in Jiangsu Province;and rural inhabitant area per capita going up gradually.Based on statistical data from 1978-2002,the driving factors of arable land changes are studied by principal component method and regression analysis.The results show that economic development,population growth and land management led to the constant expansion of the cultivated land while the enhancement of income and consumption level and the adjustment of agricultural industry structure resulted in the reduction of the arable land.The rapid economic development will bound to cause rapid conversion of farmland into land for non,agricultural purpose.As a result,more attention will be given to protecting arable land,reducing waste of land,preventing environmental pollution,and realizing sustainable regional land use.
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    Study on the Valuation Techniques of Soil Carbon Storage Function-A Case of Wetland Soils in Sanjiang Plain
    LIU Zi, gang
    2006, 21 (2):  180-187.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (308KB) ( )   Save
    Carbon storage is a kind of wetland ecosystem service,which provides support and protection for economic activities by mitigating global climate change.There is a large area of wetlands developed in the Sanjiang Plain,which is located at the northeast corner of Heilongjiang Province in China.Wetland soils in the Sanjiang Plain,including peat soil,marsh soil,meadow soil and albic soil,are an important soil organic carbon pool,with a stock of 6.21×108t organic carbon.The wetlands area in the Sanjiang plain was about 534×104ha in 1949,however more than 70% of the wetlands have been lost due to large scale reclamation.Huge amount of CO2 produced by decomposition of organic matter in soils released to the atmosphere as a result of draining of water from wetlands.With the increase of cropland area,the organic carbon storage in wetland soils in the Sanjiang Plain decreased by about 3/4 of that in 1950 due to wetland loss and degradation,soil loss and irrational farming practices. This paper estimates the value of carbon storage in wetland soils in the Sanjiang Plain based on the storage and fluctuation of wetland soil carbon in recent 50 years.The result will be used to analyze the effects of agricultural development on carbon storage in wetland soils,and to support policy making for wetland protection and global climate change.It seeks to build a classification system for wetland carbon storage valuation techniques.The value of wetland carbon storage is evaluated based on market price,cost or results of investigation.The basic principle,suitability and limitations of valuation techniques including Damage Valuation Method,Alternative Cost of Abatement Method,Market Price Method are analyzes,Shadow Price Method,Substitute Cost Method and Replacement/Restoration Cost Method.Different valuation methods result in different unit values of carbon storage. The theoretical reasonability,feasibility of methodology,existing reality and local level suitability of valuation techniques,are compares aiming at finding out a rational range of unit value of wetland carbon storage.The results show that the first choice should be the Market Price Method,complemented by the other methods.The unit value of carbon storage ranges from US$5/tC to US$25/tC.The lowest value is estimated by the Market Price Method,and the highest value is the mean of the result of the Damage Valuation Method,the Alternative Cost of Abatement Method,the Shadow Price Method and Substitute Cost Method.The total value of carbon storage in wetland soil in the Sanjiang Plain amounts to US$3.10 billion-US$15.52 billion.The total carbon loss value caused by reclamation amounts to US$1.08 billion-US$5.38 billion,and the average annual carbon loss value is US$4.3/ha-US$21.5/ha.
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    Evolution of Energy,Ecosystem in West China
    ZHANG Lei
    2006, 21 (2):  188-195.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (941KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the principles of bio,ecology,energy,ecosystem consists of three essential subsystems,namely,the endogenous system with the exploitations of coal,oil,natural gas as well as water power,the exogenous system with the productions of agriculture and manufacture,and the symbiotic system with the operations of transportation,communication,commercial and residential business.A nation wide perspective in general and West China in special are combined with input,output approach.The results indicated the following points. Firstly,the economic development and structural changes are the two key factors for the evolution of modern energy ecosystem in terms of the long,period practices of industrialization movement during the last 50 years in both the nation and the west. Secondly,the opening,up level has an important function to the evolution of the energy ecosystem,especially in the germination period when the system is addressed by energy,export orientation. Finally,the more maturity the energy ecosystem is,the more opened up the system has,and the greater coordination between the endogenous,the exogenous and the symbiotic systems would be needed.Such an evolution could be a great potential challenge for the development of energy industry in West China as the thirsty dominate market is looking forward to more energy supply from it in one hand,and the energy industry is more aggressive to the local natural environment under the polarized effects in the other.
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    Trend of Surface Humid Index in the Middle Reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River over Tibet in Recent 40 Years
    DU Jun, HU Jun, CHEN Hua, Sonam Ngotrupd
    2006, 21 (2):  196-203.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (580KB) ( )   Save
    Humidity index can be expressed by two factors which indicate input and output of atmospheric moist under natural conditions:Precipitation and potential evaporation,represent the change of water and energy balance.In order to clarify the present situation of the environment and regional variations,research has been done on surface wetness in Tibet.The result provides scientific basis for exploring reasons of environmental change over the past 30 years in Tibet and further research on future climatic change.Based on data of monthly maximum temperature,minimum temperature,precipitation,wind speed,relative humidity and sunshine duration from four meteorological stations in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River(Brahmaputra)over Tibet from 1961 to 2000,data of the maximum potential evaporation was computed by Penman,Monteith Model,and the surface humid index was obtained.The linear trend,inter,decadal variation and the seasonal difference of the surface humid index were analyzed,and the its relationship with precipitation and temperature was discussed.The results indicated that an obvious linear trend of the warming of annual and seasonal mean temperature existed during the last 40 years,especially the warming was more obvious in winter.Annual precipitation presented a decreasing trend in the first 20 years(1961-1980) and an obvious increasing trend in the last 20 years(1981-2000).Since 1981,precipitation has increased significantly in the flood season(from May to September),with a mean increase of 8.6mm/a.For potential evaporation in the 1960s and the 1970s,the increasing trend was more significant,but the most significant decrease occurred in the 1980s and the 1990s.Also,the rate of pan evaporation over the Yarlung Zangbo River had,on average,steadily decreased,it is particularly so from 1983 to 2000,with a decreasing rate of 22.1mm/a.From the 1960s to the early 1980s,the ground surface showed a drying trend.While from the mid to the late 1980s and the 1990s,the ground surface presented a wetting trend due to precipitation increase and the maximum potential evaporation decrease.The results showed that the cold wet occurred in the 1960s and the warm wett in the 1990s.
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    Analysis on the Climatic Resources of the Farming,pastoral Zone in Northern China Based on RS and GIS
    CHEN Hai, KANG Muyi, CAO Mingming
    2006, 21 (2):  204-209.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (710KB) ( )   Save
    Through using the tools of RS and GIS,the spatial distribution pattern of the climatic resources for agricultural production in the Farming,pastoral Zone in Northern China was analyzed in this paper.Six indices related to the features of the climates resources,including the annual mean daily temperature,mean daily temperature of growing season,cumulated temperature of growing season,precipitation of growing season,annual precipitation,and the sunshine hours,were selected for analyzing the thermal and moisture characteristics of the Zone.Those climatic data were processed by constructing the fuzzy membership function,single and integrated climatic resources,the efficiency index and the utilization coefficient of the climatic resources,and the resources suitability for agricultural production were appraised quantitatively by using the PCA method.The single indices include precipitation index,illumination index and thermal index.Through calculating the single indices,the key,limiting factor is identified.The integrated indices can indicate the interaction of the single indices and the efficient climatic resources and the climatic resources potential of the crops used in the study area.Based on the analysis,the spatial distribution pattern of the indices was further revealed through RS and GIS tools.The preliminary results are as follows:(1)Precipitation is the key limiting factor in the study area,and thus the spatial distribution of the moisture condition orientates towards,humid,moderately humid,moderately dry to dry,from southeast through northwest.(2)The spatial orientation of the climatic resources and the efficiency of the climatic resources are also from southeast to northwest,ranking from good to worse.(3)The utilization coefficient of the climatic resources is not so high,and its spatial distribution pattern shows a gradation of,from southeast to northwest,higher,high,low and lower.Those patterns of spatial distribution are more or less obvious in the middle part of the study area.
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    Studies on Precipitation Resource Change in Shanghai since the 1990's
    HE Fangfang, XU Jialiang
    2006, 21 (2):  210-216.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (156KB) ( )   Save
    Precipitation has become more concentrated in Shanghai since the 1990s.For revealing the changing characteristics of precipitation resource in Shanghai since the 1990s and working out more scientifically measures of controlling flood and combating drought in Shanghai,the statistical characteristic changes of precipitation,the number of precipitation days,relative humidity,evaporation,and the number of snowfall days since the 1990s were studied based on analysis of precipitation data of 11 meteorological stations during the last 13 year(1991-2003) in Shanghai and compared with the mean values of the first 30 years(1961-1990).The results showed the annual average precipitation increased 11%,the average precipitation of flood season increased 18%,the annual average precipitation days decreased 2d,the annual average precipitation intensity increased 12%,the seasonal distribution pattern of precipitation changed,and the regional distribution pattern of precipitation remained unchanged;the annual average relative humidity and evaporation decreased slightly,the annual average snowfall days decreased 5d in Shanghai since the 1990s.The summer precipitation increased evidently and the autumn precipitation decreased.Such a variational difference resulted in changes in precipitation distribution pattern of the four seasons,and much more prominence in drought and waterlogging phenomena in Shanghai.However,the geographic distribution pattern of precipitation of various seasons did not change,only the regional difference became greater. Since waterlogging rather than drought has always been a headache in Shanghai,the flood control departments of the city should attach importance to dealing with serious disasters induced by concentrated summer precipitation.
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    Research of the Nature Reserve Zonation Based on the Least,cost Distance Model
    LI Jihong, LIU Xuehua
    2006, 21 (2):  217-224.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (788KB) ( )   Save
    Reasonable zoning of the nature reserve is one of the key issues to maintain the na,ture reserve's ecological function and sustainable development.The zoning mode of the core,buffer,experimental zones reflects the grading measure of biological conservation.And the least,cost distance model describes the degrees of species conservation and of landscape disturbance on species.Thus the thresholds of zoning are the bridge of the least,cost distance and the functional zoning.In this paper,the feasibility of applying the least,cost distance model to nature reserve zoning was put forward.The methods and technologies of functional zoning by using the least,cost distance model based on classification of standard deviation were applied in the functional zoning of Laoxiancheng Nature Reserve.And the different safety modes of nature reserve zoning were constructed,which could promote the research of functional zoning. It was necessary to define the thresholds of the least,cost distance so that nature reserve zonation could be obtained automatically.The process of selective movement of species around environment was reflected by the model of the least,cost distance;therefore,the spatial variance of the least,cost distance could reflect the habitat's sudden change and stability.Based on the statistical concept,the paper classified the least,cost distance using the standard deviation,and obtained three thresholds of core,buffer and experimental zones. The procedure of zoning nature reserve based on the least,cost distance includes(1)to identify the sources;(2)to analyse the resistant layers;(3)to define resistant values;(4)to calculate the least,cost distance;(5)to setup three thresholds of nature reserve zoning;and(6)to implement the zonation.The main elements affecting the least,cost distance model were analysing the resistance layers,assigning the resistance values and defining the thresholds of zones. The results showed that(1)the selection of three thresholds of functional zoning was the key step of applying the least,cost distance model;(2)the different zoning models with various safety levels for buffer zones can be designed by utilizing the classification of standard deviation;(3) the calculation process of least,cost distance took many factors into account,such as elevation,slope,vegetation type,and the distribution of bamboo,which could further meet the demand of the designation of nature reserve;and(4)the proposed zoning approach for nature reserves based on the least,cost distance model was practicable and contributed a new content to the method system of nature reserves'functional zoning.Different safety,level zonations could regulate the management ability and further satisfy the real situation of nature reserve much more.This method could be applicated and extended to the related nature reserves which aimed at preserving endangered species.
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    Spatial Distribution and Applications of Coal Resource Potential in China
    WANG Yinghong, GUO Dazhi, ZHANG Hairong, SHEN Baogang
    2006, 21 (2):  226-230.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (693KB) ( )   Save
    Coal is the dominant energy resource in China,its exploitation and utilization is related directly to the nations economic sustainable development.But the cases of unsustainable utilization still exist every now and then.In order to analyse the spatial distribution,exploitation and utilization of coal resources reserves in China,the concept of coal resources potential was introduced and classified with the aid of the concept and principle of filed theory in physics;and the coal resources relative potential,trend potential and resource,economic potential considering resource conditions and status of regional the economic development were analysed and the computing formulas ware infereed.Based on these,the three types of resources potentials involved 78 coal mining areas in China are computed.Meanwhile,a series of conceptions such as economic center of gravity,reserves center of gravity and output center of gravity,the variation link between economic development and resource utilization in spatial and temporal dimensions are identified and analyzed quantatively.Finally,the spatial distribution and the application prospects of coal resource,economic potentials are also analyzed.The results indicate that the spatial distribution of coal resource uneven in China.At the same time it makes certain that this method can scientifically and reasonably describe status of regional coal resource,and can be used to classify and price of regional coal resource,to evaluate value of coal resource capital or to formulate corresponding policy and programme of resources economy by taking into account of the embedding conditions and quality of coal resource.
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    Estimation of Domestic Water Consumption and Its Regional Disparity in Northern China Based on Household Survey
    WANG Jingai, MAO Rui, ZHOU Junjü, LI Lianhua
    2006, 21 (2):  231-237.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (399KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the data of urban and rural household surveys of domestic water consumption in combination with county,level population and precipitation of weather stations in northern China,this paper discusses per capita domestic water consumption coefficient in different precipitation zones and different periods of time.It shows that urban domestic water consumption coefficient(η1),rural domestic water consumption coefficient(η2) and domestic water consumption coefficient(η)increased rapidly from the 1950s to the 1990s,and the increasing extents of η of 100-200mm,200-400mm,400-600mm and 600-800mm are 1.84,2.62,2.84 and 2.68 times respectively,resulting from the combination of quantity of water resources and the speed of urbanization.η1 and η2 of various precipitation zones increased with η1 increasing more quickly than η2,and the difference between the two also widened.The increasing extent of η1 of 200-400mm precipitation zone is greater than those of the other zones.The water consumption in northern China presents a rising trend.According to each precipitation zone,domestic water consumption of 400-600mm precipitation zone ranked the first place from the 1950s to the 1990s and then decreased orderly toward both sides.k value shows the ratio of domestic water consumption in various precipitations zones to their corresponding area increases generally,which represents the impact of domestic water consumption in northern China on eco,environment intensified.The k value of each precipitation zone rises up with time passing by,and the increment extent of k value turns out bigger from 100-200mm precipitation zone to 600-800mm precipitation zone.The change of k value demonstrates that the impact of domestic water consumption on eco,environment intensifies in each precipitation zone.This study presents the spatial and temporal differences of domestic water consumption and the impact of social factor on domestic water consumption,so it can provide the reference for calculating domestic water requirement and for setting up effective utilization mode of water resource in different zones based on household level.
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    The Influence of Soil Compactibility on Growth Status of Agriophyllum Squarrosum at Mobile Dune
    CHANG Xueli, CUI Buli, CHEN Yalin, GAO Guangchen
    2006, 21 (2):  238-244.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (205KB) ( )   Save
    Agriophyllum squarrosum(L.) Moq.is a pioneer species during the community succes,sion process on the mobile dune area in the Horqin sandy land.The growth status of A.squarrosum population is significantly different at the different plots of the windward slope of mobile dune.So,for best understanding the adaptive mechanism of A.squarrosum population at mobile dune area,we set up three plots at the windward slope of the mobile dune,located at bottom,middle,and top sides of the mobile dune,respectively.According to field survey and measurement of the above ground biomass(AGB)of A.squarrosum and soil properties represented by soil hardness,soil moisture,and soil organic matter,the influence of the soil properties upon A.squarrosum has been analyzed by employing one,way ANOVA and regression methods in the Horqin sandy land.Results showed that there was significant variation in soil hardness(F2,87=146.843,P<0.001) and AGB(F2,87=324.986,P<0.001) on different plots of the windward slope of mobile dune which is divided in to bottom,middle,and top windward sides.On the contrary,there was un,significant variation for the soil moisture(F2,12=11.349,P=0.002) and the organic matter(F2,12=0.007,P=0.993) in the same sites.Further regression analysis indic,ated that correlation between the soil compactibility and the AGB was negative.The relation existed not only in horizontal scale(different plots) but also in vertical scale(different soil layers).In addition,the impact of the soil compactibility had threshold,there was less correlation while the soil compactibility changed from 0.013kg/m2 to 0.029kg/m2.Obviously,correlative coefficient check illustrated that there was linear regression while the soil compactibility changed from 0.030kg/m2 to 0.113kg/m2.It is very important to understand that the soil compactibility is not an original characteristic of the windward slope of the mobile dune,but it just reflect erosion or buried degree of soil surface indirectly.
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    Indicator System and Comprehensive Appraisal for Petroleum Security
    HE Xianjie, WU Chuguo, LIU Zengjie, SHENG Chan, ming, HU Xiaoping
    2006, 21 (2):  245-251.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (554KB) ( )   Save
    Petroleum security is highly significant for the national economic development.With the rapid growth of economy in China,the contradiction between petroleum supply and demand has become further sharpened due to the impact of domestic petroleum shortage and petroleum geopolitics,and so the problem of petroleum security is becoming more and more apparent. In order to appraise the situation of China's petroleum security scientifically,this paper firstly introduced 24 indicators to design an evaluating system.The system included the following four aspects:(1)domestic petroleum resources gifts,(2)domestic petroleum throughput capacity,(3)availability from the international market,and(4)domestic emergency response and mana,gement ability.Then,the study adopted the Delphi technique and the principal components analysis method and chose six factors from the system to form a new integrated index,namely,the petroleum security degree.The six factors were the domestic crude oil reserve,production ratio,the domestic crude oil reserve replacement ratio,the dependence of domestic petroleum consump,tion on import,the concentration ratio of domestic petroleum imports,the international crude oil prices,and the domestic petroleum reservation storage level.Finally,this research applied the integrated index to make a quantitative appraisement on China's petroleum security in recent years. The equation of the petroleum security degree is: P■=■W■×U■ i=1,2,...,n where Pi is the petroleum security degree in the i th year;Wij is the j th factor's dimensionless observation values in the i th year;and Uj is the j th factor's dimensionless weight parameter. The petroleum security degree(PSD) is divided into five grades in terms of the integrated index values: Grade I:the PSD is 1-0.8.Only very few factors are in a state of insecurity,the risk of petroleum supply is the lowest,the situation is generally safe. Grade II:the PSD is 0.8-0.6.Only minority of the factors are in a state of insecurity,the risk of petroleum supply is low,the situation is weakly safe. Grade III:the PSD is 0.6-0.4.Nearly half or more than half of the factors are in a state of insecurity,the risk of petroleum supply is high,the situation is unsafe. Grade IV:the PSD is 0.4-0.2.Majority of the factors are in a state of insecurity,the risk of petroleum supply is higher,the situation is strongly unsafe. Grade V:the PSD is below 0.2.Overwhelming majority of the factors are in a state of insecurity,the risk of petroleum supply is the highest,the situation is severely unsafe. The conclusion shows that the China's petroleum security degree is 0.54-0.75 during 1993-2004,between Grade II and III,i.e.from "weak safety "to"unsafety",therefore,this situation should be paid more attention to.This research also used the same criterion and the same method to analyze the United States'petroleum situation during the same period of time.The United States' petroleum security degree is 0.31-0.77,averaging 0.60,while China's averaging is 0.64.It seems that the China's petroleum security situation is a little better than the United States'.
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    Study on Ecological Water Requirement of Dry Valleys in the Upper Reaches of the Dadu River
    WANG Jing, BAO Weikai, PANG Xueyong, FAN Jianrong, YANG Aqiang
    2006, 21 (2):  252-259.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (182KB) ( )   Save
    In order to predict the impact of first phase of west route water transfer from south to north project on the evolution of the dry valleys downstream,we carried out studies on the ecological water requirement of the dry valleys in the upper reaches of the Dadu river and found that:1)Ecological water requirement of the dry valleys depends on the demand of water for maintaining ecological function and for restoring ecosystem;2)the area of the dry valleys(including woods,shrubs,nudity etc.)estimated using ARC GIS and ERDAS softwares is 1185.00 km2,of which the dry,warm valley is 250.11km2,and dry,mild valley is 934.89km2;3)considering water requirement for sediment transportation,the minimum ecological water requirement is 15.63 billion m3 in the 2000's,of which the dry,warm valley is 5.88 billion m3,and the dry,mild valley is 9.74 billion m3.If the water requirement for sediment transportation was neglected,the minimum ecological water requirement would be 5.83 billion m3 in the 2000's,of which the dry,warm valley is 2.10 billion m3,and the dry,mild valley is 3.73 billion m3;4)water requirement outside of the waterway occupied 5.7% of the total ecological water requirement;and 5)when considering water requirement for sediment transportation,the minimum ecological water requirement occupied 68.84% of the surface water amount and if the water requirement for sediment transportation was neglected,the minimum ecological water requirement would occupy 25.68% of the surface water amount.We suggest if ecological water requirement of fragile area was calculated,water requirement for sediment transportation should be taken into account.
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    Influence of Water Level Change of Bosten Lake on Wetland Eco,Environment
    WAN Hongxiu, SUN Zhandong, WANG Run
    2006, 21 (2):  260-266.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.014
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    This paper,based on historical observational data of water level of Bosten Lake from 1995 to 2002,analyzes water level change circs of Bosten Lake.From the existing measured data,the water level and area of Bosten Lake changes have two main phases:from 1971 to 1987,water level of Bosten Lake keeps continual decline with an annual average descent of 0.2 m and the water area reducetion of 11.8km2 corresponding to the water level decline;and from 1987 to 2002,water level of Bosten Lake keeps continual rise with an annual average ascendt of 0.32 m and the water area increase of 30.3km2 corresponding to the water level rise.This shows that the main reason for water level change of Bosten Lake is due to runoff change in Kaidu River,and agricultural water comsumption and effluent of Bosten lake basin also induce certain influence on water level change of Bosten Lake.Based on the analysis of water level of Bosten Lake,and adopting the method of correlation analysis,this paper studies the impact of water level change of Bosten Lake on wetland eco,environment.The result indicates that water level great,extent change of Bosten Lake can bring serious negative effect to wetland water quality,various wetland resources and maximization and utilization of wetland function.Aiming at the impact of water level change of Bosten Lake on wetland eco,environment,this paper puts forward the strategies to the wetland sustainable development in Bosten Lake for the purpose of harmonious development of ecology,society and economy.
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    GIS,based Assessment and Division on Eco,environmental Sensitivity in the Heihe River Basin
    PAN Jinghu, DONG Xiaofeng
    2006, 21 (2):  267-273.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (447KB) ( )   Save
    Eco,environmental sensitivity is defined as the possibility of formation and generation of eco,environmental problems in a given region influenced by natural factors.The Heihe River Basin,located in the northwestern China,is a typical arid and semiarid area.In recent years,the original ecological balance has been seriously destroyed in this basin,many environmental problems such as land desertification,soil salinization or alkalization and soil and water loss,occurred along with rapid population growth,development of industrial and agricultural production and increase of water consumption.For regional social and economic sustainable development,strengthening eco,system management at basin scale is a prerequisite.One of the most effective methods is to identify the critical or sensitive area which is easy to be degraded.Based on investigation and previous studies,integrated assessments of sensitivity to water erosion,desertification,salinization and its spatial distribution in the Heihe River Basin have been done by GIS spatial analysis method,and the spatial distribution of eco,system sensitivity and service importance were characterized.The ecological function regionalization is worked out according to the assessment results,and the ecological protection and construction measures for each ecological region are also recommended. The results show that:(1)In the total area of sensitive or more sensitive region,the more sensitive region to soil erosion makes up 2.05% of the total area of the basin,mainly in Qilian mountain region,and there is no most sensitive region to soil erosion.The most sensitive region to desertification covers 37.06%,mainly in Ejina County,the lower reaches of the Heihe River,and the more sensitive region to desertification covers 5.59%,mainly at the northwest edge of Badanjilin Desert and the middle,lower reaches of the Heihe River.The most sensitive region to salinisation makes up 0.37%,mainly locating in the oasis of the middle reaches of the river.And the more sensitive region to salinisation accounts for 0.56% of the total area,mainly in the west and the north of Ejina County.(2)The sensitivity distributed regions are the same regions suffering from eco,environmental problems,and these regions should be taken as priority area for ecological protection and constru,ction.(3)Based on the above assessment,seven eco,functional zones were subdivided.They are:Mazong Mountain Hill Eco,region,High Torso Plain and Gobi Eco,region,Ruo River Delta Eco,region,Erosion,protected North Corridor Shrub Eco,region,Farmland,protected Fluvial Plain Eco,region,Low Mountain Meadow and Dry Farmland Eco,region,and Qilian Mountain forest and Meadow Eco,region.
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    Study on Influence Degree of Converting Slope Farmland into Forestland and Grassland on Land Use Change-A Case Study of Yan'an Ecological Construction Demonstration Area
    CHEN Guo, jian
    2006, 21 (2):  274-279,334.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (681KB) ( )   Save
    By converting slope farmland into forestland and grassland,it is possible to increase the effective cover area of forest and grass vegetion,mitigate soil erosion,and improve agricultural environments.Beside vegetation has the ability of protecting environment and changing the natu,ral environment on which soil erosion happened thoroughly,converting slope farmland into forestland and grassland also promote local tarmers to change their traditional way of farming.And improve per unit area output of grain by regulating structure of land use.Based on the ana,lysis of the quantitative changes of various land use types and spatial characteristics in Yan'an Ecological Construction Demonstration Area(ECDA)from2000 to 2003 by RS,GIS and statistical methods,this paper studies the influence of slope farmland conversion into forestland and grassland on the structure of land use in Yanan ECDA through introducing the de,farming index,the de,farming influence coefficient and others.At the end of 2003,36.07% of steep slope farmland have been converted into forestland and grassland,averaging about 12.02% of conversion annually.The de,farming influence coefficient of Yan'an ECDA is 4.76,that is to say,4.7% of other kinds of land have been converted into other usage,which is a scientific and planned adjustment guided macroscopically by government,leading eco,environment and rural economy to develop healthily and smoothly in benign circulation.The result shows that large,scale slope farmland conversion into forestland and grassland affects greatly the change of regional land use because it promoted optimizing the structure of land use.Studies on towns and tounships indicated that the impact of de,farming on land use change of various towns is different.Except the de,farming influence coefficients of two towns much lower than the average level of the demonstration area,those of the other seven towns are higher than the average level of the demonstration area,The de,farming influence coefficient is relative to natural conditions and the level of land,use of each town respectively.
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    Entironment of Spartina alterniflora and Its Response to Tidal Flat Reclamation-A Case Study of Haizhou Bay Top
    CHEN Hongquan, ZHANG Renshun, WANG Yan, hong
    2006, 21 (2):  280-287.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (863KB) ( )   Save
    Spartina Alterniflora salt marsh of Jiangsu coast,the biggest area in China,covers an area over 1.25×104ha.Spartina Alterniflora usually spreads between the mean spring high tidal level and the mean tidal level.Jiangsu coast has a long history of reclamation.Nowadays,much of the supra tidal flats have been reclaimed,and native salt marsh decreased gradually.Spartina Alterniflora has become the main vegetable species of salt marsh in Jiangsu coast.Meanwhile,seawalls of the newly reclaimed areas were built on the gradual lowering tidal flat,hence the construction of the seawalls of reclamation becomes more and more difficult.Spartina Alterniflora has a strong vitality and productivity,with an expanding dominance on tidal flat environment.Its standing condition,and ecological niche are the indicators of dynamic condition of the tidal flat,height of the outer line of the area to be reclaimed as well as the direction of seawall of the reclaimed area.Taking Haizhou Bay Top as a case in this paper,three fieldwork sections and eight phases of satellite imageries from 1978 to 2003 are collected to analyse the dynamic change of coast and spread of Spartina alterniflora along Haizhou Bay.The result indicates that the primary condition of the tide flat for inning becomes possible because of the steady elevation of the coast.The rate of elevation is 20m/a,the area of high intertidal flat outside the old seawall is 300ha,the width of Spartina alterniflora Loisel distributed belt outside intertidal flat is from200m to 1 200m.The height of the outer line of the proposed reclaimed area is 2.84m according to the mean high tide level and ecological niche of Spartina alterniflora.However,the complexity of open,type bay,including the influence on Linhong River estuary and other drainage sluice as well as salt marsh restoration should be taken into account in tideland reclamation along the Haizhou Bay Top.
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    Model of Mine Resource Development and Utilization for Cycling Economy
    XIA Qing, LIANG Yu
    2006, 21 (2):  288-292.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (219KB) ( )   Save
    Mine resource is essential for modern life and the mineral industries are important to the economic and social development of many countries.Scientific discoveries and technological advancements transform raw materials into resources,thus providing the means for improving human wellbeing.The benefits and services derived from minerals,metals and fuels can contribute to the achievement of a sustainable future.This is because the inherent characteristics of these resources make possible productivity and consumption gains.But simply meeting market demand for mineral commodities falls far short of meeting society's expectations of industry.The process of producing,using,and recycling minerals could help society reach many other goals,providing jobs directly and indirectly,aiding in the development of national economies,and helping to reach energy and resource efficiency targets,among many others.To achieve such a balance among economic prosperity,environmental health and social equity will require a well understanding of challenges faced by the mineral sectors and a series of changes in the mineral business strategies,operating technologies,personal behaviors and public policies. The use of minerals is essential for modern life.Yet current patterns of use face a growing number of challenges,ranging from concerns about efficiency and waste minimization to the risks associated with the use of certain minerals.Companies at different stages in the minerals chain can benefit from learning to work together,exploring further recycling,reuse,and remanufacturing of products and developing integrated programs of product stewardship and supply chain assurance.For the cycling economy,the model of economic development is explored in this paper.The channel of development and utilization of mine resource is quantitatively analyzed.For the special characteristics of mining,this paper determines the model of mining resources development and utilization on the three aspects of enterprise,industrial garden and district,puts forward relevant industrial policies.The following conclusions are drawn:(1)The model of cycling economy is the only effective way of sustainable development of mining.(2)The development and utilization of mining resources at different levels should adopt their own development models.(3)Coal is the principal energy in our country.The cycling economy model of coal resource can raise the rate of resource utilization,reduce environmental destruction and pollution,and promote sustainable development of national economy.
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    Spatial Analysis of the Coupling between Renewable Resources and Economy in Mountain Region-A Case Study in Anji Small Watershed of Zhejiang Province
    ZHANG Yunqi, YANG Xuelian, WANG Fu, HE Baogen, SU Jing, YU Xingxiu
    2006, 21 (2):  293-300.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.019
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    This research focuses on the coupling relationships between natural resources and eco,nomy in mountainous regions.The coupling between natural resources and economy varies from urban to rural areas.In urban areas,the economy depends much more on foreign and other resources than local natural resources.Contrary to the urban,the economy depends much more on local natural resources than foreign and other resources.Renewable resources are the basic natural resources to sustainable development.Spatial analysis of coupling relationship between renewable resources and economy in mountain region is very important for us to study the status quo of sustainable development of that area.The research is carried out in Anji small watershed of Zhejiang province.Heights are the main factors that lead to differences in mountain regions.From the sea level to the peak,according to height difference of every 100m,we divide the whole small watershed into different spatial units.In Anji small watershed,renewable resources include bamboo forest,broad,leaved forest,conifer forest,mixed forest,shrubbery,garden plots,farmlands,water areas and residential areas.With statistical data and field surveys,we can calculate GDP of all kinds of land covers in every spatial unit.Subtracting the cost from GDP,we can work out how much of resource valuations of every kind of land cover have been transformed into money(TRV) in different spatial units.And then,we can calculate the ratio between the TRV and the resource valuations and the ratio between TRV and GDP in every spatial unit.The results indicate that,with heights decreasing,more and more renewable resources are exploited and GDP increases;the exploited degrees of garden plots and farmlands are higher than other land covers;the GDP of garden plots and farmlands is less dependent on their own renewable resources;about 96.4% of GDP of residential areas are produced by labour forces and other resources except for local renewable resources;with heights increasing,the ratio between TRV and resource valuations decreases,however,the ratio between TRV and GDP increases.Conclusions can be drawn that with heights decreasing,more and more renewable resources are exploited,and on the other hand,economy becomes less and less dependent on renewable resources.About 15% of renewable resource valuations has been exploited and 12% of GDP is contributed by renewable resource in the whole small watershed.
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    Study on the Quantitative Relationship Between Urbanization and Water Resources Utilization in the Hexi Corridor
    BAO Chao, FANG Chuang, lin
    2006, 21 (2):  301-310.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.020
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    Based on the statistical data from the year 1985 to 2003,we analyzed the quantitative relationship between urbanization and total water utilization,water utilization benefits,and per capita water utilization in the Hexi Corridor,including its five districts and three major inland river basins.And the relationship model between them was constructed.Results show that,in the Hexi Corridor,the relationship between urbanization and total water utilization can be simulated by a logarithmic curve.If this condition continues,rapid urbanization in the Hexi Corridor will face up higher water stress,so the development mode of water resources and urbanization at should be adjusted,and the fresh water withdraw should be decreased step by step.The relationship between urbanization and water utilization benefits can be simulated by a linear equation.Where the urbanization and industrialization level is higher,the water utilization benefits are higher.So the Hexi Corridor should accelerate the process of urbanization and industrialization to obtain higher water utilization benefits.The relationship between urbanization and per capita water utilization is complex,but it obviously relates to the total quantity of water resources.We also found that scarce water resources obviously restricted the process of urbanization in the Hexi Corridor.And the water resources constraint intensity is the biggest in the eastern part,where water resources are the scarcest.The process of urbanization is faster in the middle part than in the eastern.However,the middle part consumed much more water resources.The western part has the highest urbanization level and water utilization benefits,but its per capita water utilization is also the highest.Therefore,the Hexi Corridor should construct an intensive water resources utilization system to lessen the water resources constraint on the process of urbanization.It is also an important task to carry out the strategy of urbanization and the great development of west China.
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    Urban Expansion and Its Effects on Eco,environment in Xi'an Region Based on Landsat TM Data
    WU Hongan, JIANG Jianjun, ZHANG Hailong, ZHANG Li, XIE Xiuping, ZHOU Jie
    2006, 21 (2):  311-318.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.021
    Abstract ( )   PDF (580KB) ( )   Save
    In recent years,the research on Land Use/Cover Change(LUCC) and its effects on eco,environment has attracted more and more scientists to pay attention to it.However,the ecological effects induced by urban expansion were seldom covered.The objective of this paper is to reveal the urban expansion(1988~2003) in Xi'an region and the impacts it has on eco,environment by using Landsat TM satellite images. In this study,two TM images of the study area were used.After imagery pre,processing,which included atmospheric correction,geometric correction,and orthographic correction,super,vised classification was used to retrieve urban land use information,for it is the most common me,thod in obtaining land use/cover information.Then training samples were selected according to spectrum features,and the TM images of Xi'an region in 1988 and 2003 were classified into six land use types respectively,namely woodland,farmland,orchard,urban areas,water,body and uncultivated.Thus the urban expansion of Xi'an during the 15 years was acquired.Through the analysis of urban land use of Xi'an region in 1988 and 2003,it showed that during the 15 years,urban expansion in Xi'an was very quick.The urban area of Xi'an in 1988 was 59 711.31hm2,but in 2003 it reached 75 043.53hm2.With the help of transfer matrix of land use changes,the relationship between urban expansion and the other five land uses was also analyzed.This could tell us where the expansion came from.Finally,using related statistical data that we collected,the effects of urban expansion on eco,environment were analyzed. The main conclusions demonstrate that:(1)During the 15 years,the urban area of Xi'an region increased 25.68% from 1988 to 2003.(2)The urban expansion area was mainly converted from farmland,uncultivated land,orchard and water,body.A total of 23 718.60ha farmland was converted into urban area,which made the most important contribution to urban expansion.(3)The eco,environmental effects of urban expansion in the study area were not very optimistic.The pollution of water resources,Heat Island Effect and geological hazards were the three most obvious problems.Because of urban expansion and economic development,water pollution has induced water supply shortage in Xi'an region;with the continual increase of urban area which changed the ground feature,the annual mean temperature of Xi'an city has increased 1.9℃ from 1989 to 1999;and urban expansion also needed more water supplies,which resulted in overexploiting ground water that caused many geological problems like ground subsidence and split.
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    Wind Tunnel Simulation and Assessment of Soil Conservation of Alpine Grassland in Qinghai,Tibet Plateau
    LU Chun xia, YU Ge, XIE Gaodi, XIAO Yu
    2006, 21 (2):  319-326.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.022
    Abstract ( )   PDF (180KB) ( )   Save
    The soil conservation of alpine grassland is one of the important functions for environ,mental protection in Qinghai,Tibet Plateau.Aimed to study on impact of human activities on services of soil conservation,this paper simulated soil erosion changes under different disturbed patterns of human activities by using the wind tunnel laboratory.Three types of grassland were selected which included alpine meadow,alpine steppe meadow and alpine steppe and the erosion rate as indicator measure function of soil conservation.In general,the greater the soil erosion is,the lower the soil conservation function is.The results showed that the soil erosion rate of three grassland samples increased with wind velocity under different treatments but the increment of erosion rate varied greatly.The erosion rate change of the alpine meadow was the same as that of the alpine steppe when the surface vegetation was cut,and compared with the original status both of them changed a little.And when the root system was broken the erosion rate ranged from high to low in turn of alpine meadow,alpine steppe meadow and alpine steppe.So the data suggested that the function of soil conservation for three types of grassland should be alpine meadow>alpine steppe meadow>alpine steppe.The organic matter and nutrient content were analyzed before and after the aeolian erosion simulation and the decrease of all nutrients were obvious in particular the K2O.The economic values of soil conservation were estimated that included the values of organic carbon fixation,nutrient detention and decrease of soil deposits.The results indicated that the value of nutrient detention is the highest and the economic value of soil deposits decrease is the lowest.The total economic value per unit area varied in turn of alpine steppe meadow,alpine meadow and alpine steppe.
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    Dynamic Monitoring of Newborn Estuary Wetland since Channel Diversion of the Yellow River to Qingshuigou
    LI Xiu juan, ZHAO Geng, xing, LIU Hong, yi, LUAN Xin, cheng
    2006, 21 (2):  327-332.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.02.023
    Abstract ( )   PDF (491KB) ( )   Save
    Using remote sensing data from Dec.1976 to Jan.2003 and spatial analysis of GIS,this paper analyses the dynamic change of the newborn estuary wetland since channel diversion of the Yellow River to Qingshuigou.The research area is a sector area,composing of three evident objects:a Yellow River inflexion near Kenli County government,northwest inflexion of Guhe reservoir and northeast inflexion of Guangbei reservoir.By the visual interpretation of remote sensing images at different phases,we can get the borderline between land and ocean.Comparing the borderlines of the research area supported by GIS,the areas of siltation and erosion can be identified and their scope can be computed.The results indicate that the increase and decrease of newborn estuary wetland are ongoing alternately because of the Yellow River siltation and the ocean erosion,and the area of net increase is declining gradually.Within 26 years,the newborn estuary wetland got a net increase of 17 154.41ha,and the annual average net increase is 657.76ha.The wetland area was a net increase before 1993,while this net increasing trend declined gradually after 1993.At the same time,the alternative periods of increase and decrease of the newborn wetland become shorter and shorter from2.52 years to 1.06 years.Before 1993,the increased parts are located in the new estuary region and southeast coastal zone,and the decreased area located in the old estuary region.After 1993,the variational trend of the above two regions are reversed.The main reason is due to the influence of the Yellow River siltation and the ocean erosion.This study will provide suggestions on decision,making for the wetland protection of the Yellow River delta.
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